Cancer is the main cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although a large variety of therapeutic approaches have been developed and translated into clinical protocols, the toxic side effects of cancer treatments negatively impact patients, allowing cancer to grow. Brassica metabolites are emerging as new weapons for anti-cancer therapeutics. The beneficial role of the consumption of brassica vegetables, the most-used vegetables in the Mediterranean diet, particularly broccoli, in the prevention of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity, has been well-documented. In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor effects of the bioactive compounds from Brassica vegetables with regard to the compounds and types of cancer against which they show activity, providing current knowledge on the anti-cancer effects of Brassica metabolites against major types of tumors. In addition, we discuss the impacts of industrial and domestic processing on the compounds’ functional properties before their consumption as well as the main strategies used to increase the content of health-promoting metabolites in Brassica plants through biofortification. Finally, the impacts of microbiota on the compounds’ bioactivity are considered. This information will be helpful for the further development of efficacious anti-cancer drugs.
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