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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2019) – 290 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Gluten-related disorders include celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac wheat sensitivity, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics and Glucose Uptake Promoting Effect of Chrysin-Loaded Phytosomes Prepared with Different Phospholipid Matrices
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102549 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
Chrysin-loaded phytosomes (CP) were prepared using either soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) or egg phospholipid (EPL) by the solvent evaporation method. Different phospholipid matrices resulted in significant differences in size, mechanical property and solubility of the CP. The most stable CP was obtained with EPL [...] Read more.
Chrysin-loaded phytosomes (CP) were prepared using either soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) or egg phospholipid (EPL) by the solvent evaporation method. Different phospholipid matrices resulted in significant differences in size, mechanical property and solubility of the CP. The most stable CP was obtained with EPL at a molar ratio of 1:3 (chrysin: EPL, CEP-1:3). CEP-1:3 displayed an average size of 117 nm with uniform size distribution (polydispersity index: 0.30) and zeta potential of −31 mV. A significantly greater elastic modulus of CEP-1:3 (2.7-fold) indicated tighter packing and strong molecular bonding than those of CP prepared with SPC (CSP-1:3). X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis of CEP-1:3 confirmed molecular complexation. CEP-1:3 displayed a greater glucose uptake promoting effect than free chrysin and CSP-1:3 in muscle cells by stimulating gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and glucose transporter type 4. The results of the present study suggest that the phospholipid matrix used for the preparation of phytosomes critically influences their performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Kinetics of Choline and Choline Metabolites After A Single Dose of SuperbaBoostTM Krill Oil or Choline Bitartrate in Healthy Volunteers
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102548 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
As an essential nutrient, the organic water-soluble compound choline is important for human health. Choline is required for numerous biological processes, including the synthesis of neurotransmitters, and it is an important prerequisite for structural integrity and the functioning of cells. A choline-rich diet [...] Read more.
As an essential nutrient, the organic water-soluble compound choline is important for human health. Choline is required for numerous biological processes, including the synthesis of neurotransmitters, and it is an important prerequisite for structural integrity and the functioning of cells. A choline-rich diet provides crucial choline sources, yet additional choline dietary supplements might be needed to fully meet the body’s requirements. Dependent on the structure of choline in different sources, absorption and metabolism may differ and strongly impact the bioavailability of circulating choline. This study in healthy volunteers aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of free choline and of selected choline metabolites between the single dose intake of phosphatidylcholine, present in SuperbaBoostTM krill oil, and choline bitartrate salt. Results demonstrate that albeit free choline levels in plasma were comparable between both choline sources, peak choline concentration was reached significantly later upon intake of SuperbaBoostTM. Moreover, the occurrence of choline metabolites differed between the study products. Levels of the biologically important metabolites betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) were higher, while levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) were substantially lower upon intake of SuperbaBoostTM compared to choline bitartrate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect Modification of Vitamin D Supplementation by Histopathological Characteristics on Survival of Patients with Digestive Tract Cancer: Post Hoc Analysis of the AMATERASU Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2547; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102547 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Some coauthors of this study previously performed the AMATERASU randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of postoperative oral vitamin D supplementation (2,000 IU/day) in 417 patients with stage I to III digestive tract cancer from the esophagus to the rectum who underwent curative surgery (UMIN000001977). [...] Read more.
Some coauthors of this study previously performed the AMATERASU randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of postoperative oral vitamin D supplementation (2,000 IU/day) in 417 patients with stage I to III digestive tract cancer from the esophagus to the rectum who underwent curative surgery (UMIN000001977). We conducted a post-hoc analysis of the AMATERASU trial to explore the effects of modification of vitamin D supplementation by histopathological characteristics on survival. Among patients with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, the 5-year relapse-free survival rate of patients supplemented with vitamin D was 91% compared with 63% in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08 to 0.78; P = 0.017; P for interaction = 0.023). Similarly, the 5-year overall survival rate was 92% in the vitamin D group compared with 72% in the placebo group (HR, 0.25; 95%CI, 0.07 to 0.94; P = 0.040; P for interaction = 0.012). In contrast, there were no significant effects in other histopathological characteristics between vitamin D and placebo groups. These findings generated the hypothesis that oral vitamin D supplementation may improve both relapse-free survival and overall survival in a subgroup of patients with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer: From Prevention to Survivorship)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of the Body Mass Indexes of Young Healthy Individuals on the Glyacemic Indexes of Traditional and Modified Vegetarian Meals
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2546; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102546 - 22 Oct 2019
Viewed by 834
Abstract
Blood glucose concentration increases after the consumption of any carbohydrate-containing meal. Several factors affect the course of glucose metabolism, including nutritional status. This study evaluated the effect of the nutritional statuses of adults on their glycaemic responses after the consumption of some vegetarian [...] Read more.
