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Nutrients, Volume 16, Issue 3 (February-1 2024) – 135 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In the delicate equilibrium between health and disease, the gut microbiota emerges as a pivotal player, orchestrating far more than metabolic functions. Recent scientific revelations have unveiled its unsuspected role in regulating sleep homeostasis, a fundamental pillar of well-being. This narrative takes us into the depths of our own biology, where the ancient, microbial inhabitants of our gut communicate with the brain, influencing our sleep patterns together and through the microbial influence on metabolic functions. As modern lifestyles skew sleep rhythms, they simultaneously nudge our gut microbiota, setting the stage for a cascade of health implications, including metabolic syndrome (MetS) and sleep disorders. View this paper
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21 pages, 1438 KiB  
Review
The Efficacy of Dietary Interventions in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intervention Studies
by Narisorn Lakananurak, Panyavee Pitisuttithum, Paweena Susantitaphong, Tanisa Patcharatrakul and Sutep Gonlachanvit
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030464 - 5 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3278
Abstract
Background: International guidelines recommend dietary interventions as one of the most important treatments for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Evidence to confirm the efficacy of these treatment modalities is lacking. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of dietary interventions on [...] Read more.
Background: International guidelines recommend dietary interventions as one of the most important treatments for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Evidence to confirm the efficacy of these treatment modalities is lacking. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of dietary interventions on GERD-related outcomes evaluated in intervention studies on GERD patients. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed according to PRISMA. The PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and Scopus databases were utilized for the literature search. Two independent researchers searched for relevant publications published up until June 2023. Intervention studies evaluating the efficacy of dietary interventions in patients with GERD were included. Results: A total of 577 articles were identified during the initial literature search. After reviewing, 21 studies with 16 different types of dietary interventions were included in the analysis. The interventions were divided into low-carbohydrate diets (3 studies), high-fat diets (2 studies), speed of eating studies (3 studies), low-FODMAP diets (2 studies), and other interventions (12 studies). A meta-analysis could be performed for low-carbohydrate diets and speed of eating interventions. Low-carbohydrate diets resulted in a significant reduction in esophageal acid exposure time (mean difference = −2.834%, 95% confidence interval (CI): −4.554 to −1.114), while a slow speed of eating did not lead to a lower percentage of reflux events compared to fast eating (risk ratio = 1.044, 95% CI: 0.543–2.004). Most other interventions showed positive effects in only a single study. Conclusion: Low-carbohydrate diets showed a significant improvement in GERD-related outcomes, while a slow eating speed did not result in a reduction in reflux events. The overall evidence regarding dietary interventions in GERD remains scarce. High-quality, long-term RCTs are still required to confirm the effects of dietary interventions in GERD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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18 pages, 2252 KiB  
Article
Assessing Acceptability: The Role of Understanding Participant, Neighborhood, and Community Contextual Factors in Designing a Community-Tailored Cooking Intervention
by Nicole Farmer, Ralph Tuason, Kimberly R. Middleton, Assumpta Ude, Gladys Tataw-Ayuketah, Sharon Flynn, Narjis Kazmi, Alyssa Baginski, Valerie Mitchell, Tiffany M. Powell-Wiley and Gwenyth R. Wallen
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030463 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Background: Cooking is an identified dietary strategy that is positively associated with optimal diet quality. Prior to initiating cooking interventions, evaluating the prospective acceptability of the intervention among community members living within low food access areas and understanding geospatial food shopping locations may [...] Read more.
Background: Cooking is an identified dietary strategy that is positively associated with optimal diet quality. Prior to initiating cooking interventions, evaluating the prospective acceptability of the intervention among community members living within low food access areas and understanding geospatial food shopping locations may aid in designing community-tailored interventions. Methods: A sequential mixed methods study was conducted to determine the prospective acceptability of a planned community-located cooking intervention among African American adults living in a low food access area and with at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor. A semi-structured guide was used to conduct five virtual focus groups. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis and validated through participant check-in interviews. Survey responses were analyzed based on descriptive data. Geospatial analysis of participant locations that were reported for food shopping was conducted to show food environment utilization. Results: Focus groups with study participants (n = 20, all female, mean age 60.3, SD 9.3, mean cooking frequency per week 4.0, food insecure n = 7) were conducted between March and April, 2021. Thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts identified five main themes as follows: (A) Barriers to Cooking (family and caregiving, transportation, COVID-19 pandemic, time availability, household composition); (B) Motivators for Cooking (family, caregiving, health, enjoyment, COVID-19 pandemic); (C) Strategies (food shopping, social support, social media, meal planning); (D) Neighborhood (gentrification, perceived safety, stigmatization, disparities in grocery stores); (E) and Acceptability of the Intervention (reasons to participate, barriers, recruitment, intervention delivery). Participant validation interviews confirmed the themes and subthemes as well as the illustrative quotes. Geospatial analysis showed a majority of locations were outside of the participants’ residential areas. Conclusions: Prospective acceptability of a community-tailored cooking intervention found that the planned intervention could be modified to address individual level factors, such as caregiving and health, community contextual factors, such as perceived safety, and the general health needs of the community. Full article
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18 pages, 622 KiB  
Review
Scoping Review of Available Culinary Nutrition Interventions for People with Neurological Conditions
by Chian Thong (Nicole) Chun, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Coralie English, Natasha A. Lannin and Amanda Patterson
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030462 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1429
Abstract
People with neurological conditions may face barriers to meal preparation. Culinary nutrition interventions aim to facilitate the building of knowledge and skills for meal preparation. This scoping review aims to map the available evidence for culinary nutrition interventions for people with neurological conditions [...] Read more.
People with neurological conditions may face barriers to meal preparation. Culinary nutrition interventions aim to facilitate the building of knowledge and skills for meal preparation. This scoping review aims to map the available evidence for culinary nutrition interventions for people with neurological conditions and evaluate the quality of these interventions based on program design, delivery and evaluation. After a systematic search of online databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus and Proquest) and reference lists, a total of ten publications describing nine interventions were included. Most interventions were designed for people with stroke and/or Transient Ischemic Attack (n = 3) and Multiple Sclerosis (n = 3); others were for traumatic brain injury (n = 1), mild dementia (n = 1) and Parkinson’s Disease (n = 1). Overall, the included culinary nutrition interventions had good program delivery (inclusion of motivational experiences, delivered by appropriate health providers) but needed improvements in program design (lack of consumer engagement and neurological symptom accommodations) and evaluation (lack of complete process, outcome and impact evaluations). In conclusion, the evidence base for culinary nutrition interventions for people with neurological conditions remains sparse. To bridge the gap between theory and practice, it is important to consider the following aspects in culinary nutrition intervention planning/improvement: (I) the involvement of consumers; (II) the accommodation/tailoring for post-condition effects; and (III) the coverage of all disease-specific culinary nutrition aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
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15 pages, 745 KiB  
Article
Effects of Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation on Serum Bone Turnover Markers in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
by Marut Vanitchanont, Sakda Arj-Ong Vallibhakara, Areepan Sophonsritsuk and Orawin Vallibhakara
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030461 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2650
Abstract
Probiotics have been found to have beneficial effects on bone metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation on bone turnover markers were evaluated after 12 weeks. Forty postmenopausal women with osteopenia were included and randomly divided into [...] Read more.
