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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Fat Intake and Stress Modify Sleep Duration Effects on Abdominal Obesity
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102535 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Though the association between sleep duration and obesity has been generally acknowledged, there is little information about the mechanisms behind this association. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the fat intake and stress variables on the association between [...] Read more.
Though the association between sleep duration and obesity has been generally acknowledged, there is little information about the mechanisms behind this association. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the fat intake and stress variables on the association between sleep duration and abdominal obesity. Data for 13,686 subjects aged ≥ 20 years from the 2013–2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, and hierarchical and stratified logistic regression analyses were employed. In the hierarchical logistic regression analyses, fat intake and stress did not change the significance or the size of the sleep effects upon abdominal obesity. These results suggest that sleep duration does not affect abdominal obesity through fat intake or stress variables. In addition, fat intake and stress are not mediators of the sleep duration variable. However, subjects with different levels of fat intake and stress showed different associations between sleep duration and abdominal obesity. Subjects who were in the lowest or highest group of fat intake as well as self-reported stress level showed a weaker relationship between sleep duration and abdominal obesity, compared with the other groups. In conclusion, fat intake and stress modify the effects of sleep duration on abdominal obesity according to the stratified regression results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Maternal Characteristics Affect Fetal Growth Response in the Women First Preconception Nutrition Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2534; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102534 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
The objective of this secondary analysis was to identify maternal characteristics that modified the effect of maternal supplements on newborn size. Participants included 1465 maternal–newborn dyads in Guatemala, India, and Pakistan. Supplementation commenced before conception (Arm 1) or late 1st trimester (Arm 2); [...] Read more.
The objective of this secondary analysis was to identify maternal characteristics that modified the effect of maternal supplements on newborn size. Participants included 1465 maternal–newborn dyads in Guatemala, India, and Pakistan. Supplementation commenced before conception (Arm 1) or late 1st trimester (Arm 2); Arm 3 received usual care. Characteristics included body mass index (BMI), stature, anemia, age, education, socio-economic status (SES), parity, and newborn sex. Newborn outcomes were z-scores for length (LAZ), weight (WAZ), and weight to length ratio-for-age (WLRAZ). Mixed-effect regression models included treatment arm, effect modifier, and arm * effect modifier interaction as predictors, controlling for site, characteristics, and sex. Parity (para-0 vs. para ≥1), anemia (anemia/no anemia), and sex were significant effect modifiers. Effect size (95% CI) for Arm 1 vs. 3 was larger for para-0 vs. ≥1 for all outcomes (LAZ 0.56 (0.28, 0.84, p < 0.001); WAZ 0.45 (0.20, 0.07, p < 0.001); WLRAZ 0.52 (0.17, 0.88, p < 0.01) but only length for Arm 2 vs. 3. Corresponding effects for para ≥1 were >0.02. Arm 3 z-scores were all very low for para-0, but not para ≥1. Para-0 and anemia effect sizes for Arm 1 were > Arm 2 for WAZ and WLRAZ, but not LAZ. Arm 1 and 2 had higher WAZ for newborn boys vs. girls. Maternal nulliparity and anemia were associated with impaired fetal growth that was substantially improved by nutrition intervention, especially when commenced prior to conception. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Increasing Energy Flux to Maintain Diet-Induced Weight Loss
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102533 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Long-term maintenance of weight loss requires sustained energy balance at the reduced body weight. This could be attained by coupling low total daily energy intake (TDEI) with low total daily energy expenditure (TDEE; low energy flux), or by pairing high TDEI with high [...] Read more.