Blood glucose concentration increases after the consumption of any carbohydrate-containing meal. Several factors affect the course of glucose metabolism, including nutritional status. This study evaluated the effect of the nutritional statuses of adults on their glycaemic responses after the consumption of some vegetarian meals (dumplings with potato and curd cheese stuffing; curd cheese dumplings; pancakes with curd cheese), prepared according to the traditional recipe and a partly modified recipe. The 105 participants, aged 20–27 years, with different body mass indexes (BMI), took an oral glucose tolerance test after the intake of a standard glucose solution, and also after each meal (previously analysed for energy value and approximate composition). The consumption of each meal by participants with different nutritional statuses elicited different glycaemic responses, which were reflected in the diverse glycaemic indexes (GIs). The partial modification of the meal recipes contributed to lowering their GIs. Vast differences were observed in the glycaemic responses among the surveyed participants after the consumption of the same meals. The GIs of meals should be determined in different groups of people. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Improving Health-Promoting Effects of Food-Derived Bioactive Peptides through Rational Design and Oral Delivery Strategies
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2545; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102545 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
Over the last few decades, scientific interest in food-derived bioactive peptides has grown as an alternative to pharmacological treatments in the control of lifestyle-associated diseases, which represent a serious health problem worldwide. Interest has been directed towards the control of hypertension, the management [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, scientific interest in food-derived bioactive peptides has grown as an alternative to pharmacological treatments in the control of lifestyle-associated diseases, which represent a serious health problem worldwide. Interest has been directed towards the control of hypertension, the management of type 2 diabetes and oxidative stress. Many food-derived antihypertensive peptides act primarily by inhibiting angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), and to a lesser extent, renin enzyme activities. Antidiabetic peptides mainly inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity, whereas antioxidant peptides act through inactivation of reactive oxygen species, free radicals scavenging, chelation of pro-oxidative transition metals and promoting the activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. However, food-derived bioactive peptides have intrinsic weaknesses, including poor chemical and physical stability and a short circulating plasma half-life that must be addressed for their application as nutraceuticals or in functional foods. This review summarizes the application of common pharmaceutical approaches such as rational design and oral delivery strategies to improve the health-promoting effects of food-derived bioactive peptides. We review the structural requirements of antihypertensive, antidiabetic and antioxidant peptides established by integrated computational methods and provide relevant examples of effective oral delivery systems to enhance solubility, stability and permeability of bioactive peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
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Open AccessCommentary
Power Dynamics in 21st-Century Food Systems
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2544; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102544 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Food systems are central to our very planetary existence, yet they are not fit for purpose in the 21st century because of the enormous damage they do to the environment and human health. Transforming food systems to optimize human health, ecological health, social [...] Read more.
Food systems are central to our very planetary existence, yet they are not fit for purpose in the 21st century because of the enormous damage they do to the environment and human health. Transforming food systems to optimize human health, ecological health, social equity and economic prosperity will require major changes in power dynamics between players to shift the status quo. The purpose of this paper is to assess these power dynamics and the opportunities for the Great Intergenerational Food Transformation (GIFT)—how this current generation in power can transform food systems within one generation for future generations. The current ‘policy inertia’ preventing food policy action is due to the strong opposition from the commercial food sector, the reluctance of governments to regulate and tax, and the lack of demand for policy action from civil society. The translation of the market power of large food industries into self-serving political power is the dominant barrier to action. The most promising systemic lever for holding the major power players (governments and food industries) to account for the GIFT is increasing the power of civil society (including non-governmental organizations (NGOs), researchers, professional societies and the public) to demand changes in the political economy of food. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Metabolic and Hepatic Impact of Two Personalized Dietary Strategies in Subjects with Obesity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2543; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102543 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. NAFLD management is mainly focused on weight loss, but the optimal characteristics of the diet demand further investigation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two personalized energy-restricted diets on the [...] Read more.
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. NAFLD management is mainly focused on weight loss, but the optimal characteristics of the diet demand further investigation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two personalized energy-restricted diets on the liver status in overweight or obese subjects with NAFLD after a 6 months follow-up. Ninety-eight individuals from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were randomized into two groups and followed different energy-restricted diets. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months. Diet, anthropometry, body composition, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Liver assessment included ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, elastography, and determination of transaminases. Both dietary groups significantly improved their metabolic and hepatic markers after the intervention, with no significant differences between them. Multivariate regression models evidenced a relationship between weight loss, adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), and a decrease in liver fat content, predicting up to 40.9% of its variability after 6 months. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of the diet was inversely associated with liver fat content. Participants in the group with a higher adherence to the MedDiet showed a greater reduction in body weight, total fat mass, and hepatic fat. These results support the benefit of energy-restricted diets, high adherence to the MedDiet, and high antioxidant capacity of the diet for the management of NAFLD in individuals with overweight or obesity. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The Importance of Nutrition in Hypertension
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2542; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102542 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
Arterial hypertension (AH) is considered to be one of the most relevant cardiovascular risk factors, and its wide prevalence in all age ranges makes it necessary to analyse all the possible causes and treatments [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Large Neutral Amino Acid Therapy Increases Tyrosine Levels in Adult Patients with Phenylketonuria: A Long-Term Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102541 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
The standard treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU) is a lifelong low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet, supplemented with Phe-free protein substitutes; however, adult patients often show poor adherence to therapy. Alternative treatment options include the use of large neutral amino acids (LNAA). The aim of this study [...] Read more.