Probiotics have been found to have beneficial effects on bone metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation on bone turnover markers were evaluated after 12 weeks. Forty postmenopausal women with osteopenia were included and randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group received multispecies probiotics, while the control group received identical placebo sachets daily. The baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. Still, the median serum bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) was slightly higher in the multispecies probiotic group than in the placebo group (0.35 (0.12, 0.53) vs. 0.16 (0.06, 0.75); p-value = 0.004). After 12 weeks, the mean difference in serum CTX at baseline versus 12 weeks was significantly different between the multispecies probiotic and placebo groups (−0.06 (−0.29, 0.05) vs. 0.04 (−0.45, 0.67); p-value < 0.001). The multispecies probiotic group showed a significant decrease in serum CTX at 12 weeks compared with baseline (p-value 0.026). However, the placebo group showed no significant change in serum CTX (p-value 0.18). In conclusion, multispecies probiotics may have a preventive effect on bone through their antiresorptive effect in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Health Outcomes)
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20 pages, 1613 KiB  
Article
Pilot Study of Heat-Stabilized Rice Bran Acceptability in Households of Rural Southwest Guatemala and Estimates of Fiber, Protein, and Micro-Nutrient Intakes among Mothers and Children
by Brigitte A. Pfluger, Alexis Giunta, Diva M. Calvimontes, Molly M. Lamb, Roberto Delgado-Zapata, Usha Ramakrishnan and Elizabeth P. Ryan
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030460 - 5 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Nutrient-dense, acceptable foods are needed in low-resource settings. Rice bran, a global staple byproduct of white rice processing, is rich in amino acids, fibers, and vitamins, when compared to other cereal brans. This pilot study examines the nutritional contribution of rice bran to [...] Read more.
Nutrient-dense, acceptable foods are needed in low-resource settings. Rice bran, a global staple byproduct of white rice processing, is rich in amino acids, fibers, and vitamins, when compared to other cereal brans. This pilot study examines the nutritional contribution of rice bran to the daily diets of mother–child pairs in rural southwest Guatemala. Thirty households were screened. Mothers (≥18 years) and children (6 to 24 months) completed 24 h dietary recalls at baseline and after 12 weeks (endline) for diet intake and diversity analyses. During biweekly visits for 12 weeks, households with <5 members received 14 packets containing 60 g of heat-stabilized rice bran, and those with ≥5 members received 28 packets. The macro- and micro-nutrient contributions of rice bran and whole, cooked black beans were included in dietary simulation models with average intakes established between the recalls and for comparison with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). A baseline child food frequency questionnaire was administered. The 27 mothers and 23 children with complete recalls were included in analyses. Daily maternal consumption of 10 g/d of rice bran plus 100 g/d of black beans resulted in all achieving at least 50% of the fiber, protein, magnesium, niacin, potassium, and thiamin DRIs. Daily child consumption of 3 g/d of rice bran plus 10 g/d of black beans resulted in all achieving at least 50% of the magnesium, niacin, phosphorous, and thiamine DRIs. For 15/17 food categories, male children had a higher intake frequency, notably for animal-source foods and coffee. Dietary rice bran coupled with black beans could improve nutritional adequacy, especially for fiber and key micro-nutrients, with broader implications for addressing maternal and child malnutrition in low-resource settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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17 pages, 904 KiB  
Article
Carbohydrate Oral Rinsing, Cycling Performance and Individual Complex Carbohydrate Taste Sensitivity
by Claudia Hartley, Amelia Carr, Spencer S. H. Roberts, Wender L. P. Bredie and Russell S. J. Keast
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030459 - 5 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of individual complex carbohydrate taste sensitivity on cycling performance with complex carbohydrate oral rinsing. Ten male participants completed five cycling time trials in a fasted state with a seven-day washout period between [...] Read more.
The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of individual complex carbohydrate taste sensitivity on cycling performance with complex carbohydrate oral rinsing. Ten male participants completed five cycling time trials in a fasted state with a seven-day washout period between each trial. Participants completed a fixed amount of work (738.45 ± 150.74 kJ) as fast as possible on a cycle ergometer while rinsing with an oral rinse for 10 s every 12.5% of the trial. An oral rinse (maltodextrin, oligofructose, glucose, sucralose or water control) was given per visit in a randomised, crossover, blinded design. Afterwards, participants had their taste assessed with three stimuli, complex carbohydrate (maltodextrin), sweet (glucose) and sour (citric acid), using taste assessment protocol to determine individual taste sensitivity status. Participants were subsequently grouped according to their complex carbohydrate taste sensitivity and complex carbohydrate taste intensity. There were no significant effects of the oral rinses on cycling performance time (p = 0.173). Participants who did not have improvements in exercise performance with the maltodextrin rinse experienced a stronger taste intensity with complex carbohydrate stimuli at baseline (p = 0.047) and overall (p = 0.047) than those who did have improvements in performance. Overall, a carbohydrate oral rinse was ineffective in significantly improving cycling performance in comparison with a water control. However, when participants were grouped according to complex carbohydrate taste intensity, differences in exercise performance suggest that individual sensitivity status to complex carbohydrates could impact the efficacy of a carbohydrate-based oral rinse. Full article
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14 pages, 3660 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Yeast Protein on Gut Microbiota in Mice When Compared with Soybean Protein and Whey Protein Isolates
by Xuewei Zhou, Li Liang, Baoguo Sun, Ku Li, Hui Guo and Yuyu Zhang
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030458 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Different protein sources can impact gut microbiota composition and abundance, and also participate in health regulation. In this study, mice were gavaged with yeast protein (YP), soybean protein isolate (SPI), and whey protein isolate (WPI) for 28 days. Body weights showed similar patterns [...] Read more.
