Special Issue "Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Darren Candow
Website
Guest Editor
University of Regina, Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Regina, Canada
Interests: aging; dietary supplements; exercise; musculoskeletal; health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jose Antonio
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health and Human Performance, Nova Southeastern University, Florida, USA
Interests: diatary supplements; exercise; nutrition; body composition; health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Evidence-based research suggests that nutrition (macronutrients, micronutrients) and dietary supplement ingredients (creatine monohydrate, caffeine, amino acids, nitrates, buffers), with and without exercise, have the potential to attenuate symptoms of disease and illness, improve body composition and cognition, increase muscle strength, endurance, power, and functionality, enhance athletic and exercise performance, and augment aspects of recovery. This Special Issue will highlight research evaluating the effects of selected nutrient and dietary supplement ingredients on human health, performance, and recovery. Original research involving the role of selected ingredients on cellular pathways involving human physiology and exercise will also be welcome.

Prof. Dr. Darren Candow
Prof. Dr. Jose Antonio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dietary supplements
  • Body composition
  • Performance
  • Health

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Association between Egg Consumption and Cholesterol Concentration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071995 - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
The association of egg consumption and serum cholesterol concentrations in healthy people has been discussed for a long time. In this study, we aimed to explore association of egg consumption with on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) concentrations and [...] Read more.
The association of egg consumption and serum cholesterol concentrations in healthy people has been discussed for a long time. In this study, we aimed to explore association of egg consumption with on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) concentrations and the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio through meta-analysis. This systematic review only included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating egg consumption in healthy populations without combination therapy. We extracted mean and standard deviation for LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, LDL-c/HDL-c. The extracted data were pooled in a random-effects model and were presented as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Moreover, subgroup analyses were conducted for understanding effects of more egg consumption (MEC) on different intervention periods, egg-consumption levels, classification of responders. Overall, 17 RCTs met the eligibility criteria and pooled results showed MEC group had a higher LDL-c/HDL-c ratio than the control group (MD = 0.14, p = 0.001, I2 = 25%). The MEC group also had higher LDL-c than the control group (MD = 8.14, p < 0.0001, I2 = 18%). Moreover, for the subset of intervention over two months, the MEC group seemed to have a larger effect size than the subset of intervention within two months. This synthesis, the largest meta-analysis on this topic, shows the impact of egg consumption on lipid profiles among healthy subjects. Notably, longer time with MEC may lead to higher LDL-c/HDL-c ratio and LDL-c. However, RCTs with long tern follow-up are needed to guarantee the association between egg consumption and human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Timing of a Leucine-Enriched Amino Acid Supplement on Body Composition and Physical Function in Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071928 - 29 Jun 2020
Abstract
The combination of exercise and nutritional intervention is widely used for stroke patients, as well as frail or sarcopenic older persons. As previously shown, supplemental branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) or protein to gain muscle mass has usually been given just after exercise. [...] Read more.
The combination of exercise and nutritional intervention is widely used for stroke patients, as well as frail or sarcopenic older persons. As previously shown, supplemental branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) or protein to gain muscle mass has usually been given just after exercise. This study investigated the effect of the timing of supplemental BCAAs with exercise intervention on physical function in stroke patients. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups based on the timing of supplementation: breakfast (n = 23) and post-exercise (n = 23). The supplement in the breakfast group was provided at 08:00 with breakfast, and in the post-exercise group it was provided just after the exercise session in the afternoon at 14:00–18:00. In both groups, the exercise intervention was performed with two sessions a day for two months. The main effects were observed in body fat mass (p = 0.02, confidence interval (CI): 13.2–17.7), leg press strength (p = 0.04, CI: 94.5–124.5), and Berg balance scale (p = 0.03, CI: 41.6–52.6), but no interaction with intake timing was observed. Although the effect of the timing of supplementation on skeletal muscle mass was similar in both groups, BCAA intake with breakfast was effective for improving physical performance and decreasing body fat mass. The results suggest that a combination of BCAA intake with breakfast and an exercise program was effective for promoting rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Creatine Supplementation during Resistance Training Sessions in Physically Active Young Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061880 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
The purpose was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation during resistance training sessions on skeletal muscle mass and exercise performance in physically active young adults. Twenty-two participants were randomized to supplement with creatine (CR: n = 13, 26 ± 4 yrs; 0.0055 [...] Read more.