The standard treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU) is a lifelong low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet, supplemented with Phe-free protein substitutes; however, adult patients often show poor adherence to therapy. Alternative treatment options include the use of large neutral amino acids (LNAA). The aim of this study was to determine the Phe, tyrosine (Tyr), and Phe/Tyr ratio in a cohort of sub-optimally controlled adult patients with classical PKU treated with a new LNAA formulation. Twelve patients received a Phe-restricted diet plus a slow-release LNAA product taken three times per day, at a dose of 1 g/kg body weight (mean 0.8 ± 0.24 g/kg/day), over a 12-month period. The product is in a microgranulated formulation, which incorporates all amino acids and uses sodium alginate as a hydrophilic carrier to prolong its release. This LNAA formulation provides up to 80% of the total protein requirement, with the rest of the protein supplied by natural food. Patients had fortnightly measurements of Phe and Tyr levels over a 12-month period after the introduction of LNAA. All patients completed the 12-month treatment period. Overall, adherence to the new LNAA tablets was very good compared with a previous amino acid mixture, for which taste was a major complaint by patients. Phe levels remained unchanged (p = 0.0522), and Tyr levels increased (p = 0.0195). Consequently, the Phe/Tyr ratio decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the majority of patients treated. In conclusion, LNAA treatment increases Tyr levels in sub-optimally controlled adult PKU patients, while offering the potential to improve their adherence to treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reproducibility and Relative Validity of the Healthy Eating Index-2015 and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 Estimated by Comprehensive and Brief Diet History Questionnaires in Japanese Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2540; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102540 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
We examined the reproducibility and relative validity of two measures of overall diet quality, the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3), as estimated by well-established self-administered dietary assessment questionnaires for the Japanese, namely the comprehensive diet history questionnaire (DHQ) [...] Read more.
We examined the reproducibility and relative validity of two measures of overall diet quality, the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3), as estimated by well-established self-administered dietary assessment questionnaires for the Japanese, namely the comprehensive diet history questionnaire (DHQ) and the brief diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Diet was assessed separately by two DHQs and two BDHQs at a 1-year interval and by 16-day weighed dietary records (DRs) in 121 women and 121 men aged 31–81 years. HEI-2015 and NRF9.3 were calculated from each method. The reproducibility correlation for the two questionnaires (intraclass correlation) ranged from 0.53 (HEI-2015 from BDHQ in men) to 0.77 (NRF9.3 from BDHQ in women). The validity correlation between the first questionnaires and DR (Pearson correlation) ranged from 0.37 (NRF9.3 from BDHQ in men) to 0.61 (NRF9.3 from DHQ and BDHQ in women). Bland–Altman plots showed poor agreement between the DHQ or BDHQ and DR, as well as the presence of weak proportional bias. Overall, these data indicate reasonable reproducibility and ranking ability of the DHQ and BDHQ for assessing the HEI-2015 and NRF9.3 and support their usefulness in future epidemiological research on the overall effects of Japanese diets on various health outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on its Metabolism and the Vitamin D Metabolite Ratio
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2539; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102539 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1519
Abstract
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is commonly measured to assess vitamin D status. Other vitamin D metabolites such as 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) provide additional insights into vitamin D status or metabolism. Earlier studies suggested that the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR), calculated as [...] Read more.
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is commonly measured to assess vitamin D status. Other vitamin D metabolites such as 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) provide additional insights into vitamin D status or metabolism. Earlier studies suggested that the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR), calculated as 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D, could predict the 25(OH)D increase after vitamin D supplementation. However, the evidence for this additional value is inconclusive. Therefore, our aim was to assess whether the increase in 25(OH)D after supplementation was predicted by the VMR better than baseline 25(OH)D. Plasma samples of 106 individuals (25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L) with hypertension who completed the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial (NC.T.02136771) were analyzed. Participants received vitamin D (2800 IU daily) or placebo for 8 weeks. The treatment effect (ANCOVA) for 25(OH)D3, 24,25(OH)2D3 and the VMR was 32 nmol/L, 3.3 nmol/L and 0.015 (all p < 0.001), respectively. Baseline 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 predicted the change in 25(OH)D3 with comparable strength and magnitude. Correlation and regression analysis showed that the VMR did not predict the change in 25(OH)D3. Therefore, our data do not support routine measurement of 24,25(OH)2D3 in order to individually optimize the dosage of vitamin D supplementation. Our data also suggest that activity of 24-hydroxylase increases after vitamin D supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Gene Influence in the Effectiveness of Plant Sterols Treatment in Children: Pilot Interventional Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2538; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102538 - 21 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is linked to high serum low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels. Cardiovascular risk may be indirectly influenced by genetic load. Serum LDL-cholesterol levels may be reduced by the consumption of food enriched with plant sterols (PS). The aim was to test a [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease is linked to high serum low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels. Cardiovascular risk may be indirectly influenced by genetic load. Serum LDL-cholesterol levels may be reduced by the consumption of food enriched with plant sterols (PS). The aim was to test a plant sterol treatment on cholesterol levels according to different genetic polymorphisms. A pilot interventional trial was performed in 26 children (n = 16 girls, n = 10 boys). Seven hundred milliliters/day of commercial skimmed milk with added plant sterols delivering 2.2 g plant sterols were ingested for three weeks. Blood draws were performed at the baseline and end of the study. Significant modifications of non-high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (p = 0.010; p = 0.013) and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.004; p = 0.013) levels appeared in the genes LIPC C-514T and PPAR-α L162V carriers. No statistically significant differences were observed for other genes. LIPC C-514T and PPAR-alpha L162V carriers could benefit from a plant sterol supplement to ameliorate hypercholesterolemia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Meat Proteins as Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitors and Glucose Uptake Stimulating Peptides for the Management of a Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Silico Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2537; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102537 - 21 Oct 2019
Viewed by 935
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease entity currently constituting one of the most significant health problems. The development of effective therapeutic strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetes mellitus based on the selection of methods to restore and maintain blood glucose homeostasis [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease entity currently constituting one of the most significant health problems. The development of effective therapeutic strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetes mellitus based on the selection of methods to restore and maintain blood glucose homeostasis is still in progress. Among the different courses of action, inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) can improve blood glucose control in diabetic patients. Pharmacological therapy offering synthetic drugs is commonly used. In addition to medication, dietary intervention may be effective in combating metabolic disturbances caused by diabetes mellitus. Food proteins as a source of biologically active sequences are a potential source of anti-diabetic peptides (DPP-IV inhibitors and glucose uptake stimulating peptides). This study showed that in silico pork meat proteins digested with gastrointestinal enzymes are a potential source of bioactive peptides with a high potential to control blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Analysis revealed that the sequences released during in silico digestion were small dipeptides (with an average weight of 270.07 g mol−1), and most were poorly soluble in water. The selected electron properties of the peptides with the highest bioactivity index (i.e., GF, MW, MF, PF, PW) were described using the DFT method. The contribution of hydrophobic amino acids, in particular Phe and Trp, in forming the anti-diabetic properties of peptides released from pork meat was emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Health Effects)
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Open AccessArticle
Water Extract of Curcuma longa L. Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102536 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
Our aim was to investigate whether hot water extract (CLW) of Curcuma longa L. could prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). HepG2 cells were treated with free fatty acid (FFA) mixture (oleic acid: palmitic acid, 2:1) for 24 h to stimulate in vitro [...] Read more.