Long-term maintenance of weight loss requires sustained energy balance at the reduced body weight. This could be attained by coupling low total daily energy intake (TDEI) with low total daily energy expenditure (TDEE; low energy flux), or by pairing high TDEI with high TDEE (high energy flux). Within an environment characterized by high energy dense food and a lack of need for movement, it may be particularly difficult for weight-reduced individuals to maintain energy balance in a low flux state. Most of these individuals will increase body mass due to an inability to sustain the necessary level of food restriction. This increase in TDEI may lead to the re-establishment of high energy flux at or near the original body weight. We propose that following weight loss, increasing physical activity can effectively re-establish a state of high energy flux without significant weight regain. Although the effect of extremely high levels of physical activity on TDEE may be constrained by compensatory reductions in non-activity energy expenditure, moderate increases following weight loss may elevate energy flux and encourage physiological adaptations favorable to weight loss maintenance, including better appetite regulation. It may be time to recognize that few individuals are able to re-establish energy balance at a lower body weight without permanent increases in physical activity. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for more research to better understand the role of energy flux in long-term weight maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Energy Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Diet-Related Factors, Physical Activity, and Weight Status in Polish Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102532 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Viewed by 35
Abstract
Obesity is a serious problem for both the individual and society due to its health and economic consequences. Therefore, there is a need to focus on factors which explain this phenomenon and may be useful in preventing future occurrence. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Obesity is a serious problem for both the individual and society due to its health and economic consequences. Therefore, there is a need to focus on factors which explain this phenomenon and may be useful in preventing future occurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the lifestyle factors coexisting with increased body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) in Polish adults, including factors related to diet (dietary patterns—DPs; dietary restrictions; number of meals; frequency of snacking, eating out, and ordering home delivery meals), physical activity, and sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional quantitative survey was carried out in 2016 amongst 972 Polish adults under the Life Style Study (LSS). To determine the factorscoexisting with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, the logistic regression model was developed. Women were less likely to be overweight or obese compared to men. The likelihood of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 increased with age by 4% in each subsequent year of life. Frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables, adhering to restrictions in quantity of food consumed and at least moderate physical activity during leisure time decreased the likelihood of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. More frequent consumption of meat and eating five or more meals a day increased the likelihood of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Diet-related factors explained the developed model better than factors related to physical activity, however, age and gender were the factors most strongly correlated with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Therefore, development of strategies to prevent and reduce overweight and obesity should focus on the demographic characteristics of the population, and then on teaching behaviors conducive for reducing the amount of food consumed, especially meat. However, physical activity in leisure time should also be included in the prevention of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Decrease in Serum Vitamin D Level of Older Patients with Fatigue
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102531 (registering DOI) - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 141
Abstract
Fatigue is characterized by reduced energy level, decreased muscle strength, and a variable degree of cognitive impairment. Recent evidences seem to link vitamin D deficiency to fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess and compare vitamin D status in a cohort [...] Read more.
Fatigue is characterized by reduced energy level, decreased muscle strength, and a variable degree of cognitive impairment. Recent evidences seem to link vitamin D deficiency to fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess and compare vitamin D status in a cohort of older subjects with and without fatigue. We recruited a total of 480 subjects, 240 patients with fatigue and 240 controls without fatigue, from the Cannizzaro Hospital of Catania (Italy). Fatigue severity was measured by the fatigue severity scale, whereas mental and physical fatigue were measured through the Wessely and Powell fatigue scale, respectively. We also measured several blood parameters and 25-OH vitamin D. Subjects with fatigue showed lower levels of vitamin D as compared with those without fatigue. Blood levels of parameters related to fatigue were normal in both groups of subjects, however, platelet, hemoglobin, hematocrit (p < 0.05), mean corpuscular volume, C-reactive protein (CRP), iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid (p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the fatigue group with respect to the control group. Moreover, compared to controls, patients showed higher scores in the physical (p < 0.001), mental (p < 0.001), and severity (p < 0.001) fatigue scales. Finally, vitamin D inversely correlated with fatigue severity (r = −0.428, p < 0.01), whereas creatine kinase and CRP levels did not correlate with vitamin D. In conclusion, our data showed a direct link between vitamin D and fatigue in older subjects, suggesting translational implications in the diagnosis and management of these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Fatigue)
Open AccessArticle
A Fermented Food Product Containing Lactic Acid Bacteria Protects ZDF Rats from the Development of Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102530 (registering DOI) - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 171