The purpose was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation during resistance training sessions on skeletal muscle mass and exercise performance in physically active young adults. Twenty-two participants were randomized to supplement with creatine (CR: n = 13, 26 ± 4 yrs; 0.0055 g·kg−1 post training set) or placebo (PLA: n = 9, 26 ± 5 yrs; 0.0055 g·kg−1 post training set) during six weeks of resistance training (18 sets per training session; five days per week). Prior to and following training and supplementation, measurements were made for muscle thickness (elbow and knee flexors/extensors, ankle plantarflexors), power (vertical jump and medicine ball throw), strength (leg press and chest press one-repetition maximum (1-RM)) and muscular endurance (one set of repetitions to volitional fatigue using 50% baseline 1-RM for leg press and chest press). The creatine group experienced a significant increase (p < 0.05) in leg press, chest press and total body strength and leg press endurance with no significant changes in the PLA group. Both groups improved total body endurance over time (p < 0.05), with greater gains observed in the creatine group. In conclusion, creatine ingestion during resistance training sessions is a viable strategy for improving muscle strength and some indices of muscle endurance in physically active young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Nutrient Intake of Career Firefighters Compared to Military Dietary Reference Intakes
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1876; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061876 - 23 Jun 2020
Abstract
The primary goals of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are to plan and assess nutrient intakes to promote health, reduce chronic disease, and prevent toxicity. Firefighters have unique nutrient needs compared to the public due to their job demands. The military provides the [...] Read more.
The primary goals of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are to plan and assess nutrient intakes to promote health, reduce chronic disease, and prevent toxicity. Firefighters have unique nutrient needs compared to the public due to their job demands. The military provides the only published guidance for tactical athletes’ nutrient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether firefighters were meeting the Military Dietary Reference Intakes (MDRI). A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of career firefighters (n = 150, 37.4 ± 8.4 year-old males) employed in Southern California. Data were gathered during baseline assessments from a Federal Emergency Management Agency-funded Firefighter Wellness Initiative. Participants were asked to log their food and beverage consumption over a 72-h period. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, 95% confidence intervals) were calculated for all participant characteristics and average three-day nutrient intakes. A 95% confidence interval compared their nutrient intake to MDRI to identify differences in nutrient intakes, significance accepted at p = 0.05. Compared to MDRI reference values, firefighters consumed an inadequate amount of total calories, linolenic and alpha-linolenic fatty acid, fiber, vitamins D, E, and K, potassium, magnesium, zinc, and carbohydrates. Vitamin D, magnesium, and potassium had the greatest shortcomings (95.3%, 94.0%, and 98.7%, respectively, under MRDA). Thus, firefighters are not meeting the established MDRI for several key nutrients required to promote health, improve performance, and reduce chronic disease. Dietitians and health care providers may use the results of this study to help design health promotion programs for this population. Future research should develop a customized reference intake for firefighters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
A Low-Glycemic Index, High-Fiber, Pulse-Based Diet Improves Lipid Profile, but Does Not Affect Performance in Soccer Players
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051324 - 06 May 2020
Abstract
Pulses (i.e., lentils, chickpeas, beans, peas) are low-glycemic index, high-fiber foods that are beneficial for improving blood lipids. Young soccer players typically have low dietary fiber intake, perhaps because of concerns regarding gastro-intestinal problems during exercise performance. Twenty-seven (17 females) soccer players were [...] Read more.
Pulses (i.e., lentils, chickpeas, beans, peas) are low-glycemic index, high-fiber foods that are beneficial for improving blood lipids. Young soccer players typically have low dietary fiber intake, perhaps because of concerns regarding gastro-intestinal problems during exercise performance. Twenty-seven (17 females) soccer players were randomized to receive a pulse-based diet or their regular diet for four weeks in a cross-over study and evaluated for changes in blood lipids and athletic performance, with 19 (22 ± 6y; 12 females) completing the study (eight participants withdrew because of lack of time). Women increased high density lipoproteins (+0.5 ± 0.7 vs. −0.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L; p < 0.01) and reduced total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio (−2.4 ± 2.9 vs. +2.6 ± 2.2; p < 0.01) on the pulse-based vs. regular diet, respectively, while there were no differences between diet phases in men. Athletic performance assessed by distance covered during games by a global positioning system was not significantly different during the pulse-based vs. regular diet (9180 ± 1618 vs. 8987 ± 1808 m per game; p = 0.35). It is concluded that a pulse-based diet can improve blood lipid profile without affecting athletic performance in soccer players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
Open AccessArticle
Yeast Beta-Glucan Supplementation Downregulates Markers of Systemic Inflammation after Heated Treadmill Exercise
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041144 - 19 Apr 2020
Abstract
Aerobic exercise and thermal stress instigate robust challenges to the immune system. Various attempts to modify or supplement the diet have been proposed to bolster the immune system responses. The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of yeast beta-glucan ( [...] Read more.
