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Presence of Hypertension Is Reduced by Mediterranean Diet Adherence in All Individuals with a More Pronounced Effect in the Obese: The Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS)

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Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 118 55 Athens, Greece
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Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education Harokopio University, Athens, Eleftheriou Venizelou 70, 176 76 Athens, Greece
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Aston Medical Research Institute, Aston Medical School, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
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WISDEM, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK
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Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
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1st Department of Cardiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75, 115 27 Athens, Greece
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Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02110, USA
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Laboratory of Hygiene, Social & Preventive Medicine and Medical Statistics, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, 54 124 Thessaloniki, Greece
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Department of Cardiology, “Elpis” General Hospital of Athens, 106 75 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030853
Received: 4 February 2020 / Revised: 12 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
Hypertension is a major risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study’s aim was to examine associations between hypertension and a priori known lifestyle risk factors, including weight status and Mediterranean diet adherence. The study included a representative sample of the adult population (N = 3775 (40.8% males)), from the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS), which took place from September 2013 to May 2015. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected using validated questionnaires, and blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed for the two main metropolitan areas (N = 1040; 41.1%). Hypertension diagnosis was according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) guidelines. Weighted proportions, extended Mantel–Haenszel (M–H) analyses, and multiple logistic regressions (for the survey data) were performed. Mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 118.6 mmHg and 72.2 mmHg respectively, with both values being higher in males compared to females in all age groups (p < 0.001). Study participants with hyperlipidemia or diabetes, and those overweight, were almost twice as likely to be hypertensives, with the odds increasing to 4 for those obese (p for all, < 0.05). Stricter Mediterranean diet adherence significantly decreased the likelihood of hypertension by 36% (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.439, 0.943), and a significant interaction was found between Mediterranean diet adherence and weight status on hypertension. The presence of hypertension is clustered with comorbidities, but is significantly associated with modifiable risk factors, including Mediterranean diet and weight status, underlining the need for personalized medical nutritional treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrition-health survey; hypertension prevalence; Mediterranean diet adherence; overweight and obesity; comorbidities; nutrition nutrition-health survey; hypertension prevalence; Mediterranean diet adherence; overweight and obesity; comorbidities; nutrition
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Magriplis, E.; Panagiotakos, D.; Kyrou, I.; Tsioufis, C.; Mitsopoulou, A.-V.; Karageorgou, D.; Dimakopoulos, I.; Bakogianni, I.; Chourdakis, M.; Micha, R.; Michas, G.; Ntouroupi, T.; Tsaniklidou, S.-M.; Argyri, K.; Zampelas, A. Presence of Hypertension Is Reduced by Mediterranean Diet Adherence in All Individuals with a More Pronounced Effect in the Obese: The Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS). Nutrients 2020, 12, 853.

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