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Nutrients, Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2015)

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Open AccessArticle
Objective Understanding of Front-of-Package Nutrition Labels among Nutritionally At-Risk Individuals
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 7106-7125; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085325
Received: 23 May 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4403 | PDF Full-text (314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the ongoing debate about front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels, little data exist regarding nutritionally at-risk populations, although they are critical targets of prevention programs. This study aimed to compare the impact of FOP labels on the ability to rank products according to their [...] Read more.
In the ongoing debate about front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels, little data exist regarding nutritionally at-risk populations, although they are critical targets of prevention programs. This study aimed to compare the impact of FOP labels on the ability to rank products according to their nutritional quality among French adults potentially at risk of poor dietary quality (N = 14,230). Four labels were evaluated: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL), Green Tick (Tick), along with a reference without label. Mixed models were used to assess how individual characteristics and FOP labels were associated with the ability to rank products. Older participants and those with a lower educational level, income, nutritional knowledge, and likelihood of reading nutrition facts were less skilled at ranking food products according to nutritional quality. Compared with individual characteristics, nutrition labels had an increased impact on food product ranking ability. Overall, 5-CNL corresponded to the highest rate of correct responses, followed by MTL, GDA, and Tick (p < 0.0001). The strongest impact of 5-CNL was observed among individuals with no nutritional knowledge (odds ratio (OR): 20.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 13.19–31.06). Therefore, 5-CNL appeared to be effective at informing consumers, including those who are nutritionally at-risk, about the nutritional quality of food products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Apple Polyphenols Decrease Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in ApoE−/− Mice through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 7085-7105; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085324
Received: 16 July 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 13 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2980 | PDF Full-text (1649 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs) on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE−/− mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg) or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) [...] Read more.
In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs) on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE−/− mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg) or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinuses and, and hepatic lipidosis were measured. The treatment with APs or atorvastatin induced a remarkable reduction in the atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis and decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CCL-2 and VCAM-1 levels in the plasma. Conversely, the APs significantly increased the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and markedly up-regulated the glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in liver tissues. Moreover, the APs treatment modulated lipid metabolism by up-regulating the transcription of associated hepatic genes including PPARα, while down-regulating the transcription of SCAP and its downstream genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. Histological assessment showed that the APs treatment also reduced the macrophage infiltration in the aortic root plaque and the inflammatory cells infiltrations to the liver tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that the APs treatment greatly reduced the ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). Mechanistically, the APs treatment suppressed the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and consequently, reduced CCL-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Our results suggest that the APs are a beneficial nutritional supplement for the attenuation of atherosclerosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns and Risk of Frailty in Chinese Community-Dwelling Older People in Hong Kong: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 7070-7084; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085326
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 2811 | PDF Full-text (117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary pattern analysis is an emerging approach to investigate the association between diet and frailty. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with frailty in 2724 Chinese community-dwelling men and women aged > 65 years. Baseline dietary data were collected using a [...] Read more.
Dietary pattern analysis is an emerging approach to investigate the association between diet and frailty. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with frailty in 2724 Chinese community-dwelling men and women aged > 65 years. Baseline dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire between 2001 and 2003. Adherence to a priori dietary patterns, including the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was assessed. Factor analysis identified three a posteriori dietary patterns, namely “vegetables-fruits”, “snacks-drinks-milk products”, and “meat-fish”. Incident frailty was defined using the FRAIL scale. Binary logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between dietary patterns and four-year incident frailty. There were 31 (1.1%) incident frailty cases at four years. Every 10-unit increase in DQI-I was associated with 41% reduced risk of frailty in the sex- and age-adjusted model (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.59 (0.42–0.85), p = 0.004). The association attenuated in the multivariate adjusted model (0.69 (0.47–1.02), p = 0.056). No association between other dietary patterns and incident frailty was observed. Our study showed that a better diet quality as characterized by higher DQI-I was associated with lower odds of developing frailty. The contribution of MDS or a posteriori dietary patterns to the development of frailty in Chinese older people remains to be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older People)
Open AccessArticle
Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007–2010
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 7058-7069; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085322
Received: 21 July 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3634 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National [...] Read more.
Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Feasibility of Recruiting Families into a Heart Disease Prevention Program Based on Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 7042-7057; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085323
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 23 July 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2827 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes [...] Read more.
Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes in diet achieved, and program acceptability. Families were recruited into a pilot parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of a three month evidence-based dietary intervention, based on the Mediterranean and Portfolio diets. Feasibility was assessed by recruitment and retention rates, change in diet by food frequency questionnaire, and program acceptability by qualitative interviews and program evaluation. Twenty one families were enrolled over 16 months, with fourteen families (n = 42 individuals) completing the study. Post-program dietary changes in the intervention group included small daily increases in vegetable serves (0.8 ± 1.3) and reduced usage of full-fat milk (−21%), cheese (−12%) and meat products (−17%). Qualitative interviews highlighted beneficial changes in food purchasing habits. Future studies need more effective methods of recruitment to engage families in the intervention. Once engaged, families made small incremental improvements in their diets. Evaluation indicated that feedback on diet and CVD risk factors, dietetic counselling and the resources provided were appropriate for a program of this type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 7027-7041; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085321
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2849 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 [...] Read more.
Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011–2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1) all products in 2013; (2) products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3) products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%–32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%–23%) lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001). For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%–3%) mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73). New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02). Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aqueous Extract of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Vinegar Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Normoglycemic Rats
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 7012-7026; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085320
Received: 2 June 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 13 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3188 | PDF Full-text (355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar, commonly known as nipa palm vinegar (NPV) has been used as a folklore medicine among the Malay community to treat diabetes. Early work has shown that aqueous extract (AE) of NPV exerts a potent antihyperglycemic effect. Thus, this study [...] Read more.
Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar, commonly known as nipa palm vinegar (NPV) has been used as a folklore medicine among the Malay community to treat diabetes. Early work has shown that aqueous extract (AE) of NPV exerts a potent antihyperglycemic effect. Thus, this study is conducted to evaluate the effect of AE on postprandial hyperglycemia in an attempt to understand its mechanism of antidiabetic action. AE were tested via in vitro intestinal glucose absorption, in vivo carbohydrate tolerance tests and spectrophotometric enzyme inhibition assays. One mg/mL of AE showed a comparable outcome to the use of phloridzin (1 mM) in vitro as it delayed glucose absorption through isolated rat jejunum more effectively than acarbose (1 mg/mL). Further in vivo confirmatory tests showed AE (500 mg/kg) to cause a significant suppression in postprandial hyperglycemia 30 min following respective glucose (2 g/kg), sucrose (4 g/kg) and starch (3 g/kg) loadings in normal rats, compared to the control group. Conversely, in spectrophotometric enzymatic assays, AE showed rather a weak inhibitory activity against both α-glucosidase and α-amylase when compared with acarbose. The findings suggested that NPV exerts its anti-diabetic effect by delaying carbohydrate absorption from the small intestine through selective inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, therefore suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6991-7011; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085318
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3562 | PDF Full-text (909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplementation (100 µg/g diet) on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p < 0.05) and myocardial (2.4 fold; p < 0.05) calcification in line with increased alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p < 0.01). MK-7 supplementation inhibited cardiovascular calcification and decreased aortic alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression (10-fold; p < 0.05). CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Food Group-Based Diet Score and Its Association with Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6974-6990; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085317
Received: 9 June 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3546 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the [...] Read more.
No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the BMD-Diet Score and the Healthy Diet Indicator, a score based on guidelines of the World Health Organization, with BMD in Dutch elderly participating in a prospective cohort study, the Rotterdam Study (n = 5144). Baseline dietary intake, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, was categorized into food groups. Food groups that were consistently associated with BMD in the literature were included in the BMD-Diet Score. BMD was measured repeatedly and was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD-Diet Score considered intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, whole grains, legumes/beans and dairy products as “high-BMD” components and meat and confectionary as “low-BMD” components. After adjustment, the BMD-Diet Score was positively associated with BMD (β (95% confidence interval) = 0.009 (0.005, 0.012) g/cm2 per standard deviation). This effect size was approximately three times as large as has been observed for the Healthy Diet Indicator. The food groups included in our BMD-Diet Score could be considered in the development of future dietary guidelines for healthy ageing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Trigger Cell Cycle Arrest and Induce Apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma LA-N-1 Cells
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6956-6973; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085319
Received: 27 June 2015 / Revised: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2743 | PDF Full-text (1464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are dietary long-chain fatty acids with an array of health benefits. Previous research has demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of n-3 fatty acids on different cancer cell lines in vitro, yet their anti-tumor effects and underlying action mechanisms on [...] Read more.
Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are dietary long-chain fatty acids with an array of health benefits. Previous research has demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of n-3 fatty acids on different cancer cell lines in vitro, yet their anti-tumor effects and underlying action mechanisms on human neuroblastoma LA-N-1 cells have not yet been reported. In this study, we showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exhibited time- and concentration-dependent anti-proliferative effect on the human neuroblastoma LA-N-1 cells, but had minimal cytotoxicity on the normal or non-tumorigenic cells, as measured by MTT reduction assay. Mechanistic studies indicated that DHA and EPA triggered G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in LA-N-1 cells, as detected by flow cytometry, which was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of CDK2 and cyclin E proteins. Moreover, DHA and EPA could also induce apoptosis in LA-N-1 cells as revealed by an increase in DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Up-regulation of Bax, activated caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins, and down-regulation of Bcl-XL protein, might account for the occurrence of apoptotic events. Collectively, our results suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of DHA and EPA on LA-N-1 cells might be mediated, at least in part, via triggering of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Therefore, DHA and EPA are potential anti-cancer agents which might be used for the adjuvant therapy or combination therapy with the conventional anti-cancer drugs for the treatment of some forms of human neuroblastoma with minimal toxicity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6938-6955; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085316
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3310 | PDF Full-text (131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some [...] Read more.
Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Placental Microbiome Varies in Association with Low Birth Weight in Full-Term Neonates
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6924-6937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085315
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 3613 | PDF Full-text (680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Substantial evidence indicated that low birth weight was an independent risk factor for obesity, impaired glucose regulation, and diabetes later in life. However, investigations into the association between low birth weight and placental microbiome in full-term neonates are limited. Placentas were collected from [...] Read more.
Substantial evidence indicated that low birth weight was an independent risk factor for obesity, impaired glucose regulation, and diabetes later in life. However, investigations into the association between low birth weight and placental microbiome in full-term neonates are limited. Placentas were collected from low birth weight (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) full-term neonates (gestational age 37 w0d–41 w6d) consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The anthropometric measurements were measured and 16S ribosomal DNAamplicon high-throughput sequencing were utilized to define bacteria within placenta tissues. It showed that birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference, and placenta weight were significantly lower in LBW than NBW neonates (p < 0.05). The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (p < 0.05) and the estimators of community richness (Chao) indexes (p < 0.05) showed a significantly lower diversity in LBW than NBW neonates. There were significant variations in the composition of placenta microbiota between the LBW and NBW neonates at the phylum and genus level. Furthermore, it indicated that Lactobacillus percentage was positively associated with birth weight (r = 0.541, p = 0.025). In conclusion, our present study for the first time detected the relationship between birth weight and placental microbiome profile in full-term neonates. It is novel in showing that the placental microbiome varies in association with low birth weight in full-term neonates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Intestinal Microbiota and Celiac Disease: Cause, Consequence or Co-Evolution?
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6900-6923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085314
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 6211 | PDF Full-text (481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is widely recognized that the intestinal microbiota plays a role in the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation in numerous chronic conditions. Most studies report intestinal dysbiosis in celiac disease (CD) patients, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD), compared to [...] Read more.
