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Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies

Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan, México D.F. 14000, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6465-6490;
Received: 28 April 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Regulation by Vitamin D)
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; inflammatory cytokines; pregnancy; preeclampsia vitamin D; inflammatory cytokines; pregnancy; preeclampsia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barrera, D.; Díaz, L.; Noyola-Martínez, N.; Halhali, A. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6465-6490.

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