Aerobic exercise and thermal stress instigate robust challenges to the immune system. Various attempts to modify or supplement the diet have been proposed to bolster the immune system responses. The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of yeast beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Healthy, active men (29.6 ± 6.7 years, 178.1 ± 7.2 cm, 83.2 ± 11.2 kg, 49.6 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min, n = 16) and women (30.1 ± 8.9 years, 165.6 ± 4.1 cm, 66.7 ± 10.0 kg, 38.7 ± 5.8 mL/kg/min, n = 15) were randomly assigned in a double-blind and cross-over fashion to supplement for 13 days with either 250 mg/day of yeast beta-glucan (YBG) or a maltodextrin placebo (PLA). Participants arrived fasted and completed a bout of treadmill exercise at 55% peak aerobic capacity (VO2Peak) in a hot (37.2 ± 1.8 °C) and humid (45.2 ± 8.8%) environment. Prior to and 0, 2, and 72 h after completing exercise, changes in white blood cell counts, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, markers of muscle damage, markers of muscle function, soreness, and profile of mood states (POMS) were assessed. In response to exercise and heat, both groups experienced significant increases in white blood cell counts, plasma creatine kinase and myoglobin, and soreness along with reductions in peak torque and total work with no between-group differences. Concentrations of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines in YBG were lower than PLA for macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β) (p = 0.044) and tended to be lower for interleukin 8 (IL-8) (p = 0.079), monocyte chemoattractment protein 1 (MCP-1) (p = 0.095), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (p = 0.085). Paired samples t-tests using delta values between baseline and 72 h post-exercise revealed significant differences between groups for IL-8 (p = 0.044, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): (0.013, 0.938, d = −0.34), MCP-1 (p = 0.038, 95% CI: 0.087, 2.942, d = −0.33), and MIP-1β (p = 0.010, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.85, d = −0.33). POMS outcomes changed across time with anger scores in PLA exhibiting a sharper decline than YBG (p = 0.04). Vigor scores (p = 0.04) in YBG remained stable while scores in PLA were significantly reduced 72 h after exercise. In conclusion, a 13-day prophylactic period of supplementation with 250 mg of yeast-derived beta-glucans invoked favorable changes in cytokine markers of inflammation after completing a prolonged bout of heated treadmill exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Improve Recovery from Post-Exercise Muscle Damage Independent of Increases in Integrated Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis in Young Men
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041061 - 11 Apr 2020
Abstract
Background: Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) acutely enhance post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS), which has been suggested to be important for muscle repair and recovery. However, the ability of LEAAs to concurrently enhance MyoPS and muscle damage recovery in free-living humans has not [...] Read more.
Background: Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) acutely enhance post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS), which has been suggested to be important for muscle repair and recovery. However, the ability of LEAAs to concurrently enhance MyoPS and muscle damage recovery in free-living humans has not been studied. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design, twenty recreationally active males consuming a controlled diet (1.2 g/kg/d of protein) were supplemented thrice daily with 4 g of LEAAs (containing 1.6 g leucine) or isocaloric placebo for four days following an acute bout of lower-body resistance exercise (RE). MyoPS at rest and integrated over 96 h of recovery was measured by D2O. Isometric and isokinetic torque, muscle soreness, Z-band streaming, muscle heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and 72, plasma creatine kinase (CK), and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured over 96 h post-RE to assess various direct and indirect markers of muscle damage. Results: Integrated MyoPS increased ~72% over 96 h after RE (p < 0.05), with no differences between groups (p = 0.98). Isometric, isokinetic, and total peak torque decreased ~21% by 48 h after RE (p < 0.05), whereas total peak torque was ~10% greater overall during recovery in LEAAs compared to placebo (p < 0.05). There were moderate to large effects for peak torque in favour of LEAAs. Muscle soreness increased during recovery with no statistical differences between groups but small to moderate effects in favour of LEAAs that correlated with changes in peak torque. Plasma CK, plasma IL-6, and muscle HSP25 increased after RE (p < 0.05) but were not significantly different between groups (p ≥ 0.13). Consistent with a trend toward attenuated Z-band streaming in LEAAs (p = 0.07), muscle HSP72 expression was lower (p < 0.05) during recovery in LEAAs compared with placebo. There were no correlations between MyoPS and any measures of muscle damage (p ≥ 0.37). Conclusion: Collectively, our data suggest that LEAAs moderately attenuated muscle damage without concomitant increases in integrated MyoPS in the days following an acute bout of resistance exercise in free-living recreationally active men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Acute Ingestion of a Ketone Monoester Drink on LPS-Stimulated NLRP3 Activation in Humans with Obesity
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030854 - 23 Mar 2020
Abstract
Activation of the NOD-like receptor pyrin-domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in metabolic diseases such as obesity. Mechanistic studies have shown that β-hydroxybutyrate (OHB) attenuates activation of NLRP3, but human data are limited. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled [...] Read more.