Our aim was to investigate whether hot water extract (CLW) of Curcuma longa L. could prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). HepG2 cells were treated with free fatty acid (FFA) mixture (oleic acid: palmitic acid, 2:1) for 24 h to stimulate in vitro fatty liver. In addition, C57BL/6 mice were fed 60 kcal% high-fat (HF) diet for eight weeks to induce fatty liver in vivo. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) productions were increased by FFA and HF-diet, but supplementation with CLW significantly decreased these levels. CLW treatment ameliorated antioxidant activities that were suppressed by exposure to the FFA and HF-diet. Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and fatty acid transport proteins (FATP2 and FATP5) were increased in HF-diet groups, while CLW suppressed their expression levels. Moreover, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression levels were down-regulated in the CLW groups compared to HF-diet groups. On the other hand, 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1) expressions were up-regulated in the CLW groups. HF-diet fed mice showed high hepatic triglycerides (TG) content compared to the normal diet mice. However, the administration of CLW restored the hepatic TG level, indicating an inhibitory effect against lipid accumulation by CLW. These results suggest that CLW could be a potentially useful agent for the prevention of NAFLD through modulating fatty acid uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Fat Intake and Stress Modify Sleep Duration Effects on Abdominal Obesity
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102535 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
Though the association between sleep duration and obesity has been generally acknowledged, there is little information about the mechanisms behind this association. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the fat intake and stress variables on the association between [...] Read more.
Though the association between sleep duration and obesity has been generally acknowledged, there is little information about the mechanisms behind this association. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the fat intake and stress variables on the association between sleep duration and abdominal obesity. Data for 13,686 subjects aged ≥ 20 years from the 2013–2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, and hierarchical and stratified logistic regression analyses were employed. In the hierarchical logistic regression analyses, fat intake and stress did not change the significance or the size of the sleep effects upon abdominal obesity. These results suggest that sleep duration does not affect abdominal obesity through fat intake or stress variables. In addition, fat intake and stress are not mediators of the sleep duration variable. However, subjects with different levels of fat intake and stress showed different associations between sleep duration and abdominal obesity. Subjects who were in the lowest or highest group of fat intake as well as self-reported stress level showed a weaker relationship between sleep duration and abdominal obesity, compared with the other groups. In conclusion, fat intake and stress modify the effects of sleep duration on abdominal obesity according to the stratified regression results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Maternal Characteristics Affect Fetal Growth Response in the Women First Preconception Nutrition Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2534; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102534 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
The objective of this secondary analysis was to identify maternal characteristics that modified the effect of maternal supplements on newborn size. Participants included 1465 maternal–newborn dyads in Guatemala, India, and Pakistan. Supplementation commenced before conception (Arm 1) or late 1st trimester (Arm 2); [...] Read more.
The objective of this secondary analysis was to identify maternal characteristics that modified the effect of maternal supplements on newborn size. Participants included 1465 maternal–newborn dyads in Guatemala, India, and Pakistan. Supplementation commenced before conception (Arm 1) or late 1st trimester (Arm 2); Arm 3 received usual care. Characteristics included body mass index (BMI), stature, anemia, age, education, socio-economic status (SES), parity, and newborn sex. Newborn outcomes were z-scores for length (LAZ), weight (WAZ), and weight to length ratio-for-age (WLRAZ). Mixed-effect regression models included treatment arm, effect modifier, and arm * effect modifier interaction as predictors, controlling for site, characteristics, and sex. Parity (para-0 vs. para ≥1), anemia (anemia/no anemia), and sex were significant effect modifiers. Effect size (95% CI) for Arm 1 vs. 3 was larger for para-0 vs. ≥1 for all outcomes (LAZ 0.56 (0.28, 0.84, p < 0.001); WAZ 0.45 (0.20, 0.07, p < 0.001); WLRAZ 0.52 (0.17, 0.88, p < 0.01) but only length for Arm 2 vs. 3. Corresponding effects for para ≥1 were >0.02. Arm 3 z-scores were all very low for para-0, but not para ≥1. Para-0 and anemia effect sizes for Arm 1 were > Arm 2 for WAZ and WLRAZ, but not LAZ. Arm 1 and 2 had higher WAZ for newborn boys vs. girls. Maternal nulliparity and anemia were associated with impaired fetal growth that was substantially improved by nutrition intervention, especially when commenced prior to conception. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Increasing Energy Flux to Maintain Diet-Induced Weight Loss
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102533 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3532
Abstract
Long-term maintenance of weight loss requires sustained energy balance at the reduced body weight. This could be attained by coupling low total daily energy intake (TDEI) with low total daily energy expenditure (TDEE; low energy flux), or by pairing high TDEI with high [...] Read more.
