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Open AccessReview

Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Garlic (Allium sativum L.): A Review

1
National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13, Inada-cho, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan
2
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt
3
Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
4
Laboratory of Anatomy, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan
5
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
6
Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
7
Department of Animal Husbandry and Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina 22578, Egypt
8
Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
9
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-Honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors share the first authorship.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030872 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 9 March 2020 / Accepted: 12 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary (Poly)Phenols and Health)
Medicinal plants have been used from ancient times for human healthcare as in the form of traditional medicines, spices, and other food components. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an aromatic herbaceous plant that is consumed worldwide as food and traditional remedy for various diseases. It has been reported to possess several biological properties including anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, renoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihypertensive activities in traditional medicines. A. sativum is rich in several sulfur-containing phytoconstituents such as alliin, allicin, ajoenes, vinyldithiins, and flavonoids such as quercetin. Extracts and isolated compounds of A. sativum have been evaluated for various biological activities including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities among others. This review examines the phytochemical composition, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacological activities of A. sativum extracts as well as its main active constituent, allicin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Garlic; Allium sativum; pharmacological activities; phytoconstituents; allicin; pharmacokinetics Garlic; Allium sativum; pharmacological activities; phytoconstituents; allicin; pharmacokinetics
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El-Saber Batiha, G.; Magdy Beshbishy, A.; G. Wasef, L.; Elewa, Y.H.A.; A. Al-Sagan, A.; Abd El-Hack, M.E.; Taha, A.E.; M. Abd-Elhakim, Y.; Prasad Devkota, H. Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Garlic (Allium sativum L.): A Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 872.

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