Activation of the NOD-like receptor pyrin-domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in metabolic diseases such as obesity. Mechanistic studies have shown that β-hydroxybutyrate (OHB) attenuates activation of NLRP3, but human data are limited. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial (n = 11) we tested the hypothesis that acutely raising β-OHB by ingestion of exogenous ketones would attenuate NLRP3 activation in humans with obesity. Blood was sampled before and 30 min post-ingestion of a ketone monoester drink ((R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, 482 mg/kg body mass) or placebo. A 75 g oral glucose load was then ingested, and a third blood sample was obtained 60 min following glucose ingestion. NLRP3 activation was quantified by assessing monocyte caspase-1 activation and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole-blood cultures. LPS-stimulated caspase-1 activation increased following glucose ingestion (main effect of time; p = 0.032), with no differences between conditions. IL-1β secretion did not differ between conditions but was lower 60 min post-glucose ingestion compared to the fasting baseline (main effect of time, p = 0.014). Plasma IL-1β was detectable in ~80% of samples and showed a decrease from fasting baseline to 60 min in the ketone condition only (condition × time interaction, p = 0.01). In individuals with obesity, an excursion into hyperglycemia following ingestion of a glucose load augments LPS-induced activation of caspase-1 in monocytes with no apparent impact of raising circulating β-OHB concentration via ingestion of exogenous ketones. Exogenous ketone supplementation may impact plasma IL-1β, but these findings require confirmation in studies with larger sample sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Exercise Training-Induced PPARβ Increases PGC-1α Protein Stability and Improves Insulin-Induced Glucose Uptake in Rodent Muscles
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030652 - 28 Feb 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of training intervention and resting on protein expression and stability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), and mitochondrial proteins, and determine whether glucose [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of training intervention and resting on protein expression and stability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), and mitochondrial proteins, and determine whether glucose homeostasis can be regulated through stable expression of these proteins after training. Rats swam daily for 3, 6, 9, 14, or 28 days, and then allowed to rest for 5 days post-training. Protein and mRNA levels were measured in the skeletal muscles of these rats. PPARβ was overexpressed and knocked down in myotubes in the skeletal muscle to investigate the effects of swimming training on various signaling cascades of PGC-1α transcription, insulin signaling, and glucose uptake. Exercise training (Ext) upregulated PPARβ, PGC-1α, GLUT4, and mitochondrial enzymes, including NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NUO), cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1), citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome c (Cyto C) in a time-dependent manner and promoted the protein stability of PPARβ, PGC-1α, GLUT4, NUO, CS, and Cyto C, such that they were significantly upregulated 5 days after training cessation. PPARβ overexpression increased the PGC-1α protein levels post-translation and improved insulin-induced signaling responsiveness and glucose uptake. The present results indicate that Ext promotes the protein stability of key mitochondria enzymes GLUT4, PGC-1α, and PPARβ even after Ext cessation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Pre-Sleep Casein Protein Ingestion Does Not Impact Next-Day Appetite, Energy Intake and Metabolism in Older Individuals
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010090 - 28 Dec 2019
Abstract
Maintaining adequate daily protein intake is important to maintain muscle mass throughout the lifespan. In this regard, the overnight period has been identified as a window of opportunity to increase protein intake in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether pre-sleep protein intake [...] Read more.