Long-term maintenance of weight loss requires sustained energy balance at the reduced body weight. This could be attained by coupling low total daily energy intake (TDEI) with low total daily energy expenditure (TDEE; low energy flux), or by pairing high TDEI with high TDEE (high energy flux). Within an environment characterized by high energy dense food and a lack of need for movement, it may be particularly difficult for weight-reduced individuals to maintain energy balance in a low flux state. Most of these individuals will increase body mass due to an inability to sustain the necessary level of food restriction. This increase in TDEI may lead to the re-establishment of high energy flux at or near the original body weight. We propose that following weight loss, increasing physical activity can effectively re-establish a state of high energy flux without significant weight regain. Although the effect of extremely high levels of physical activity on TDEE may be constrained by compensatory reductions in non-activity energy expenditure, moderate increases following weight loss may elevate energy flux and encourage physiological adaptations favorable to weight loss maintenance, including better appetite regulation. It may be time to recognize that few individuals are able to re-establish energy balance at a lower body weight without permanent increases in physical activity. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for more research to better understand the role of energy flux in long-term weight maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Energy Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Diet-Related Factors, Physical Activity, and Weight Status in Polish Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102532 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Obesity is a serious problem for both the individual and society due to its health and economic consequences. Therefore, there is a need to focus on factors which explain this phenomenon and may be useful in preventing future occurrence. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Obesity is a serious problem for both the individual and society due to its health and economic consequences. Therefore, there is a need to focus on factors which explain this phenomenon and may be useful in preventing future occurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the lifestyle factors coexisting with increased body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) in Polish adults, including factors related to diet (dietary patterns—DPs; dietary restrictions; number of meals; frequency of snacking, eating out, and ordering home delivery meals), physical activity, and sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional quantitative survey was carried out in 2016 amongst 972 Polish adults under the Life Style Study (LSS). To determine the factorscoexisting with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, the logistic regression model was developed. Women were less likely to be overweight or obese compared to men. The likelihood of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 increased with age by 4% in each subsequent year of life. Frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables, adhering to restrictions in quantity of food consumed and at least moderate physical activity during leisure time decreased the likelihood of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. More frequent consumption of meat and eating five or more meals a day increased the likelihood of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Diet-related factors explained the developed model better than factors related to physical activity, however, age and gender were the factors most strongly correlated with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Therefore, development of strategies to prevent and reduce overweight and obesity should focus on the demographic characteristics of the population, and then on teaching behaviors conducive for reducing the amount of food consumed, especially meat. However, physical activity in leisure time should also be included in the prevention of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Decrease in Serum Vitamin D Level of Older Patients with Fatigue
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102531 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Fatigue is characterized by reduced energy level, decreased muscle strength, and a variable degree of cognitive impairment. Recent evidences seem to link vitamin D deficiency to fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess and compare vitamin D status in a cohort [...] Read more.
Fatigue is characterized by reduced energy level, decreased muscle strength, and a variable degree of cognitive impairment. Recent evidences seem to link vitamin D deficiency to fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess and compare vitamin D status in a cohort of older subjects with and without fatigue. We recruited a total of 480 subjects, 240 patients with fatigue and 240 controls without fatigue, from the Cannizzaro Hospital of Catania (Italy). Fatigue severity was measured by the fatigue severity scale, whereas mental and physical fatigue were measured through the Wessely and Powell fatigue scale, respectively. We also measured several blood parameters and 25-OH vitamin D. Subjects with fatigue showed lower levels of vitamin D as compared with those without fatigue. Blood levels of parameters related to fatigue were normal in both groups of subjects, however, platelet, hemoglobin, hematocrit (p < 0.05), mean corpuscular volume, C-reactive protein (CRP), iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid (p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the fatigue group with respect to the control group. Moreover, compared to controls, patients showed higher scores in the physical (p < 0.001), mental (p < 0.001), and severity (p < 0.001) fatigue scales. Finally, vitamin D inversely correlated with fatigue severity (r = −0.428, p < 0.01), whereas creatine kinase and CRP levels did not correlate with vitamin D. In conclusion, our data showed a direct link between vitamin D and fatigue in older subjects, suggesting translational implications in the diagnosis and management of these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Fatigue)
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Open AccessArticle
A Fermented Food Product Containing Lactic Acid Bacteria Protects ZDF Rats from the Development of Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102530 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease, which involves a maintained hyperglycemia due to the development of an insulin resistance process. Among multiple risk factors, host intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention in T2D etiology and progression. In the present study, [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease, which involves a maintained hyperglycemia due to the development of an insulin resistance process. Among multiple risk factors, host intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention in T2D etiology and progression. In the present study, we have explored the effect of long-term supplementation with a non-dairy fermented food product (FFP) in Zucker Diabetic and Fatty (ZDF) rats T2D model. The supplementation with FFP induced an improvement in glucose homeostasis according to the results obtained from fasting blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance test, and pancreatic function. Importantly, a significantly reduced intestinal glucose absorption was found in the FFP-treated rats. Supplemented animals also showed a greater survival suggesting a better health status as a result of the FFP intake. Some dissimilarities have been observed in the gut microbiota population between control and FFP-treated rats, and interestingly a tendency for better cardiometabolic markers values was appreciated in this group. However, no significant differences were observed in body weight, body composition, or food intake between groups. These findings suggest that FFP induced gut microbiota modifications in ZDF rats that improved glucose metabolism and protected from T2D development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Economic Burden of Not Complying with Canadian Food Recommendations in 2018
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102529 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Poor diet has been identified as a major cause of chronic disease. In this study we estimated the 2018 economic burden of chronic disease attributable to not complying with Canadian food recommendations. We retrieved the chronic disease risk estimates for intakes of both [...] Read more.