Different protein sources can impact gut microbiota composition and abundance, and also participate in health regulation. In this study, mice were gavaged with yeast protein (YP), soybean protein isolate (SPI), and whey protein isolate (WPI) for 28 days. Body weights showed similar patterns across different protein administration groups. The ileum in YP-supplemented mice exhibited good morphology, and tight-junction (TJ) proteins were slightly upregulated. Immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgM, and IgG levels in the ileum of different protein groups were significantly increased (p < 0.05). Interleukin (IL)-10 levels were significantly increased, whereas IL-6 levels were significantly reduced in the YP group when compared with the control (C) (p < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in the ileum were significantly increased in the YP group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that YP potentially improved intestinal immunity and inflammatory profiles. The relative abundances of Parabacteroides, Prevotella, and Pseudobutyrivibrio in the YP group were more enriched when compared with the C and SPI groups, and Parabacteroides was significantly upregulated when compared with the WPI group (p < 0.05). Overall, the results indicate that YP upregulates the beneficial bacteria and improves ileal immunity and anti-inflammatory capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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11 pages, 728 KiB  
Article
Ready-to-Use Multichamber Bags in Home Parenteral Nutrition for Patients with Advanced Cancer: A Single-Center Prospective Study
by María Fernández-Argüeso, Elena Gómez-Bayona, Beatriz Ugalde, Belén Vega-Piñero, Mayra Gil-Díaz, Federico Longo, Rosario Pintor and José I. Botella-Carretero
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030457 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is increasingly prescribed for patients with advanced cancer. This therapy improves free-fat mass, quality of life and survival, but it is not free from complications, especially catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). The use of commercial multichamber bags in HPN has [...] Read more.
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is increasingly prescribed for patients with advanced cancer. This therapy improves free-fat mass, quality of life and survival, but it is not free from complications, especially catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). The use of commercial multichamber bags in HPN has not been extensively explored in oncologic patients and their association with complications is not well known. In this prospective cohort study, we included 130 patients with advanced cancer and HPN. We compared the effects of individual compounded bags (n = 87) vs. commercial multichamber bags (n = 43) on complications. There were no differences in any complication, including thrombosis (p > 0.05). There were 0.28 episodes of CRBSI per 1000 catheter days in the individual compounded bag group and 0.21 in the multichamber bag group (p > 0.05). A total of 34 patients were weaned off HPN, 22 with individual bags and 12 with multichamber bags (p = 0.749). Regarding survival when on HPN, the group with individual bags showed a median of 98 days (95% CI of 49–147), whereas those with multichamber bags showed a median of 88 days (95% CI of 43–133 (p = 0.913)). In conclusion, commercial multichamber bags for HPN in patients with advanced cancer are non-inferior when compared to individual compounded bags in terms of complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer and Nutrition: From Epidemiology to Medical Nutrition Therapy)
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18 pages, 351 KiB  
Review
Associations of Dietary and Lifestyle Components with Atrial Fibrillation
by Klaudia Leszto, Weronika Frąk, Szymon Kurciński, Julia Sinkowska, Sylwia Skwira, Ewelina Młynarska, Jacek Rysz and Beata Franczyk
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030456 - 5 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a prevalent cardiac arrhythmia that still remains a significant health concern, especially due to its consequences, including stroke and heart failure. This review explores the intricate interplay between AF, lifestyle choices, and dietary habits. It is particularly focused on [...] Read more.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a prevalent cardiac arrhythmia that still remains a significant health concern, especially due to its consequences, including stroke and heart failure. This review explores the intricate interplay between AF, lifestyle choices, and dietary habits. It is particularly focused on findings from diverse studies about non-pharmacological methods of managing AF. Moreover, its purpose is to elucidate the implementation of lifestyle changes such as physical activity or proper diet choices in the integrated treatment strategy of patients with AF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle, Diet and Nutritional Status in Patients with Arrhythmias)
12 pages, 689 KiB  
Article
Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and Bone Mineral Density Changes among Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study in China
by Xiaoyu Zhu, Yalin Zhou, Zhang Wen, Wanyun Ye, Lan Gao and Yajun Xu
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030455 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Objectives: This study aims to examine the relationship between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and bone mineral density (BMD) changes among Chinese pregnant women, offering valuable insights for dietary guidance during pregnancy. Methods: 289 pregnant women were enrolled in this cohort. Serum inflammatory factors [...] Read more.
Objectives: This study aims to examine the relationship between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and bone mineral density (BMD) changes among Chinese pregnant women, offering valuable insights for dietary guidance during pregnancy. Methods: 289 pregnant women were enrolled in this cohort. Serum inflammatory factors and ultrasonic BMD were measured at the first, second, and the third trimesters. DII scores were calculated based on a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and divided into tertiles. We compared the differences in inflammatory factors in serum across the tertiles of DII and changes in BMD at the second and third trimesters across the tertiles. Results: The participants with higher DII scores had higher total energy intakes than those with lower DII scores. The serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly different across the tertiles of the DII. Women who had lower DII scores had higher T-scores and Z-scores in the BMD assessment. In the test of trends, after adjusting potential covariates, including educational level, physical activity, body mass index, and calcium, vitamin D, or multivitamin supplements, DII values were determined to be positively related to the maternal BMD lost. Conclusions: DII was positively associated with serum IL-6. Meanwhile, higher DII scores were associated with more bone mass loss in pregnant women. We recommend adhering to a lower-DII diet to preserve BMD during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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11 pages, 455 KiB  
Article
Concurrent Ingestion of Alkaline Water and L-Glutamine Enhanced Salivary α-Amylase Activity and Testosterone Concentration in Boxing Athletes
by Tung-Lin Lu, Cheng-Shiun He, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Chi-Cheng Lu, Chung-Yuan Wang and Shih-Hua Fang
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030454 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1980
Abstract
Athletes often take sport supplements to reduce fatigue and immune disturbances during or after training. This study evaluated the acute effects of concurrent ingestion of alkaline water and L-glutamine on the salivary immunity and hormone responses of boxers after training. Twelve male boxing [...] Read more.
Athletes often take sport supplements to reduce fatigue and immune disturbances during or after training. This study evaluated the acute effects of concurrent ingestion of alkaline water and L-glutamine on the salivary immunity and hormone responses of boxers after training. Twelve male boxing athletes were recruited in this study. During regular training, the participants were randomly divided into three groups and asked to consume 400 mL of alkaline water (Group A), 0.15 g/kg body weight of L-glutamine with 400 mL of water (Group G), and 0.15 g/kg of L-glutamine with 400 mL of alkaline water (Group A+G) at the same time each day for three consecutive weeks. Before and immediately after the training, saliva, heart rates, and the rate of perceived exertion were investigated. The activity of α-amylase and concentrations of lactoferrin, immunoglobulin A (IgA), testosterone, and cortisol in saliva were measured. The results showed that the ratio of α-amylase activity/total protein (TP) significantly increased after training in Group A+G but not in Group A or G, whereas the ratios of lactoferrin/TP and IgA/TP were unaffected in all three groups. The concentrations of salivary testosterone after training increased significantly in Group A+G but not in Group A or G, whereas the salivary cortisol concentrations were unaltered in all groups. In conclusion, concurrent ingestion of 400 mL of alkaline water and 0.15 g/kg of L-glutamine before training enhanced the salivary α-amylase activity and testosterone concentration of boxers, which would be beneficial for post-exercise recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition for Human Health)
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12 pages, 745 KiB  
Article
The Association between Serum Copper and Bone Mineral Density among Adolescents Aged 12 to 19 in the United States
by Haobiao Liu, Miaoye Bao, Mian Liu, Feidan Deng, Xinyue Wen, Ping Wan, Xue Lin, Guoqiang Dong, Zhaoyang Li and Jing Han
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030453 - 4 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Bone mineral density (BMD) is a key parameter widely used in the assessment of bone health. Although many investigations have explored the relationship between trace elements and BMD, there are fewer studies focused on serum copper and BMD, especially for adolescents. Using data [...] Read more.
