Special Issue "Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Tilman Kuehn
Website
Guest Editor
Division of Cancer Epidemiology German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Germany
Interests: metabolic diseases; body composition; metabolic factors; cancer risk; nutrition
Dr. Johanna Nattenmüller
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany
Interests: computed tomography; magnetic resonance; cancer; body composition; abdominal obesity; ectopic fat accumulation in organs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Obesity and metabolic dysfunction are major causes of severe chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. However, imaging studies suggest that body composition, i.e., muscle mass in relation to fat mass, visceral obesity, and ectopic fat accumulation (e.g., in the liver, pancreas, or kidney), are much more strongly predictive of metabolic diseases than obesity defined by anthropometric measures like the BMI. Thus, we will focus on new insights into the interplay between nutritional factors, obesity, body composition, and metabolic dysfunction in this Special Issue of Nutrients.

Dr. Tilman Kuehn
Dr. Johanna Nattenmüller
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Obesity
  • Chronic disease
  • Body composition
  • Nutrition

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Body Composition and Muscle Tone in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030864 - 24 Mar 2020
Abstract
The monitoring of children with cerebral palsy (CP) should include a precise assessment of the nutritional status to identify children and adolescents at risk of nutrition disorders. Available studies assessing the nutritional status of children with CP mainly focus on the relationship between [...] Read more.
The monitoring of children with cerebral palsy (CP) should include a precise assessment of the nutritional status to identify children and adolescents at risk of nutrition disorders. Available studies assessing the nutritional status of children with CP mainly focus on the relationship between body composition and the coexistence of motor dysfunctions, frequently overlooking the role of muscle tone. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and muscle tone in children with CP. In a case-control study (n = 118; mean age 11 y; SD = 3.8), the children with CP presented various stages of functional capacities, corresponding to all the levels in gross motor function classification system (GMFSC), and muscle tone described by all the grades in Ashworth scale. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. The children with CP were found with significantly lower mean values of fat-free mass (FFM kg = 29.2 vs. 34.5, p < 0.001), muscle mass (MM kg = 18.6 vs. 22.6, p < 0.001), body cell mass (BCM kg = 15.1 vs. 18.3, p < 0.001), and total body water (TBW L = 23.0 vs. 26.7, p < 0.001). The same differences in body composition were identified with respect to gender (p < 0.01 respectively). Moreover, children with higher muscle tone (higher score in Ashworth scale) were found with significantly lower values of fat mass (FM), FFM, MM, BCM, and TBW (p < 0.05). The findings showed lower parameters of body composition in the children with CP compared to the healthy children, and a decrease in the parameters coinciding with higher muscle tone in the study group. This observation suggests that it is necessary to measure muscle tone while assessing nutritional status of children with CP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Factors in Relation to Liver Fat Content: A Cross-sectional Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030825 - 20 Mar 2020
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can lead to functional liver impairment and severe comorbidities. Beyond energy balance, several dietary factors may increase NAFLD risk, but human studies are lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between food consumption [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can lead to functional liver impairment and severe comorbidities. Beyond energy balance, several dietary factors may increase NAFLD risk, but human studies are lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between food consumption (47 food groups, derived Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet quality scores) and liver fat content (continuous scale and NAFLD, i.e., >5% liver fat content). Liver fat content was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 136 individuals (BMI: 25–40 kg/m2, age: 35–65, 50.7% women) and food intake was recorded by food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Associations between food items and liver fat were evaluated by multi-variable regression models. Intakes of cake and cookies as well legumes were inversely associated with liver fat content, while positive associations with intakes of high-fat dairy and cheese were observed. Only cake and cookie intake also showed an inverse association with NAFLD. This inverse association was unexpected, but not affected by adjustment for reporting bias. Both diet quality scores were inversely associated with liver fat content and NAFLD. Thus, as smaller previous intervention studies, our results suggest that higher diet quality is related to lower liver fat, but larger trials with iso-caloric interventions are needed to corroborate these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)
Open AccessArticle
Association of Neck Circumference with Anthropometric Indicators and Body Composition Measured by DXA in Young Spanish Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020514 - 18 Feb 2020
Abstract
Background: Due to a clinical and public health interest of neck circumference (NC), a better understanding of this simple anthropometric measurement, as a valid marker of body composition is necessary. Methods: A total of 119 young healthy adults participated in this study. NC [...] Read more.