It is widely recognized that the intestinal microbiota plays a role in the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation in numerous chronic conditions. Most studies report intestinal dysbiosis in celiac disease (CD) patients, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD), compared to healthy controls. CD patients with gastrointestinal symptoms are also known to have a different microbiota compared to patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and controls, suggesting that the microbiota is involved in disease manifestation. Furthermore, a dysbiotic microbiota seems to be associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated CD patients, suggesting its pathogenic implication in these particular cases. GFD per se influences gut microbiota composition, and thus constitutes an inevitable confounding factor in studies conducted in CD patients. To improve our understanding of whether intestinal dysbiosis is the cause or consequence of disease, prospective studies in healthy infants at family risk of CD are underway. These studies have revealed that the CD host genotype selects for the early colonizers of the infant’s gut, which together with environmental factors (e.g., breast-feeding, antibiotics, etc.) could influence the development of oral tolerance to gluten. Indeed, some CD genes and/or their altered expression play a role in bacterial colonization and sensing. In turn, intestinal dysbiosis could promote an abnormal response to gluten or other environmental CD-promoting factors (e.g., infections) in predisposed individuals. Here, we review the current knowledge of host-microbe interactions and how host genetics/epigenetics and environmental factors shape gut microbiota and may influence disease risk. We also summarize the current knowledge about the potential mechanisms of action of the intestinal microbiota and specific components that affect CD pathogenesis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6874-6899; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085311
Received: 1 May 2015 / Revised: 27 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 5358 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. Recommended Dietary Allowances/Intakes have failed to adequately consider the protein requirements of the elderly with respect to function. The aim of [...] Read more.
Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. Recommended Dietary Allowances/Intakes have failed to adequately consider the protein requirements of the elderly with respect to function. The aim of this paper was to review definitions of optimal protein status and the evidence base for optimal dietary protein. Current recommended protein intakes for older people do not account for the compensatory loss of muscle mass that occurs on lower protein intakes. Older people have lower rates of protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis in response to an anabolic stimulus (food or resistance exercise). Recommendations for the level of adequate dietary intake of protein for older people should be informed by evidence derived from functional outcomes. Randomized controlled trials report a clear benefit of increased dietary protein on lean mass gain and leg strength, particularly when combined with resistance exercise. There is good consistent evidence (level III-2 to IV) that consumption of 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein combined with twice-weekly progressive resistance exercise reduces age-related muscle mass loss. Older people appear to require 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein to optimize physical function, particularly whilst undertaking resistance exercise recommendations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6852-6873; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085312
Received: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 23 July 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2680 | PDF Full-text (1310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK) and seeds (SD) become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum [...] Read more.
Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK) and seeds (SD) become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD) skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2−• and OH. It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2−• and OH scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA) fractionation (LDSK50-EA) and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O). Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Structural Modeling Insights into Human VKORC1 Phenotypes
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6837-6851; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085313
Received: 20 May 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2516 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) catalyses the reduction of vitamin K and its 2,3-epoxide essential to sustain γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins. Two different phenotypes are associated with mutations in human VKORC1. The majority of mutations cause resistance to 4-hydroxycoumarin- [...] Read more.
Vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) catalyses the reduction of vitamin K and its 2,3-epoxide essential to sustain γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins. Two different phenotypes are associated with mutations in human VKORC1. The majority of mutations cause resistance to 4-hydroxycoumarin- and indandione-based vitamin K antagonists (VKA) used in the prevention and therapy of thromboembolism. Patients with these mutations require greater doses of VKA for stable anticoagulation than patients without mutations. The second phenotype, a very rare autosomal-recessive bleeding disorder caused by combined deficiency of vitamin K dependent clotting factors type 2 (VKCFD2) arises from a homozygous Arg98Trp mutation. The bleeding phenotype can be corrected by vitamin K administration. Here, we summarize published experimental data and in silico modeling results in order to rationalize the mechanisms of VKA resistance and VKCFD2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6797-6836; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085310
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 28 June 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3058 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants [...] Read more.
Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0–24 months. Data from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0–11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Correlates of Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Luxembourg Adults: Evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors (ORISCAV-LUX) Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6780-6796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085308
Received: 17 June 2015 / Revised: 23 July 2015 / Accepted: 23 July 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2477 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evidence on vitamin D status and related risk factors in Luxembourg adults is lacking. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and related risk factors among healthy adults in Luxembourg. Based on clinicians’ observations, it was hypothesized [...] Read more.
