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Open AccessArticle

The Relationship between Body Composition and Muscle Tone in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Case-Control Study

1
Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences of the University of Rzeszow, University of Rzeszow, 35–959 Rzeszow, Poland
2
Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences of the University of Rzeszow, University of Rzeszow, 35–959 Rzeszow, Poland
3
Clinical Regional Rehabilitation and Education Centre for Children and Adolescents in Rzeszow, 35-301 Rzeszow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030864
Received: 14 February 2020 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)
The monitoring of children with cerebral palsy (CP) should include a precise assessment of the nutritional status to identify children and adolescents at risk of nutrition disorders. Available studies assessing the nutritional status of children with CP mainly focus on the relationship between body composition and the coexistence of motor dysfunctions, frequently overlooking the role of muscle tone. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and muscle tone in children with CP. In a case-control study (n = 118; mean age 11 y; SD = 3.8), the children with CP presented various stages of functional capacities, corresponding to all the levels in gross motor function classification system (GMFSC), and muscle tone described by all the grades in Ashworth scale. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. The children with CP were found with significantly lower mean values of fat-free mass (FFM kg = 29.2 vs. 34.5, p < 0.001), muscle mass (MM kg = 18.6 vs. 22.6, p < 0.001), body cell mass (BCM kg = 15.1 vs. 18.3, p < 0.001), and total body water (TBW L = 23.0 vs. 26.7, p < 0.001). The same differences in body composition were identified with respect to gender (p < 0.01 respectively). Moreover, children with higher muscle tone (higher score in Ashworth scale) were found with significantly lower values of fat mass (FM), FFM, MM, BCM, and TBW (p < 0.05). The findings showed lower parameters of body composition in the children with CP compared to the healthy children, and a decrease in the parameters coinciding with higher muscle tone in the study group. This observation suggests that it is necessary to measure muscle tone while assessing nutritional status of children with CP. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric bioimpedance; Ashworth Scale; nutritional assessment; rehabilitation electric bioimpedance; Ashworth Scale; nutritional assessment; rehabilitation
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Więch, P.; Ćwirlej-Sozańska, A.; Wiśniowska-Szurlej, A.; Kilian, J.; Lenart-Domka, E.; Bejer, A.; Domka-Jopek, E.; Sozański, B.; Korczowski, B. The Relationship between Body Composition and Muscle Tone in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 864.

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