Poor diet has been identified as a major cause of chronic disease. In this study we estimated the 2018 economic burden of chronic disease attributable to not complying with Canadian food recommendations. We retrieved the chronic disease risk estimates for intakes of both protective (fruit, vegetables, milk, whole grains, nuts and seeds) and harmful foods (sugar-sweetened beverages, processed meat, red meat) from the Global Burden of Disease Study, and food intakes from the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 19,797). Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated for all food–chronic disease combinations, and mathematically adjusted to estimate the 2018 annual direct (hospital, physician, drug) and indirect (human capital approach) economic burden for each disease. Not meeting the eight food recommendations was estimated to be responsible for CAD$15.8 billion/year in direct (CAD$5.9 billion) and indirect (CAD$9.9 billion) costs. The economic burden of Canadians under-consuming healthful foods exceeded the burden of overconsumption of harmful foods (CAD$12.5 billion vs. CAD$3.3 billion). Our findings suggest poor diet represents a substantial economic burden in Canada. Interventions may be more effective if they are wide in focus and promote decreased consumption of harmful foods alongside increased consumption of healthful foods, with emphasis on whole grains and nuts and seeds. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effect of the Combination of Creatine Monohydrate Plus HMB Supplementation on Sports Performance, Body Composition, Markers of Muscle Damage and Hormone Status: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102528 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3100
Abstract
Although there are many studies showing the isolated effect of creatine monohydrate (CrM) and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), it is not clear what effect they have when they are combined. The main purpose of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of mixing [...] Read more.
Although there are many studies showing the isolated effect of creatine monohydrate (CrM) and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), it is not clear what effect they have when they are combined. The main purpose of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of mixing CrM plus HMB in comparison with their isolated effects on sports performance, body composition, exercise induced markers of muscle damage, and anabolic-catabolic hormones. This systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement guidelines and the PICOS model, for the definition of the inclusion criteria. Studies were found by searching PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), and Scopus electronic databases from inception to July 3rd 2019. Methodological quality and risk of bias were assessed by two authors independently, and disagreements were resolved by third-party evaluation, in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration Guidelines samples. The literature was examined regarding the effects of the combination of CrM plus HMB on sport performance using several outcome variables (athletic performance, body composition, markers of muscle damage, and hormone status). This systematic review included six articles that investigated the effects of CrM plus HMB on sport performance (two on strength performance, showing improvements in one of them; three on anaerobic performance, presenting enhancements in two of them; and one on aerobic performance, not presenting improvements), body composition (three on body mass, showing improvements in one of them; two on fat free mass, presenting increases in one of them; and two on fat mass, showing decreases in one of them) and markers of muscle damage and hormone status (four on markers of muscle damage and one on anabolic-catabolic hormones, not showing benefits in any of them). In summary, the combination of 3–10 g/day of CrM plus 3 g/day of HMB for 1–6 weeks could produce potential positive effects on sport performance (strength and anaerobic performance) and for 4 weeks on body composition (increasing fat free mass and decreasing fat mass). However, this combination seems to not show positive effects relating to markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and anabolic-catabolic hormones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Technological Image-Based Dietary Assessment Tool for Children during Pubertal Growth: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2527; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102527 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
We designed an image-based dietary assessment tool called COFIT, which means “fit together” and pilot-tested it in the Taipei Puberty Longitudinal Study (TPLS). Children aged 6–17 years were invited to use COFIT over three days for recording all instances of eating in addition [...] Read more.
We designed an image-based dietary assessment tool called COFIT, which means “fit together” and pilot-tested it in the Taipei Puberty Longitudinal Study (TPLS). Children aged 6–17 years were invited to use COFIT over three days for recording all instances of eating in addition to maintaining written food records (FR). Spearman’s correlation and Bland–Altman analysis were used to compare the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients estimated using the image-based dietary assessment and the FR method. Intra-class correlation coefficients were used to estimate reliability between dietitians. In the final analysis, 23 children (mean age: 10.47 ± 0.47 years) with complete data obtained using two dietary assessment methods were included. Reliability among dietitians was high. Most assessments of macronutrients and micronutrients revealed moderate correlations between the two methods (range: 0.27–0.94); moreover, no significant differences in nutrients assessments were observed between the two methods, except for energy and fat. The average difference in energy intake between the methods was 194 kcal/day. Most limits of agreement were within an acceptable range. The Bland–Altman plots showed robust agreement with minimum bias. The limitation was the small sample size and not dividing the population into children and teenagers since the two groups may have different food consumption habits. Overall, the results showed that the image-based assessment tool is suitable for assessing children’s dietary intake of macronutrients and micronutrients during pubertal growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
To Raise or Not to Raise the Level of Ingredients in Yoghurts: Polish Consumer Preferences Regarding Dairy Products
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102526 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
Modern consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the perceived health benefits of food. As a result, they are in search of various types of information, for example, information on the packaging of food products that could confirm to what extent the purchased product [...] Read more.