Background: Due to a clinical and public health interest of neck circumference (NC), a better understanding of this simple anthropometric measurement, as a valid marker of body composition is necessary. Methods: A total of 119 young healthy adults participated in this study. NC was measured over the thyroid cartilage and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the neck. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference were measured. A Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was used to determine fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and triponderal mass index (TMI), the waist to hip and waist to height ratios, and the fat mass and lean mass indexes (FMI and LMI, respectively) were calculated. Results: NC was positively associated in women (W) and men (M), with BMI (rW = 0.70 and rM = 0.84, respectively), TMI (rW = 0.63 and rM = 0.80, respectively), WC (rW = 0.75 and rM = 0.86, respectively), VAT (rW = 0.74 and rM = 0.82, respectively), Waist/hip (rW = 0.51 and rM = 0.67, respectively), Waist/height (rW = 0.68 and rM = 0.83, respectively) and FMI (rW = 0.61 and rM = 0.81, respectively). The association between NC and indicators of body composition was however weaker than that observed by BMI, TMI, WC and Waist/height in both women and men. It is of note that in women, NC was associated with FMI, VAT and LMI independently of BMI. In men, adding NC to anthropometric variables did not improve the prediction of body composition, while slight improvements were observed in women. Conclusions: Taken together, the present study provides no indication for NC as a useful proxy of body composition parameters in young adults, yet future studies should explore its usefulness as a measure to use in combination with BMI, especially in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)
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Open AccessArticle
Essential Amino Acid Supplement Lowers Intrahepatic Lipid despite Excess Alcohol Consumption
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010254 - 19 Jan 2020
Abstract
Excess alcohol consumption is a top risk factor for death and disability. Fatty liver will likely develop and the risk of liver disease increases. We have previously demonstrated that an essential amino acid supplement (EAAS) improved protein synthesis and reduced intrahepatic lipid in [...] Read more.
Excess alcohol consumption is a top risk factor for death and disability. Fatty liver will likely develop and the risk of liver disease increases. We have previously demonstrated that an essential amino acid supplement (EAAS) improved protein synthesis and reduced intrahepatic lipid in the elderly. The purpose of this exploratory pilot study was to initiate the evaluation of EAAS on intrahepatic lipid (IHL), body composition, and blood lipids in individuals with mild to moderate alcohol use disorder (AUD). Following consent, determination of eligibility, and medical screening, 25 participants (18 males at 38 ± 15 years/age and 7 females at 34 ± 18 years/age) were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of two dosages: a low dose (LD: 8 g of EAAS twice/day (BID)) or high dose (HD: 13 g of EAAS BID). Five of the twenty-five enrolled participants dropped out of the intervention. Both groups consumed the supplement BID for 4 weeks. Pre- and post-EAAS administration, IHL was determined using magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, body composition was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood parameters were measured by LabCorp. T-tests were used for statistical analysis and considered significant at p < 0.05. While there was no significant change in IHL in the LD group, there was a significant 23% reduction in IHL in the HD group (p = 0.02). Fat mass, lean tissue mass, bone mineral content, and blood lipids were not altered. Post-EAAS phosphatidylethanol was elevated and remained unchanged in LD at 407 ± 141 ng/mL and HD at 429 ± 196 ng/mL, indicating chronic and excess alcohol consumption. The HD of the proprietary EAAS formulation consumed BID seemed to lower IHL in individuals with mild to moderate AUD. We suggest that further studies in a larger cohort be conducted to more completely address this important area of investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)
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Open AccessArticle
The Problem of Hospital Malnutrition in the African Continent
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092028 - 30 Aug 2019
Abstract
This study aims to determine the prevalence of risk of malnutrition on admission and discharge in African hospitals, and to identify the association with selected indicators. In this multi-center prospective cohort study, adult patients from hospitals in South Africa, Kenya, and Ghana were [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of risk of malnutrition on admission and discharge in African hospitals, and to identify the association with selected indicators. In this multi-center prospective cohort study, adult patients from hospitals in South Africa, Kenya, and Ghana were screened on admission and discharge and contacted 3 months post-discharge. Relevant morbidity and mortality outcomes were assessed. At risk of malnutrition was indicated if NRS-2002 score ≥3. Adult patients (n = 2126; 43.11 years, IQR: 31.95–55.60; 52.2% female) were screened on admission and 61% were identified as at risk of malnutrition. The proportion of at-risk patients for the three hospitals in Kenya and Ghana (66.2%) were significantly higher than that of the three South African hospitals (53.7%) (Chi2 = 31.0; p < 0.001). Discharge risk of malnutrition was 71.2% (n = 394). Mean length of stay (LOS) was 6.46 ± 5.63 days. During hospitalization, 20.6% lost ≥5% body weight, 18.8% were referred for nutrition support, and discharge BMI (23.87 ± 7.38 kg/m2) was significantly lower than admission BMI (24.3 ± 7.3 kg/m2) (p < 0.001). Admission nutrition risk was associated with lower admission and discharge BMI (p < 0.001), longer LOS (p < 0.001), increased 3-month re-admission rates (Chi2 = 1.35; p = 0.245) and increased mortality (Chi2 = 21.68; p < 0.001). Nearly two-thirds of patients were at risk of malnutrition on admission. This was associated with longer LOS and greater hospital mortality. The nutritional status of patients deteriorated during hospitalization. Routine screening practices with appropriate nutrition support action should be implemented as a matter of urgency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Associated with Higher Metabolic Expenditure in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081830 - 07 Aug 2019