Maintaining adequate daily protein intake is important to maintain muscle mass throughout the lifespan. In this regard, the overnight period has been identified as a window of opportunity to increase protein intake in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether pre-sleep protein intake affects next-morning appetite and, consequently, protein intake. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a pre-sleep protein drink on next-morning appetite, energy intake and metabolism. Twelve older individuals (eight males, four females; age: 71.3 ± 4.2 years) took part in a single-blind randomised cross-over study. After a standardised dinner, participants consumed either a 40-g protein drink, isocaloric maltodextrin drink, or placebo water control before bedtime. Next-morning appetite, energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory exchange rate (RER), and plasma acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose, and insulin concentrations were assessed. No between-group differences were observed for appetite and energy intake at breakfast. Furthermore, RMR, RER, and assessed blood markers were not significantly different between any of the treatment groups. Pre-sleep protein intake does not affect next-morning appetite and energy intake and is therefore a viable strategy to increase daily protein intake in an older population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nutrient Timing: A Garage Door of Opportunity?
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071948 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
Nutrient timing involves manipulation of nutrient consumption at specific times in and around exercise bouts in an effort to improve performance, recovery, and adaptation. Its historical perspective centered on ingestion during exercise and grew to include pre- and post-training periods. As research continued, [...] Read more.
Nutrient timing involves manipulation of nutrient consumption at specific times in and around exercise bouts in an effort to improve performance, recovery, and adaptation. Its historical perspective centered on ingestion during exercise and grew to include pre- and post-training periods. As research continued, translational focus remained primarily on the impact and outcomes related to nutrient consumption during one specific time period to the exclusion of all others. Additionally, there seemed to be increasing emphasis on outcomes related to hypertrophy and strength at the expense of other potentially more impactful performance measures. As consumption of nutrients does not occur at only one time point in the day, the effect and impact of energy and macronutrient availability becomes an important consideration in determining timing of additional nutrients in and around training and competition. This further complicates the confining of the definition of “nutrient timing” to one very specific moment in time at the exclusion of all other time points. As such, this review suggests a new perspective built on evidence of the interconnectedness of nutrient impact and provides a pragmatic approach to help frame nutrient timing more inclusively. Using this approach, it is argued that the concept of nutrient timing is constrained by reliance on interpretation of an “anabolic window” and may be better viewed as a “garage door of opportunity” to positively impact performance, recovery, and athlete availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Dietary Protein on Body Composition in Exercising Individuals
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061890 - 25 Jun 2020
Abstract
Protein is an important component of a healthy diet and appears to be integral to enhancing training adaptations in exercising individuals. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the current literature examining increases in dietary protein intake [...] Read more.
Protein is an important component of a healthy diet and appears to be integral to enhancing training adaptations in exercising individuals. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the current literature examining increases in dietary protein intake above the recommended dietary allowance (RDA: 0.8 g/kg/d) in conjunction with chronic exercise on body composition (i.e., muscle, fat and bone). We also highlight acute and chronic pre-sleep protein studies as well as the influence of exercise timing on body composition. Overall, a high-protein diet appears to increase muscle accretion and fat loss and may have beneficial effects on bone when combined with exercise. Pre-sleep protein is a viable strategy to help achieve total daily protein goals. Importantly, there appears to be no deleterious effects from a high-protein diet on muscle, fat or bone in exercising individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
Open AccessReview
Low Energy Availability in Athletes 2020: An Updated Narrative Review of Prevalence, Risk, Within-Day Energy Balance, Knowledge, and Impact on Sports Performance
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030835 - 20 Mar 2020
Abstract
Low energy availability (EA) underpins the female and male athlete triad and relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). The condition arises when insufficient calories are consumed to support exercise energy expenditure, resulting in compromised physiological processes, such as menstrual irregularities in active females. [...] Read more.
Low energy availability (EA) underpins the female and male athlete triad and relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). The condition arises when insufficient calories are consumed to support exercise energy expenditure, resulting in compromised physiological processes, such as menstrual irregularities in active females. The health concerns associated with longstanding low EA include menstrual/libido, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular dysfunction and compromised bone health, all of which can contribute to impaired sporting performance. This narrative review provides an update of our previous review on the prevalence and risk of low EA, within-day energy deficiency, and the potential impact of low EA on performance. The methods to assess EA remain a challenge and contribute to the methodological difficulties in identifying “true” low EA. Screening female athletic groups using a validated screening tool such as the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) has shown promise in identifying endurance athletes at risk of low EA. Knowledge of RED-S and its potential implications for performance is low among coaches and athletes alike. Development of sport and gender-specific screening tools to identify adolescent and senior athletes in different sports at risk of RED-S is warranted. Education initiatives are required to raise awareness among coaches and athletes of the importance of appropriate dietary strategies to ensure that sufficient calories are consumed to support training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
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