Modern consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the perceived health benefits of food. As a result, they are in search of various types of information, for example, information on the packaging of food products that could confirm to what extent the purchased product will meet their expectations regarding the proper composition, that is, nutritional value, or perceived health values earlier mentioned. Furthermore, consumers increasingly seek new dairy products with additional health benefits and, therefore, it is essential to explore which attributes are important drivers of food choices and how producers can better respond to shifting consumer values and needs in each dairy product category. Therefore, the aims of our research was twofold: (1) To determine different segments of consumers based on their preferences towards food and nutrition, including opinion on new food products with a particular emphasis on a dairy market as well as (2) to study the importance of some statements related to nutrition presented on the yoghurt label with a precise focus on aspects of the increased and decreased content of some ingredients. The data were collected using a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview) survey on a sample of 489 adult Polish consumers. Respondents provided answers to questions and took part in a discrete choice-based experiment. The obtained data were analysed using the clustering method. The segmentation was performed using a hierarchical Ward’s method. As a result, four segments were identified: Quality-oriented, Involved, Quality Enthusiasts, and Neutral. The results indicated that in relation to the features that are important in the case of yoghurts, the following were indicated above all: Beneficial effects on health, its sensory values, as well as its availability on the market and production by traditional methods. Consumers belonging to Quality Enthusiasts seemed to be the most promising segment due to their openness to new products, as well as positive feedback on yoghurt. From the perspective of taking action on the food market, Involved may also be interesting, as it showed their openness to new products available on the food market. However, due to the relatively lower, compared to other segments, assessment on the beneficial effect of yoghurt on health, their taste, aroma, availability, as well as the importance of information on care for the proper method of breeding animals, this segment can pose a special challenge to entrepreneurs. Moreover, Involved seemed to be more demanding and critical towards some projects undertaken on the market by policy makers and marketing practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Choice and Health-Related Claims) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamins D and E Stimulate the PI3K-AKT Signalling Pathway in Insulin-Resistant SK-N-SH Neuronal Cells
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102525 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of vitamins D and E on an insulin-resistant model and hypothesized that this treatment would reverse the effects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and improves insulin signalling. An insulin-resistant model was induced in SK-N-SH neuronal cells with a treatment [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of vitamins D and E on an insulin-resistant model and hypothesized that this treatment would reverse the effects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and improves insulin signalling. An insulin-resistant model was induced in SK-N-SH neuronal cells with a treatment of 250 nM insulin and re-challenged with 100 nM at two different incubation time (16 h and 24 h). The effects of vitamin D (10 and 20 ng/mL), vitamin E in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) (200 ng/mL) and the combination of vitamins D and E on insulin signalling markers (IR, PI3K, GLUT3, GLUT4, and p-AKT), glucose uptake and AD markers (GSK3β and TAU) were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated an improvement of the insulin signalling pathway upon treatment with vitamin D alone, with significant increases in IR, PI3K, GLUT3, GLUT4 expression levels, as well as AKT phosphorylation and glucose uptake, while GSK3β and TAU expression levels was decreased significantly. On the contrary, vitamin E alone, increased p-AKT, reduced the ROS as well as GSK3β and TAU but had no effect on the insulin signalling expression levels. The combination of vitamins D and E only showed significant increase in GLUT4, p-AKT, reduced ROS as well as GSK3β and TAU. Thus, the universal role of vitamin D, E alone and in combinations could be the potential nutritional agents in restoring the sensitivity of neuronal cells towards insulin and delaying the pathophysiological progression of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA)
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Open AccessArticle
α-Lipoic Acid Inhibits IL-8 Expression by Activating Nrf2 Signaling in Helicobacter pylori-infected Gastric Epithelial Cells
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102524 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes gastritis and gastric cancers. Oxidative stress is involved in the pathological mechanism of H. pylori-induced gastritis and gastric cancer induction. Therefore, reducing oxidative stress may be beneficial for preventing the development of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases. [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes gastritis and gastric cancers. Oxidative stress is involved in the pathological mechanism of H. pylori-induced gastritis and gastric cancer induction. Therefore, reducing oxidative stress may be beneficial for preventing the development of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases. Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a crucial regulator for the expression of antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which protects cells from oxidative injury. α-Lipoic acid (α-LA), a naturally occurring dithiol, shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in various cells. In the present study, we examined the mechanism by which α-LA activates the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, suppresses the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukine-8 (IL-8), and reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. α-LA increased the level of phosphorylated and nuclear-translocated Nrf2 by decreasing the amount of Nrf2 sequestered in the cytoplasm by complex formation with Kelch-like ECH1-associated protein 1 (KEAP 1). By using exogenous inhibitors targeting Nrf2 and HO-1, we showed that up-regulation of activated Nrf2 and of HO-1 results in the α-LA-induced suppression of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and ROS. Consumption of α-LA-rich foods may prevent the development of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases by decreasing ROS-mediated IL-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Targeting Glutathione and Cystathionine β-Synthase in Ovarian Cancer Treatment by Selenium–Chrysin Polyurea Dendrimer Nanoformulation