Evidence on vitamin D status and related risk factors in Luxembourg adults is lacking. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and related risk factors among healthy adults in Luxembourg. Based on clinicians’ observations, it was hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency might be common in our population, constituting a significant public health concern. A nationally representative random sample of 1432 adults was enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study, 2007–2008. The participants were divided into four categories according to their serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses used weighted methods to account for the stratified sampling scheme. Only 17.1% of the population had a “desirable” serum 25(OH)D level ≥75 nmol/L, whereas 27.1% had “inadequate” [serum 25(OH)D level 50–74 nmol/L], 40.4% had “insufficient” [serum 25(OH)D level 25–49 nmol/L], and 15.5% had “deficient” [serum 25(OH)D level <25 nmol/L)]. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was greater among current smokers, obese subjects, those having reduced HDL-cholesterol level and fair/poor self-perception of health, compared to their counterparts. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was additionally higher among nondrinkers of alcohol, Portuguese and subjects from non-European countries. The final multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that smoking status and obesity were independent correlates of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, respectively. Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent among adults in Luxembourg and is associated with specific lifestyle factors. Along with the effect of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency on the risk of several diseases, cancer and mortality, our findings have practical implications for public health dietary recommendations, and of particular importance for healthcare practitioners and policy makers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6751-6779; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085309
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5055 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed [...] Read more.
Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactose Intolerance: Biology, Genetics and Dietary Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6739-6750; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085306
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 16 July 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2694 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles [...] Read more.
Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = −0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = −0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits: The Role of Fat and Sugar, Potential Mechanisms and Nutritional Interventions
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6719-6738; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085307
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 6308 | PDF Full-text (156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is of vital importance to understand how the foods which are making us fat also act to impair cognition. In this review, we compare the effects of acute and chronic exposure to high-energy diets on cognition and examine the relative contributions of [...] Read more.
It is of vital importance to understand how the foods which are making us fat also act to impair cognition. In this review, we compare the effects of acute and chronic exposure to high-energy diets on cognition and examine the relative contributions of fat (saturated and polyunsaturated) and sugar to these deficits. Hippocampal-dependent memory appears to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of high-energy diets and these deficits can occur rapidly and prior to weight gain. More chronic diet exposure seems necessary however to impair other sorts of memory. Many potential mechanisms have been proposed to underlie diet-induced cognitive decline and we will focus on inflammation and the neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Finally, given supplementation of diets with omega-3 and curcumin has been shown to have positive effects on cognitive function in healthy ageing humans and in disease states, we will discuss how these nutritional interventions may attenuate diet-induced cognitive decline. We hope this approach will provide important insights into the causes of diet-induced cognitive deficits, and inform the development of novel therapeutics to prevent or ameliorate such memory impairments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
Open AccessReview
Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6700-6718; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085304
Received: 5 March 2015 / Revised: 21 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4002 | PDF Full-text (446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past [...] Read more.
The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of “liquid” energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Validity of Two New Brief Instruments to Estimate Vegetable Intake in Adults
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6688-6699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085305
Received: 22 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2207 | PDF Full-text (746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cost effective population-based monitoring tools are needed for nutritional surveillance and interventions. The aim was to evaluate the relative validity of two new brief instruments (three item: VEG3 and five item: VEG5) for estimating usual total vegetable intake in comparison to a 7-day [...] Read more.
Cost effective population-based monitoring tools are needed for nutritional surveillance and interventions. The aim was to evaluate the relative validity of two new brief instruments (three item: VEG3 and five item: VEG5) for estimating usual total vegetable intake in comparison to a 7-day dietary record (7DDR). Sixty-four Australian adult volunteers aged 30 to 69 years (30 males, mean age ± SD 56.3 ± 9.2 years and 34 female mean age ± SD 55.3 ± 10.0 years). Pearson correlations between 7DDR and VEG3 and VEG5 were modest, at 0.50 and 0.56, respectively. VEG3 significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated mean vegetable intake compared to 7DDR measures (2.9 ± 1.3 vs. 3.6 ± 1.6 serves/day, respectively), whereas mean vegetable intake assessed by VEG5 did not differ from 7DDR measures (3.3 ± 1.5 vs. 3.6 ± 1.6 serves/day). VEG5 was also able to correctly identify 95%, 88% and 75% of those subjects not consuming five, four and three serves/day of vegetables according to their 7DDR classification. VEG5, but not VEG3, can estimate usual total vegetable intake of population groups and had superior performance to VEG3 in identifying those not meeting different levels of vegetable intake. VEG5, a brief instrument, shows measurement characteristics useful for population-based monitoring and intervention targeting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Homocysteine Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G) Jointly Elevate the Risk of Folate Deficiency
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6670-6687; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085303
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 10 August 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3652 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Folate deficiency is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. We aimed to explore the joint effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms on folate deficiency in a Chinese hypertensive population. A [...] Read more.