Bone mineral density (BMD) is a key parameter widely used in the assessment of bone health. Although many investigations have explored the relationship between trace elements and BMD, there are fewer studies focused on serum copper and BMD, especially for adolescents. Using data extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we applied a multiple-linear regression and smooth curve fitting to assess the relationship between serum copper and BMD. A total of 910 participants were finally included in this study. After adjusting for relevant covariates, serum copper was negatively associated with lumbar spine BMD (β = −0.057, 95% CI: −0.109 to −0.005), trunk bone BMD (β = −0.068, 95% CI: −0.110 to −0.026), pelvis BMD (β = −0.085, 95% CI: −0.145 to −0.024), subtotal BMD (β = −0.072, 95% CI: −0.111 to −0.033), and total BMD (β = −0.051, 95% CI: −0.087 to −0.016) (p < 0.05). In quartile analysis, the highest level of serum copper was associated with decreased BMD when compared with those at the lowest quartile (p < 0.05). The stratified analysis revealed a significant interaction between age and the effects of serum copper on trunk bone BMD (p = 0.022) and pelvis BMD (p = 0.018). Meanwhile, the higher level of serum copper was negatively associated with BMD in males, and gender modified the relationship (p < 0.001). Future longitudinal studies will be necessary for a more definitive interpretation of our results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trace Elements and Bone Health)
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10 pages, 675 KiB  
Article
Eating Behavior and Nutritional Profile of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Reference Center in the Amazon
by Rayanne Vieira da Silva and Daniela Lopes Gomes
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030452 - 4 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2088
Abstract
There is no single pattern for the evolution of the nutritional status of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies have found a tendency towards food selectivity with food monotony and difficulties with food texture in children with ASD, but studies in [...] Read more.
There is no single pattern for the evolution of the nutritional status of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies have found a tendency towards food selectivity with food monotony and difficulties with food texture in children with ASD, but studies in this area, especially in Brazil, are still scarce. The nutritional profile and changes in eating behavior were analyzed in patients with autism spectrum disorder assisted at a reference center in Belém. Eating behavior was assessed using the Labyrinth Scale, nutritional status assessment through weight and height (to calculate body mass index—BMI), and consumption food through the 24 h reminder. A total of 80 children of both sexes participated in the study, the majority of whom were male (80%), 47.5% eutrophic, while for the food consumption of the children evaluated, there was an average energy consumption of 1911 kcal daily, with 57.3%, 15.4%, and 27.3% of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, respectively. In relation to eating behavior, the highest averages were demonstrated in the domains of food selectivity, behavioral aspects, and mealtime skills. Masticatory motor scores showed a positive correlation with weight, BMI, and the amount of energy consumed by the child. The gastrointestinal symptoms score showed a negative correlation with the child’s age. Regarding mealtime skills, a negative correlation was observed with the proportion of carbohydrates in the diet and a positive correlation with the proportion of lipids consumed in the children’s diet. Therefore, knowing the main changes in eating behavior is important to ensure a complete and safe approach for each patient. Full article
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18 pages, 4888 KiB  
Article
Erigeron annuus Extract Improves DNCB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in a Mouse Model via the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway
by Myeongguk Jeong, Hyeokjin Kwon, Yeeun Kim, Hyunwoo Jin, Go-Eun Choi and Kyung-Yae Hyun
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030451 - 3 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a persistent inflammatory skin condition resulting from an intricate interplay among genetic, immunological, and environmental factors. Erigeron annuus (EA), an annual winter plant belonging to the family Asteraceae, possesses anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant activities. In this study, we hypothesized [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a persistent inflammatory skin condition resulting from an intricate interplay among genetic, immunological, and environmental factors. Erigeron annuus (EA), an annual winter plant belonging to the family Asteraceae, possesses anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant activities. In this study, we hypothesized that Erigeron annuus extract (EAE) could be an effective agent for ameliorating AD-like symptoms. To confirm this hypothesis in vitro, we used H2O2-stimulated human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) to demonstrate that pre-treatment with EAE protected against oxidative stress. HaCaT cells pretreated with EAE and stimulated with H2O2 showed decreased intracellular malondialdehyde content, increased superoxide dismutase activity, and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation. To verify the in vivo hypothesis based on the intracellular results, an AD disease mouse model was induced with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB), and EAE was orally administered at a non-toxic concentration according to the toxicity evaluation results. The results showed that AD disease models in BALB/c mice exhibited reduced ear epidermal thickness, scratching behavior, and mast cell infiltration. In conclusion, our results indicate that EAE has the potential to improve AD by upregulating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Bioactive Compounds in Immunonutrition)
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13 pages, 825 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Individual and Mixed Effects of Six Minerals on Thyroid Hormones in Chinese Pregnant Women
by Simeng Gu, Zhe Mo, Zhijian Chen, Xueqing Li, Yujie Jiang, Chenyang Liu, Fanjia Guo, Yahui Li, Guangming Mao, Xuemin Huang and Xiaofeng Wang
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030450 - 3 Feb 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
The biosynthesis of thyroid hormones is essential for brain and neurological development. It requires iodine as a key component but is also influenced by other nutrients. Evidence for the combined nutrient status in relation to thyroid hormones during pregnancy is limited. We aimed [...] Read more.