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102523 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is the main cause of death from gynecological cancer, with its poor prognosis mainly related to late diagnosis and chemoresistance (acquired or intrinsic) to conventional alkylating and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating drugs. We and others reported that the availability of cysteine [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is the main cause of death from gynecological cancer, with its poor prognosis mainly related to late diagnosis and chemoresistance (acquired or intrinsic) to conventional alkylating and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating drugs. We and others reported that the availability of cysteine and glutathione (GSH) impacts the mechanisms of resistance to carboplatin in ovarian cancer. Different players in cysteine metabolism can be crucial in chemoresistance, such as the cystine/glutamate antiporter system Xc (xCT) and the H2S-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) in the pathway of cysteine catabolism. We hypothesized that, by disrupting cysteine metabolic flux, chemoresistance would be reverted. Since the xCT transporter is also able to take up selenium, we used selenium-containing chrysin (SeChry) as a plausible competitive inhibitor of xCT. For that, we tested the effects of SeChry on three different ovarian cancer cell lines (ES2, OVCAR3, and OVCAR8) and in two non-malignant cell lines (HaCaT and HK2). Results showed that, in addition to being highly cytotoxic, SeChry does not affect the uptake of cysteine, although it increases GSH depletion, indicating that SeChry might induce oxidative stress. However, enzymatic assays revealed an inhibitory effect of SeChry toward CBS, thus preventing production of the antioxidant H2S. Notably, our data showed that SeChry and folate-targeted polyurea dendrimer generation four ([email protected]G4-FA) nanoparticles increased the specificity for SeChry delivery to ovarian cancer cells, reducing significantly the toxicity against non-malignant cells. Collectively, our data support [email protected]G4-FA nanoparticles as a targeted strategy to improve ovarian cancer treatment, where GSH depletion and CBS inhibition underlie SeChry cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glutathione Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns May Be Nonproportional Hazards for the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence from Korean Adult Females
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2522; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102522 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 845
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the association between the incidence of type 2 diabetes and various risk factors including dietary patterns based on the rigorous proportional hazards assumption tests. Data for 3335 female subjects aged 40–69 years from the Korea Genome and Epidemiology [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the association between the incidence of type 2 diabetes and various risk factors including dietary patterns based on the rigorous proportional hazards assumption tests. Data for 3335 female subjects aged 40–69 years from the Korea Genome and Epidemiology Study were used. The assumption of proportional hazards was tested using the scaled Schoenfeld test. The stratified Cox regression was used to adjust the nonproportionality of diabetic risk factors, and the regression was adjusted for potential confounding variables, such as age, marital status, physical activity, drinking, smoking, BMI, etc. Metabolic syndrome and meat and fish pattern variables were positively associated with diabetes. However, dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome variables violated the proportional hazards assumption; therefore, the stratified Cox regression with the interaction terms was applied to adjust the nonproportionality and to allow the possible different parameters over each stratum. The highest quartile of meat and fish pattern was associated with diabetes only in subjects aged over 60 years. Moreover, subjects who were obese and had metabolic syndrome had higher risk in bread and snacks (HR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.00–3.40) and meat and fish pattern (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.01–3.26), respectively. In conclusion, a quantitative proportional hazards assumption test should always be conducted before the use of Cox regression because nonproportionality of risk factors could induce limited effect on diabetes incidence. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Improves Nitric Oxide-Dependent Vasodilation in Adipose Tissue Arterioles from Bariatric Surgery Patients
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102521 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
There is a high prevalence of vitamin-D deficiency in obese individuals that could be attributed to vitamin-D sequestration in the adipose tissue. Associations between vitamin-D deficiency and unfavorable cardiometabolic outcomes were reported. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind these associations are yet to be [...] Read more.
There is a high prevalence of vitamin-D deficiency in obese individuals that could be attributed to vitamin-D sequestration in the adipose tissue. Associations between vitamin-D deficiency and unfavorable cardiometabolic outcomes were reported. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind these associations are yet to be established. In our previous studies, we demonstrated microvascular dysfunction in obese adults that was associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) production. Herein, we examined the role of vitamin D in mitigating microvascular function in morbidly obese adults before and after weight loss surgery. We obtained subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies from bariatric patients at the time of surgery (n = 15) and gluteal SAT samples three months post-surgery (n = 8). Flow-induced dilation (FID) and acetylcholine-induced dilation (AChID) and NO production were measured in the AT-isolated arterioles ± NO synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inhibitor, polyethylene glycol-modified catalase (PEG-CAT), or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Vitamin D improved FID, AChID, and NO production in AT-isolated arterioles at time of surgery; these effects were abolished by L-NAME but not by PEG-CAT. Vitamin-D-mediated improvements were of a higher magnitude in VAT compared to SAT arterioles. After surgery, significant improvements in FID, AChID, NO production, and NO sensitivity were observed. Vitamin-D-induced changes were of a lower magnitude compared to those from the time of surgery. In conclusion, vitamin D improved NO-dependent arteriolar vasodilation in obese adults; this effect was more significant before surgery-induced weight loss. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Improving Cardiovascular Health through Nudging Healthier Food Choices: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2520; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102520 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are considered major public health problems, and their negative impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is profound. Targeting modifiable risk factors such as dietary habits is therefore of great importance. Many of today’s health [...] Read more.
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are considered major public health problems, and their negative impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is profound. Targeting modifiable risk factors such as dietary habits is therefore of great importance. Many of today’s health challenges with overweight and obesity may have behavioral roots, and traditional methods such as regulations and campaigns are often insufficient to improve dietary choices. Nudging or choice architecture might be a viable tool to influence people’s everyday choices and behaviors to better outcomes. This paper reviews the current state of the rapidly expanding number of experimental field studies that investigate the effects/associations of nudging on healthy food choices. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, where 142 citations were identified. Based on selection criteria, six randomized controlled trials and 15 non-randomized controlled trials were ultimately included. The results of this systematic review show that many of the studies included traffic-light labeling, which may be a promising strategy. The reviewed findings, however, also highlight the challenges that confront experimental studies examining the impact of nudging on diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition)
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