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease, which involves a maintained hyperglycemia due to the development of an insulin resistance process. Among multiple risk factors, host intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention in T2D etiology and progression. In the present study, [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease, which involves a maintained hyperglycemia due to the development of an insulin resistance process. Among multiple risk factors, host intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention in T2D etiology and progression. In the present study, we have explored the effect of long-term supplementation with a non-dairy fermented food product (FFP) in Zucker Diabetic and Fatty (ZDF) rats T2D model. The supplementation with FFP induced an improvement in glucose homeostasis according to the results obtained from fasting blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance test, and pancreatic function. Importantly, a significantly reduced intestinal glucose absorption was found in the FFP-treated rats. Supplemented animals also showed a greater survival suggesting a better health status as a result of the FFP intake. Some dissimilarities have been observed in the gut microbiota population between control and FFP-treated rats, and interestingly a tendency for better cardiometabolic markers values was appreciated in this group. However, no significant differences were observed in body weight, body composition, or food intake between groups. These findings suggest that FFP induced gut microbiota modifications in ZDF rats that improved glucose metabolism and protected from T2D development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Economic Burden of Not Complying with Canadian Food Recommendations in 2018
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102529 (registering DOI) - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 165
Abstract
Poor diet has been identified as a major cause of chronic disease. In this study we estimated the 2018 economic burden of chronic disease attributable to not complying with Canadian food recommendations. We retrieved the chronic disease risk estimates for intakes of both [...] Read more.
Poor diet has been identified as a major cause of chronic disease. In this study we estimated the 2018 economic burden of chronic disease attributable to not complying with Canadian food recommendations. We retrieved the chronic disease risk estimates for intakes of both protective (fruit, vegetables, milk, whole grains, nuts and seeds) and harmful foods (sugar-sweetened beverages, processed meat, red meat) from the Global Burden of Disease Study, and food intakes from the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 19,797). Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated for all food–chronic disease combinations, and mathematically adjusted to estimate the 2018 annual direct (hospital, physician, drug) and indirect (human capital approach) economic burden for each disease. Not meeting the eight food recommendations was estimated to be responsible for CAD$15.8 billion/year in direct (CAD$5.9 billion) and indirect (CAD$9.9 billion) costs. The economic burden of Canadians under-consuming healthful foods exceeded the burden of overconsumption of harmful foods (CAD$12.5 billion vs. CAD$3.3 billion). Our findings suggest poor diet represents a substantial economic burden in Canada. Interventions may be more effective if they are wide in focus and promote decreased consumption of harmful foods alongside increased consumption of healthful foods, with emphasis on whole grains and nuts and seeds. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effect of the Combination of Creatine Monohydrate Plus HMB Supplementation on Sports Performance, Body Composition, Markers of Muscle Damage and Hormone Status: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102528 (registering DOI) - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Although there are many studies showing the isolated effect of creatine monohydrate (CrM) and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), it is not clear what effect they have when they are combined. The main purpose of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of mixing [...] Read more.
Although there are many studies showing the isolated effect of creatine monohydrate (CrM) and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), it is not clear what effect they have when they are combined. The main purpose of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of mixing CrM plus HMB in comparison with their isolated effects on sports performance, body composition, exercise induced markers of muscle damage, and anabolic-catabolic hormones. This systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement guidelines and the PICOS model, for the definition of the inclusion criteria. Studies were found by searching PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), and Scopus electronic databases from inception to July 3rd 2019. Methodological quality and risk of bias were assessed by two authors independently, and disagreements were resolved by third-party evaluation, in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration Guidelines samples. The literature was examined regarding the effects of the combination of CrM plus HMB on sport performance using several outcome variables (athletic performance, body composition, markers of muscle damage, and hormone status). This systematic review included six articles that investigated the effects of CrM plus HMB on sport performance (two on strength performance, showing improvements in one of them; three on anaerobic performance, presenting enhancements in two of them; and one on aerobic performance, not presenting improvements), body composition (three on body mass, showing improvements in one of them; two on fat free mass, presenting increases in one of them; and two on fat mass, showing decreases in one of them) and markers of muscle damage and hormone status (four on markers of muscle damage and one on anabolic-catabolic hormones, not showing benefits in any of them). In summary, the combination of 3–10 g/day of CrM plus 3 g/day of HMB for 1–6 weeks could produce potential positive effects on sport performance (strength and anaerobic performance) and for 4 weeks on body composition (increasing fat free mass and decreasing fat mass). However, this combination seems to not show positive effects relating to markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and anabolic-catabolic hormones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Technological Image-Based Dietary Assessment Tool for Children during Pubertal Growth: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2527; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102527 (registering DOI) - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 133
Abstract
We designed an image-based dietary assessment tool called COFIT, which means “fit together” and pilot-tested it in the Taipei Puberty Longitudinal Study (TPLS). Children aged 6–17 years were invited to use COFIT over three days for recording all instances of eating in addition [...] Read more.