Folate deficiency is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. We aimed to explore the joint effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms on folate deficiency in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 480 subjects aged 28–75 were enrolled in this study from September 2005–December 2005 from six hospitals in different Chinese regions. Known genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP methods and serum folate was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Our results showed that MTHFR 677TT and MTR 2756AG + GG were independently associated with a higher risk of folate deficiency (TT vs. CC + CT, p < 0.001 and AG + GG vs. AA p = 0.030, respectively). However, the MTHFR A1298C mutation may confer protection by elevating the serum folate level (p = 0.025). Furthermore, patients carrying two or more risk genotypes showed higher odds of folate deficiency than null risk genotype carriers, especially those carrying four risk genotypes. These findings were verified by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (p = 0.0107) and a cumulative effects model (p = 0.001). The results of this study have shown that interactions among homocysteine metabolism gene polymorphisms lead to dramatic elevations in the folate deficiency risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Development of the Intervention Materials for the HomeStyles Obesity Prevention Program for Parents of Preschoolers
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6628-6669; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085301
Received: 1 May 2015 / Revised: 20 June 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 10 August 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2881 | PDF Full-text (845 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Home environment is key to the development of obesity-preventing behaviors during childhood, yet few resources help preschool parents address factors at home associated with obesity risk. This paper describes creation of materials for an in-home intervention (HomeStyles) with this population. An advisory group [...] Read more.
Home environment is key to the development of obesity-preventing behaviors during childhood, yet few resources help preschool parents address factors at home associated with obesity risk. This paper describes creation of materials for an in-home intervention (HomeStyles) with this population. An advisory group of stakeholders and target audience members determined salient factors affecting childhood obesity to address in-home and developed program materials. The Social Cognitive Theory, Faith’s Core Behavior Change Strategies to Treat Childhood Obesity, Adult Learning Theory and motivational interviewing techniques guided development of 12 guides targeting strategies parents can use to shape the home environment. Interviews were conducted to determine effectiveness of the guides. Cognitive testing of guide design (n = 251) and content (n = 261) occurred in English and Spanish in New Jersey and Arizona with parents and home visitation staff who would present the guides. Interviews investigated perceptions of content usefulness and parent comprehension. Findings were also examined in light of theoretical underpinnings. Both home visitation staff and parents felt the guides were very readable and useful. Parents appreciated use of motivational interviewing techniques and Adult Learning Theory. Current research is testing these guides through an in-home, randomized control trial. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6606-6627; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085302
Received: 2 May 2015 / Revised: 3 July 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3402 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects [...] Read more.
Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zinc and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Adults: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6582-6605; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085300
Received: 27 May 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3257 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies reported the potential associations between dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood, however a consistent perspective has not been established to date. Herein, we carried out this meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and [...] Read more.
Previous studies reported the potential associations between dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood, however a consistent perspective has not been established to date. Herein, we carried out this meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of CHD. MEDLINE and EBSCO were searched for relevant articles published up to April 2015. A total of 35 articles (reporting 37 original studies) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. The decreased risk of CHD was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy/prudent dietary patterns (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 0.75; p < 0.00001) and alcohol consumption (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.78; p < 0.00001). There was evidence of an increased risk of CHD in the highest compared with the lowest categories of the unhealthy/Western-type dietary patterns (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.01; p = 0.02). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that different dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of CHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and CVD)
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Open AccessArticle
Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6567-6581; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085299
Received: 27 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2960 | PDF Full-text (854 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg) on embryo development day (EDD) 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg) were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6550-6566; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085298
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 26 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 6 August 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3056 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and [...] Read more.
This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6529-6549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085297
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 23 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 6 August 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3081 | PDF Full-text (1090 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein [...] Read more.
Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Human Health)
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