The biosynthesis of thyroid hormones is essential for brain and neurological development. It requires iodine as a key component but is also influenced by other nutrients. Evidence for the combined nutrient status in relation to thyroid hormones during pregnancy is limited. We aimed to investigate the joint associations of iodine, selenium, zinc, calcium, magnesium and iron with maternal thyroid functions in 489 pregnant women from Hangzhou, China. Serum levels of six essential minerals and thyroid function parameters were measured during the first antenatal visit. Linear regression, quantile g-computation and Bayesian kernel machine regression were used to explore the individual and joint relationships between the six minerals and thyroid hormones. Linear regression analyses revealed that calcium was positively associated with free triiodothyronine (FT3). Zinc was positively associated with free thyroxine (FT4). Iodine was negatively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and positively associated with FT3 and FT4. The quantile g-computation and BKMR models indicated that the joint nutrient concentration was negatively associated with TSH and positively associated with FT3 and FT4. Among the six minerals, iodine contributed most to thyroid function. The findings suggested that maintaining the appropriate concentration of minerals, either as individuals or a mixture, is important for thyroid health during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micronutrient Fortification and Women’s Health)
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13 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Early Extra-Uterine Growth Restriction in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Neonates with Normal or Mildly Abnormal Brain MRI: Effects on a 2–3-Year Neurodevelopmental Outcome
by Paolo Massirio, Marcella Battaglini, Irene Bonato, Sara De Crescenzo, Maria Grazia Calevo, Mariya Malova, Samuele Caruggi, Alessandro Parodi, Deborah Preiti, Agata Zoia, Sara Uccella, Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Andrea Rossi, Cristina Traggiai, Lino Nobili, Pasquale Striano and Luca Antonio Ramenghi
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030449 - 3 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Extra-uterine growth restriction (EUGR) is a common complication and a known risk factor for impaired development in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates. We report a population of 288 patients with no or with low-grade MRI lesions scanned at a term equivalent age (TEA) born between [...] Read more.
Extra-uterine growth restriction (EUGR) is a common complication and a known risk factor for impaired development in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates. We report a population of 288 patients with no or with low-grade MRI lesions scanned at a term equivalent age (TEA) born between 2012 and 2018. Griffiths Mental Development Scale II (GMDS II) at 2 and 3 years, preterm complications and weight growth were retrospectively analyzed. EUGR was defined for weight z-score ˂ 10 percentile at TEA, 6 and 12 months of correct age or as z-score decreased by 1-point standard deviation (SDS) from birth to TEA and from TEA to 6 months. Multivariate analysis showed that a higher weight z-score at 6 months is protective for the global developmental quotient (DQ) at 2 years (OR 0.74; CI 95% 0.59–0.93; p = 0.01). EUGR at 6 months was associated with worse locomotor, personal/social, language and performance DQ at 2 years and worse language and practical reasoning DQ at 3 years. In conclusion, a worse weight z-score at 6 months of age seems to be an independent risk factor for significantly reduced GMDS in many areas. These results suggest that we should invest more into post-discharge nutrition, optimizing family nutritional education. Full article
13 pages, 822 KiB  
Article
Bone Remodelling, Vitamin D Status, and Lifestyle Factors in Spanish Vegans, Lacto-Ovo Vegetarians, and Omnivores
by Elena García-Maldonado, Angélica Gallego-Narbón, Belén Zapatera, Alexandra Alcorta, Miriam Martínez-Suárez and M. Pilar Vaquero
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030448 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1810
Abstract
Sustainable healthy diets are promoted, and consequently vegetarian diets are currently increasing. However, scientific information on their effects on bone health is scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed in adults (66% women) classified into three groups: omnivores (n = 93), lacto-ovo vegetarians [...] Read more.
Sustainable healthy diets are promoted, and consequently vegetarian diets are currently increasing. However, scientific information on their effects on bone health is scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed in adults (66% women) classified into three groups: omnivores (n = 93), lacto-ovo vegetarians (n = 96), and vegans (n = 112). Nutrient intake, body composition, physical activity, vitamin D status (25-hydroxycholecalciferol, 25-OHD), parathormone (PTH), and bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase, BAP) and resorption (N-telopeptides of type I collagen, NTx) markers were determined. Lacto-ovo vegetarians and especially vegans showed lower protein, fat, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, retinol, iodine, and zinc intakes, and higher carbohydrate, fibre, carotenes, magnesium, and vitamin K intakes compared to omnivores. Body composition was similar in the three groups that performed vigorous physical activity regularly. Body bone mass and muscle mass were positively correlated with BAP, and time performing physical activity with 25-OHD. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (25-OHD < 75 nmol/L) was 93.7% in the studied population, and vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD < 25 nmol/L) was significantly higher in vegans. Vegetarians of both groups had increased PTH and NTx with vegans showing significantly higher PTH and NTx than omnivores. Conclusion: Adult vegetarians, especially vegans, should reduce the risk of bone loss by appropriate diet planning and vitamin D supplementation. Full article
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13 pages, 2348 KiB  
Article
Aligning Santal Tribe Menu Templates with EAT-Lancet Commission’s Dietary Guidelines for Sustainable and Healthy Diets: A Comparative Analysis
by Sarah Armes, Arundhita Bhanjdeo, Debashis Chakraborty, Harmanpreet Kaur, Sumantra Ray and Nitya Rao
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030447 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1570
Abstract
Background: In the context of global shifts in food systems, this paper explores the unique dietary practices of the Santal tribe, an indigenous group in eastern India, to understand the health, nutrition, and sustainability aspects of their traditional food systems. This study evaluates [...] Read more.
Background: In the context of global shifts in food systems, this paper explores the unique dietary practices of the Santal tribe, an indigenous group in eastern India, to understand the health, nutrition, and sustainability aspects of their traditional food systems. This study evaluates the nutritional content of the Santal diet in comparison to the EAT-Lancet Commission’s 2019 dietary guidelines for healthy and sustainable diets. Methods: The University of East Anglia, in collaboration with the NNEdPro Global Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health in Cambridge, PRADAN; colleagues in India and local Santal youth, conducted nutritional analyses of traditional Santal recipes. Two menu templates, Kanhu Thali and Jhano Thali, were selected for comparative analysis based on their representation of diverse dietary practices within the Santal community. Nutritional data, including energy as well as the distribution of macronutrients and micronutrients, were compiled and compared with the EAT-Lancet guidelines. Results: The Santal menu templates (nutritionally complete meals) demonstrated alignment with EAT-Lancet recommendations in aspects such as whole grains, starchy vegetables, vegetables, plant-based protein sources, unsaturated fats, and limited added sugars. However, notable deviations included the absence of animal-based protein sources and dairy. The Santal diet showed high protein intake, largely from plant-based sources, and emphasised the importance of whole grains. Seasonal variations in nutritional content were observed between the two templates. Conclusions: While the Santal diet aligns with some aspects of global dietary guidelines, there are notable deviations that underscore the complexity of aligning traditional diets with universal recommendations. The findings emphasise the need for culturally sensitive dietary recommendations that respect traditional diets while promoting sustainability. Research needs to support tailored global guidelines enshrining core principles of nutritional adequacy which are inter-culturally operable in order to accommodate cultural diversity, local practices, and seasonal variations, crucial for fostering sustainable and healthy eating habits in diverse sociodemographic contexts. Full article
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20 pages, 6006 KiB  
Article
Incidence of Urinary Infections and Behavioral Risk Factors
by Magdalena Mititelu, Gabriel Olteanu, Sorinel Marius Neacșu, Iuliana Stoicescu, Denisa-Elena Dumitrescu, Emma Gheorghe, Monica Tarcea, Ștefan Sebastian Busnatu, Corina-Bianca Ioniță-Mîndrican, Ovidiu Tafuni, Ionela Belu, Antoanela Popescu, Sergiu Lupu and Carmen Elena Lupu
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030446 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2519
Abstract
This evaluation of the impact of behavioral risk factors on the incidence of urinary infections was based on a questionnaire in which 1103 respondents, predominantly women (883), participated. From the statistical processing of the data, it was observed that 598 of the respondents [...] Read more.