We designed an image-based dietary assessment tool called COFIT, which means “fit together” and pilot-tested it in the Taipei Puberty Longitudinal Study (TPLS). Children aged 6–17 years were invited to use COFIT over three days for recording all instances of eating in addition to maintaining written food records (FR). Spearman’s correlation and Bland–Altman analysis were used to compare the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients estimated using the image-based dietary assessment and the FR method. Intra-class correlation coefficients were used to estimate reliability between dietitians. In the final analysis, 23 children (mean age: 10.47 ± 0.47 years) with complete data obtained using two dietary assessment methods were included. Reliability among dietitians was high. Most assessments of macronutrients and micronutrients revealed moderate correlations between the two methods (range: 0.27–0.94); moreover, no significant differences in nutrients assessments were observed between the two methods, except for energy and fat. The average difference in energy intake between the methods was 194 kcal/day. Most limits of agreement were within an acceptable range. The Bland–Altman plots showed robust agreement with minimum bias. The limitation was the small sample size and not dividing the population into children and teenagers since the two groups may have different food consumption habits. Overall, the results showed that the image-based assessment tool is suitable for assessing children’s dietary intake of macronutrients and micronutrients during pubertal growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
To Raise or Not to Raise the Level of Ingredients in Yoghurts: Polish Consumer Preferences Regarding Dairy Products
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102526 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Viewed by 207
Abstract
Modern consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the perceived health benefits of food. As a result, they are in search of various types of information, for example, information on the packaging of food products that could confirm to what extent the purchased product [...] Read more.
Modern consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the perceived health benefits of food. As a result, they are in search of various types of information, for example, information on the packaging of food products that could confirm to what extent the purchased product will meet their expectations regarding the proper composition, that is, nutritional value, or perceived health values earlier mentioned. Furthermore, consumers increasingly seek new dairy products with additional health benefits and, therefore, it is essential to explore which attributes are important drivers of food choices and how producers can better respond to shifting consumer values and needs in each dairy product category. Therefore, the aims of our research was twofold: (1) To determine different segments of consumers based on their preferences towards food and nutrition, including opinion on new food products with a particular emphasis on a dairy market as well as (2) to study the importance of some statements related to nutrition presented on the yoghurt label with a precise focus on aspects of the increased and decreased content of some ingredients. The data were collected using a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview) survey on a sample of 489 adult Polish consumers. Respondents provided answers to questions and took part in a discrete choice-based experiment. The obtained data were analysed using the clustering method. The segmentation was performed using a hierarchical Ward’s method. As a result, four segments were identified: Quality-oriented, Involved, Quality Enthusiasts, and Neutral. The results indicated that in relation to the features that are important in the case of yoghurts, the following were indicated above all: Beneficial effects on health, its sensory values, as well as its availability on the market and production by traditional methods. Consumers belonging to Quality Enthusiasts seemed to be the most promising segment due to their openness to new products, as well as positive feedback on yoghurt. From the perspective of taking action on the food market, Involved may also be interesting, as it showed their openness to new products available on the food market. However, due to the relatively lower, compared to other segments, assessment on the beneficial effect of yoghurt on health, their taste, aroma, availability, as well as the importance of information on care for the proper method of breeding animals, this segment can pose a special challenge to entrepreneurs. Moreover, Involved seemed to be more demanding and critical towards some projects undertaken on the market by policy makers and marketing practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Choice and Health-Related Claims)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamins D and E Stimulate the PI3K-AKT Signalling Pathway in Insulin-Resistant SK-N-SH Neuronal Cells
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102525 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Viewed by 218