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common condition in Western countries. However, their metabolic characteristics are poorly known even though they could be important. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure resting metabolic parameters in overweight/obese adults with hepatic steatosis [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common condition in Western countries. However, their metabolic characteristics are poorly known even though they could be important. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure resting metabolic parameters in overweight/obese adults with hepatic steatosis compared to controls, matched for age, sex, and obesity level. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed with liver ultrasound. Energy metabolism was measured with indirect calorimetry: energy expenditure (REE), predicted REE, the ratio between REE and the predicted REE, and the respiratory quotient (RQ) were reported. We measured some anthropometric, body composition, and bio-humoral parameters; 301 participants with NAFLD were matched for age, sex, and obesity level with 301 participants without NAFLD. People with NAFLD showed significantly higher REE (1523 ± 238 vs. 1464 ± 212 kcal, p = 0.005), REE/REE predicted ratio (98.2 ± 9.4 vs. 95.7 ± 8.1, p = 0.002), and RQ (0.88 ± 0.08 vs. 0.85 ± 0.07, p = 0.03). Moreover, the NAFLD group had significantly higher inflammatory and insulin-resistance parameters compared to controls. In conclusion, NAFLD is associated with a significantly higher metabolic expenditure, as measured with indirect calorimetry, compared to a similar cohort of individuals without this condition. Higher inflammatory levels in patients with NAFLD can probably explain our findings, even if other research is needed on this issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Reference Values for Skeletal Muscle Mass – Current Concepts and Methodological Considerations
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030755 - 12 Mar 2020
Abstract
Assessment of a low skeletal muscle mass (SM) is important for diagnosis of ageing and disease-associated sarcopenia and is hindered by heterogeneous methods and terminologies that lead to differences in diagnostic criteria among studies and even among consensus definitions. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Assessment of a low skeletal muscle mass (SM) is important for diagnosis of ageing and disease-associated sarcopenia and is hindered by heterogeneous methods and terminologies that lead to differences in diagnostic criteria among studies and even among consensus definitions. The aim of this review was to analyze and summarize previously published cut-offs for SM applied in clinical and research settings and to facilitate comparison of results between studies. Multiple published reference values for discrepant parameters of SM were identified from 64 studies and the underlying methodological assumptions and limitations are compared including different concepts for normalization of SM for body size and fat mass (FM). Single computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging images and appendicular lean soft tissue by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) are taken as a valid substitute of total SM because they show a high correlation with results from whole body imaging in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. However, the random error of these methods limits the applicability of these substitutes in the assessment of individual cases and together with the systematic error limits the accurate detection of changes in SM. Adverse effects of obesity on muscle quality and function may lead to an underestimation of sarcopenia in obesity and may justify normalization of SM for FM. In conclusion, results for SM can only be compared with reference values using the same method, BIA- or DXA-device and an appropriate reference population. Limitations of proxies for total SM as well as normalization of SM for FM are important content-related issues that need to be considered in longitudinal studies, populations with obesity or older subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)

Other

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Open AccessCommentary
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis—An Easy Tool for Quantifying Body Composition in Infancy?
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040920 - 27 Mar 2020
Abstract
There has been increasing interest in understanding body composition in early life and factors that may influence its evolution. While several technologies exist to measure body composition in infancy, the equipment is typically large, and thus not readily portable, is expensive, and requires [...] Read more.
There has been increasing interest in understanding body composition in early life and factors that may influence its evolution. While several technologies exist to measure body composition in infancy, the equipment is typically large, and thus not readily portable, is expensive, and requires a qualified operator. Bioelectrical impedance analysis shows promise as an inexpensive, portable, and easy to use tool. Despite the technique being widely used to assess body composition for over 35 years, it has been seldom used in infancy. This may be related to the evolving nature of the fat-free mass compartment during this period. Nonetheless, a number of factors have been identified that may influence bioelectrical impedance measurements, which, when controlled for, may result in more accurate measurements. Despite this, questions remain in infants regarding the optimal size and placement of electrodes, the standardization of normal hydration, and the influence of body position on the distribution of water throughout the body. The technology requires further evaluation before being considered as a suitable tool to assess body composition in infancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)
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