This evaluation of the impact of behavioral risk factors on the incidence of urinary infections was based on a questionnaire in which 1103 respondents, predominantly women (883), participated. From the statistical processing of the data, it was observed that 598 of the respondents were of normal weight; the rest, more than half, were underweight or overweight (χ2 = 32.46, p < 0.001), with male respondents being predominantly overweight or obese (169 out of a total of 220). Most of the respondents were young (χ2 = 15.45, p < 0.001), under the age of 45 (840). According to the processed data, it was found that respondents in the age group of 26–35 years showed the greatest vulnerability to recurrent urinary infections, while the age group of 18–25 years recorded the highest number of responses related to the rare presence or even absence of episodes of urinary infections. A body weight-related vulnerability was also noted among the respondents; the majority of obese people declared that they face frequent episodes of urinary infections. Regarding diet quality, 210 respondents reported an adherence to an unhealthy diet, 620 to a moderately healthy diet, and 273 to a healthy diet. Of the respondents who adhered to a healthy diet, 223 were women (χ2 = 2.55, p = 0.279). There was a close connection between diet quality and the frequency of urinary infections: from the statistical processing of the data, it was observed that the highest percentage of respondents who rarely (57.14%) or never got urinary infections (29.30%) were among those who adhered to a healthy diet, and the highest percentage of those who declared that they often got urinary infections were among those with increased adherence to an unhealthy diet (χ2 = 13.46, p = 0.036). The results of this study highlight a strong impact of obesity, reduced consumption of fruit and vegetables, and sedentary lifestyle on the risk of recurring urinary infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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20 pages, 1449 KiB  
Article
Negative Association of Lignan and Phytosterol Intake with Stress Perception during the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Polish Study on Young Adults
by Agnieszka Micek, Paweł Jagielski, Izabela Bolesławska, Anna Maria Witkowska, Anna Waśkiewicz, Zbigniew Wajda, Anna Kamińska, Aneta Cebula and Justyna Godos
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030445 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Background: There has been an increasing global prevalence of depression and other psychiatric diseases in recent years. Perceived stress has been proven to be associated with psychiatric and somatic symptoms. Some animal and human studies have suggested that consuming foods abundant in lignans [...] Read more.
Background: There has been an increasing global prevalence of depression and other psychiatric diseases in recent years. Perceived stress has been proven to be associated with psychiatric and somatic symptoms. Some animal and human studies have suggested that consuming foods abundant in lignans and phytosterols may be associated with lower levels of stress, depression, and anxiety. Still, the evidence is not yet strong enough to draw firm conclusions. Thus, we investigated the association between dietary intake of these phytochemicals and the level of stress experienced by adult individuals. Methods: Diet was assessed using self-reported 7-day dietary records. The intakes of lignans and phytosterols were estimated using databases with their content in various food products. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was implemented to measure the level of perceived stress. A logistic regression analysis was used to test for associations. Results: The odds of elevated PSS were negatively associated with dietary intake of total phytosterols, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol, with evidence of a decreasing trend across tertiles of phytochemicals. The analysis for doubling the intake reinforced the aforementioned relationships and found protective effects against PSS for total lignans, pinoresinol, and campesterol. Conclusions: Habitual inclusion of lignans and phytosterols in the diet may play a role in psychological health. To address the global outbreak of depression and other mental health issues triggered by stress, it is important to take a holistic approach. There is a need to develop effective strategies for prevention and treatment, among which certain dietary interventions such as consumption of products abundant in lignans and phytosterols may play a substantial role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Association between Nutrition and Brain Health)
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9 pages, 796 KiB  
Brief Report
The Impact of Red Yeast Rice Extract Use on the Occurrence of Muscle Symptoms and Liver Dysfunction: An Update from the Adverse Event Reporting Systems and Available Meta-Analyses
by Giuseppe Danilo Norata and Maciej Banach
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030444 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2197
Abstract
Red yeast rice (RYR) has a cholesterol-lowering effect due to the presence of bioactive components (monacolins, mainly monacolin K) that act by inhibiting the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) assessed the use of RYR and, [...] Read more.
Red yeast rice (RYR) has a cholesterol-lowering effect due to the presence of bioactive components (monacolins, mainly monacolin K) that act by inhibiting the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) assessed the use of RYR and, while pointing out several uncertainties regarding the available data, raised a warning related to the safety of RYR when used as a food supplement at a dose of monacolin as low as 3 mg/day. In their decision in June 2023, EFSA approved the use of monacolins from RYR at doses less than 3 mg/day. We therefore decided to interrogate the different adverse event reporting systems (FAERS and CAERS) and analyse the characteristics of the cases reported to be associated with RYR supplements, and we reviewed the most recent meta-analyses with a focus on the occurrence of muscle symptoms and liver dysfunction. In terms of all musculoskeletal disorders from September 2013 (when the first case related to RYR consumption was recorded) to 30 September 2023, 363,879 cases were reported in the FAERS, with the number of cases related to RYR consumption being very small and accounting for 0.008% of cases. In the same time frame, 27,032 cases of hepatobiliary disorders were reported, and the cases attributable to RYR ingestion accounted for 0.01% of all cases. A low rate of muscle symptoms and liver dysfunction attributed to RYR ingestion was also observed in the CAERS database, where only 34 cases of adverse muscle events and 10 cases of adverse liver events reported RYR as the suspect product, while 19 cases of both muscle events and 10 cases of adverse liver events reported it as a concomitant product. This profile mirrors that of meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials of RYR, in which RYR use was not associated with either liver dysfunction or muscular adverse symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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12 pages, 1899 KiB  
Article
Comparative Assessment of In Vitro Xanthine Oxidase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Cultured Cambial Meristematic Cells, Adventitious Roots, and Field-Cultivated Ginseng
by Tianhe Zhang, Lijun Liu, Qiqi Chen, Yifei Wang, Xiujun Gao, Xingyi Ma and Peisheng Yan
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030443 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Panax ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine with a history spanning thousands of years, faces overexploitation and challenges related to extended growth periods. Tissue-cultured adventitious roots and stem cells are alternatives to wild and field-cultivated ginseng. In this study, we assessed the in [...] Read more.
Panax ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine with a history spanning thousands of years, faces overexploitation and challenges related to extended growth periods. Tissue-cultured adventitious roots and stem cells are alternatives to wild and field-cultivated ginseng. In this study, we assessed the in vitro xanthine oxidase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of saponin extracts among cultured cambial meristematic cells (CMC), adventitious ginseng roots (AGR), and field-cultivated ginseng roots (CGR). The xanthine oxidase (XO) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were determined by uric acid estimation and the p-NPG method, respectively. Spectrophotometry and the Folin–Ciocalteu, aluminum nitrate, and Bradford methods were employed to ascertain the total saponins and phenolic, flavonoid, and protein contents. The calculated IC50 values for total saponin extracts against XO and α-glucosidase were 0.665, 0.844, and >1.6 mg/mL and 0.332, 0.745, and 0.042 mg/mL for AGR, CMC, CGR, respectively. Comparing the total saponin, crude protein, and total phenolic contents revealed that AGR > CMC > CGR. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first report on the in vitro comparison of xanthine oxidase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities among AGR, CMC, and CGR. The findings offer valuable insights into the development of hypoglycemic and antihyperuricemic medicinal, nutraceutical, and functional products utilizing AGR and CMC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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12 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Urinary Biomarkers in Screening for the Usual Intake of Fruit and Vegetables, and Sodium, Potassium, and the Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio: Required Number and Accuracy of Measurements
by Aoi Suzuki, Ribeka Takachi, Junko Ishihara, Sachiko Maruya, Yuri Ishii, Kumiko Kito, Kazutoshi Nakamura, Junta Tanaka, Taiki Yamaji, Hiroyasu Iso, Motoki Iwasaki, Shoichiro Tsugane and Norie Sawada
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030442 - 1 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Because of within-individual variation, surveys to estimate an individual’s usual food intake must be conducted over many days, in general. Here, using non-invasive biomarkers, we examined the number of measurements required to screen for the usual intake of fruit and vegetables, in addition [...] Read more.
Because of within-individual variation, surveys to estimate an individual’s usual food intake must be conducted over many days, in general. Here, using non-invasive biomarkers, we examined the number of measurements required to screen for the usual intake of fruit and vegetables, in addition to sodium, potassium, and the sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio. Participants were 202 subjects aged 40–74 years from five areas of Japan who completed weighed food records (WFR) and five 24-hour urinary collections (24-h UCs) between 2012 and 2013. The number of 24-h UCs required to screen for intake that deviated from guidelines estimated by the WFR and their accuracies were assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) in a receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The single urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and the Na/K ratio showed moderate performance (AUC value: >0.7) in discriminating deviations from their criteria by respective intake based on the WFR. Urinary potassium excretion also showed moderate performance (AUC value: >0.7) in estimating the intake of vegetables but could not be used to estimate fruit intake even after five collections. The non-invasive measurement of biomarkers in a single 24-h UC showed moderate performance in screening the usual intake of vegetables, as measured based on the 12-day WFR, as well as of sodium, potassium, and the Na/K ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Sodium, Potassium Intake and Blood Pressure)
14 pages, 2421 KiB  
Article
Betulinic Acid Increases the Lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster via Sir2 and FoxO Activation
by Hye-Yeon Lee and Kyung-Jin Min
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030441 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Betulinic acid (BetA), a triterpenoid derivative found abundantly in the plant kingdom, has emerged as a promising candidate for promoting longevity. Many research studies have shown its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities, making it an interesting subject for investigating its potential influence [...] Read more.
Betulinic acid (BetA), a triterpenoid derivative found abundantly in the plant kingdom, has emerged as a promising candidate for promoting longevity. Many research studies have shown its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities, making it an interesting subject for investigating its potential influence on lifespan. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BetA on longevity and the mechanisms associated with it using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as the organism model. The results showed that 50 μM BetA supplementation extended the mean lifespan of fruit flies by 13% in males and 6% in females without any adverse effects on their physiology, such as fecundity, feeding rate, or locomotion ability reduction. However, 50 μM BetA supplementation failed to increase the lifespan in mutants lacking functional silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) and Forkhead box O (FoxO)-null, implying that the longevity effect of BetA is related to Sir2 and FoxO activation. Our study contributes to the knowledge in the field of anti-aging research and inspires further investigations into natural compounds such as BetA to enhance organismal healthspan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Health: 2nd Edition)
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33 pages, 729 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Parenteral Nutrition from Birth to Adolescence Based on a Composite Fish Oil Containing Lipid Emulsion and a Pediatric Amino Acid Solution
by Olivier Goulet
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030440 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Intestinal failure (IF) is characterized by a critical reduction in functional gut mass below the minimum needed for optimal growth in children. It requires parenteral nutrition (PN) and home-PN (HPN), which is challenging in terms of meeting nutritional needs according to age, growth [...] Read more.
Intestinal failure (IF) is characterized by a critical reduction in functional gut mass below the minimum needed for optimal growth in children. It requires parenteral nutrition (PN) and home-PN (HPN), which is challenging in terms of meeting nutritional needs according to age, growth velocity, clinical situation, and rapid changes in fluid and electrolyte requirements. Due to these complex requirements, age-adapted multi-chamber bags (MCBs) are important additions to the nutrition armamentarium. The launch of composite fish oil (FO)-containing intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) heralded the development of MCBs containing these ILEs in combination with a crystalline amino acid solution adapted for pediatric use. The safety and efficacy of lipid and amino acid components in this context have been widely documented in numerous published studies. This narrative manuscript includes a review of the articles published in PudMed, Embase, and Google Scholar up to June 2023 for the age groups of term infants to children and adolescents. Preterm infants with their highly specific demands are not included. It aims to offer an overview of the clinical experience regarding the use of a composite FO-based ILE and a developed specific amino acid solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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1 pages, 146 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Cetkovic et al. Comment on “Meneghini et al. The Impact of Nutritional Therapy in the Management of Overweight/Obese PCOS Patient Candidates for IVF. Nutrients 2023, 15, 4444”
by Caterina Meneghini, Claudia Bianco, Francesco Galanti, Valentina Tamburelli, Alessandro Dal Lago, Emanuele Licata, Mariagrazia Gallo, Cristina Fabiani, Roberta Corno, Donatella Miriello and Rocco Rago
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030439 - 1 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Thanks for your comment [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Support for Human Fertility)
16 pages, 3895 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Antidepressant Mechanisms of Polygonum sibiricum Polysaccharides via Microglial Polarization
by Yingyu Zhang, Danyang Wang, Jiameng Liu, Jing Sun, Xinmin Liu, Bei Fan, Cong Lu and Fengzhong Wang
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030438 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Polygonum sibiricum, with its medicinal and edibility dual properties, has been widely recognized and utilized throughout Chinese history. As a kind of its effective component, Polygonum sibiricum polysaccharides (PSP) have been reported to be a promising novel antidepressant agent. Meanwhile, the precise [...] Read more.
Polygonum sibiricum, with its medicinal and edibility dual properties, has been widely recognized and utilized throughout Chinese history. As a kind of its effective component, Polygonum sibiricum polysaccharides (PSP) have been reported to be a promising novel antidepressant agent. Meanwhile, the precise mechanisms underlying its action remain elusive. The polarization state transition of microglia is intricately linked to neuroinflammation, indicating its crucial involvement in the pathophysiology of depression. Researchers are vigorously pursuing the exploration of this potential treatment strategy, aiming to comprehend its underlying mechanisms. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the antidepressant mechanisms of PSP via Microglial M1/M2 Polarization, based on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 cell activation model. The results indicate that PSP significantly inhibited NO and LDH release and reduced ROS levels in LPS-induced BV2 cells. PSP could significantly reduce the protein expression level of Iba-1, decreased the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and increased the mRNA level of IL-10. PSP also significantly reduced the protein expression level of CD16/32 and increased that of CD206, reduced the mRNA level and fluorescence intensity of iNOS, and increased those of Arg-1. However, PSP pretreatment reversed the alterations of the BDNF/TrkB/CREB and Notch/Hes1 pathways in LPS-induced BV2 cells. These results suggested that PSP exerted the anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting M1 phenotype polarization and promoting microglia polarization toward the M2 phenotype, and its regulation of microglia M1/M2 polarization may be associated with modulating the BDNF/TrkB/CREB and Notch/Hes1 pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
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16 pages, 1694 KiB  
Article
Effect of Prenatal Iron Supplementation Adapted to Hemoglobin Levels in Early Pregnancy on Fetal and Neonatal Growth—ECLIPSES Study
by Sandra Díaz-Torres, Andrés Díaz-López and Victoria Arija
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030437 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2447
Abstract
In this randomized clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of prenatal iron supplementation adapted to pregnant women’s initial hemoglobin (Hb) levels on fetal growth parameters until birth in women from the Mediterranean coast of northern Spain. All (n = 791) women were [...] Read more.
In this randomized clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of prenatal iron supplementation adapted to pregnant women’s initial hemoglobin (Hb) levels on fetal growth parameters until birth in women from the Mediterranean coast of northern Spain. All (n = 791) women were iron-supplemented during pregnancy according to Hb levels at the 12th gestational week: stratum 1 (Hb: 110–130 g/L) received 40 or 80 mg iron daily; stratum 2 (Hb > 130 g/L) received 40 or 20 mg iron daily. Fetal biometric and anthropometric measurements were evaluated in the three trimesters and at birth, respectively. In stratum 1, using 80 mg/d instead of 40 mg/d increased the risk of fetal head circumference > 90th percentile (OR = 2.49, p = 0.015) at the second trimester and fetal weight (OR = 2.36, p = 0.011) and femur length (OR = 2.50, p = 0.018) < 10th percentile at the third trimester. For stratum 2, using 40 mg/d instead of 20 mg/d increased the risk of fetal head circumference > 90th percentile (OR = 3.19, p = 0.039) at the third trimester. A higher risk of delivering an LGA baby (OR = 2.35, p = 0.015) for birthweight was also observed in stratum 1 women receiving 80 mg/d. It is crucial to adjust the prenatal iron supplementation to each pregnant woman’s needs, i.e., adapted to their initial Hb levels, to achieve optimal fetal development, since excessive iron doses appear to adversely influence fetal growth. Full article
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19 pages, 366 KiB  
Review
Diagnostic Criteria and Measurement Techniques of Sarcopenia: A Critical Evaluation of the Up-to-Date Evidence
by Gavriela Voulgaridou, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Paraskevi Detopoulou, Despoina Tsoumana, Mariella Drakaki, Thomas Apostolou, Ioanna P. Chatziprodromidou, Dimitrios Papandreou, Constantinos Giaginis and Sousana K. Papadopoulou
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030436 - 1 Feb 2024
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2881
Abstract
Sarcopenia, a geriatric syndrome characterized by progressive skeletal muscle mass and function decline, poses a significant health risk among the elderly, contributing to frailty, falls, hospitalization, loss of independence and mortality. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies significantly based on various factors, such as [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia, a geriatric syndrome characterized by progressive skeletal muscle mass and function decline, poses a significant health risk among the elderly, contributing to frailty, falls, hospitalization, loss of independence and mortality. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies significantly based on various factors, such as living status, demographics, measurement techniques and diagnostic criteria. Although the overall prevalence is reported at 10% in individuals aged 60 and above, disparities exist across settings, with higher rates in nursing homes and hospitals. Additionally, the differences in prevalence between Asian and non-Asian countries highlight the impact of cultural and ethnic factors, and variations in diagnostic criteria, cut-off values and assessment methods contribute to the observed heterogeneity in reported rates. This review outlines diverse diagnostic criteria and several measurement techniques supporting decision making in clinical practice. Moreover, it facilitates the selection of appropriate tools to assess sarcopenia, emphasizing its multifactorial nature. Various scientific groups, including the European Working Group of Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia (AWGS), the American Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) and the Sarcopenia Definition and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC), have published consensus papers outlining diverse definitions of sarcopenia. The choice of diagnostic criteria should be aligned with the specific objectives of the study or clinical practice, considering the characteristics of the study population and available resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Health Status in Older Adults)
16 pages, 342 KiB  
Review
Dietary Fibre for the Prevention of Post-Pancreatitis Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of the Literature and Future Research Directions
by Xinye Li and Maxim S. Petrov
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030435 - 1 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus—the most common sequela of pancreatitis—leads to poorer glycaemic control compared with type 2 diabetes. Because post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus is an exemplar of secondary diabetes (with a clear underlying cause), much post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus is preventable or treatable early. Earlier literature [...] Read more.
Post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus—the most common sequela of pancreatitis—leads to poorer glycaemic control compared with type 2 diabetes. Because post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus is an exemplar of secondary diabetes (with a clear underlying cause), much post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus is preventable or treatable early. Earlier literature established the important role of dietary fibre in reducing plasma glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The present review benchmarks available evidence on the role of habitual dietary fibre intake in pancreatitis and post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus. It also paves the way for future research on the use of dietary fibre in the post-pancreatitis setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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