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of vitamins D and E on an insulin-resistant model and hypothesized that this treatment would reverse the effects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and improves insulin signalling. An insulin-resistant model was induced in SK-N-SH neuronal cells with a treatment [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of vitamins D and E on an insulin-resistant model and hypothesized that this treatment would reverse the effects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and improves insulin signalling. An insulin-resistant model was induced in SK-N-SH neuronal cells with a treatment of 250 nM insulin and re-challenged with 100 nM at two different incubation time (16 h and 24 h). The effects of vitamin D (10 and 20 ng/mL), vitamin E in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) (200 ng/mL) and the combination of vitamins D and E on insulin signalling markers (IR, PI3K, GLUT3, GLUT4, and p-AKT), glucose uptake and AD markers (GSK3β and TAU) were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated an improvement of the insulin signalling pathway upon treatment with vitamin D alone, with significant increases in IR, PI3K, GLUT3, GLUT4 expression levels, as well as AKT phosphorylation and glucose uptake, while GSK3β and TAU expression levels was decreased significantly. On the contrary, vitamin E alone, increased p-AKT, reduced the ROS as well as GSK3β and TAU but had no effect on the insulin signalling expression levels. The combination of vitamins D and E only showed significant increase in GLUT4, p-AKT, reduced ROS as well as GSK3β and TAU. Thus, the universal role of vitamin D, E alone and in combinations could be the potential nutritional agents in restoring the sensitivity of neuronal cells towards insulin and delaying the pathophysiological progression of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA)
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Open AccessArticle
α-Lipoic Acid Inhibits IL-8 Expression by Activating Nrf2 Signaling in Helicobacter pylori-infected Gastric Epithelial Cells
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102524 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Viewed by 159
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes gastritis and gastric cancers. Oxidative stress is involved in the pathological mechanism of H. pylori-induced gastritis and gastric cancer induction. Therefore, reducing oxidative stress may be beneficial for preventing the development of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases. [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes gastritis and gastric cancers. Oxidative stress is involved in the pathological mechanism of H. pylori-induced gastritis and gastric cancer induction. Therefore, reducing oxidative stress may be beneficial for preventing the development of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases. Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a crucial regulator for the expression of antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which protects cells from oxidative injury. α-Lipoic acid (α-LA), a naturally occurring dithiol, shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in various cells. In the present study, we examined the mechanism by which α-LA activates the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, suppresses the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukine-8 (IL-8), and reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. α-LA increased the level of phosphorylated and nuclear-translocated Nrf2 by decreasing the amount of Nrf2 sequestered in the cytoplasm by complex formation with Kelch-like ECH1-associated protein 1 (KEAP 1). By using exogenous inhibitors targeting Nrf2 and HO-1, we showed that up-regulation of activated Nrf2 and of HO-1 results in the α-LA-induced suppression of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and ROS. Consumption of α-LA-rich foods may prevent the development of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases by decreasing ROS-mediated IL-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Targeting Glutathione and Cystathionine β-Synthase in Ovarian Cancer Treatment by Selenium–Chrysin Polyurea Dendrimer Nanoformulation
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102523 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Viewed by 181
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is the main cause of death from gynecological cancer, with its poor prognosis mainly related to late diagnosis and chemoresistance (acquired or intrinsic) to conventional alkylating and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating drugs. We and others reported that the availability of cysteine [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is the main cause of death from gynecological cancer, with its poor prognosis mainly related to late diagnosis and chemoresistance (acquired or intrinsic) to conventional alkylating and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating drugs. We and others reported that the availability of cysteine and glutathione (GSH) impacts the mechanisms of resistance to carboplatin in ovarian cancer. Different players in cysteine metabolism can be crucial in chemoresistance, such as the cystine/glutamate antiporter system Xc (xCT) and the H2S-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) in the pathway of cysteine catabolism. We hypothesized that, by disrupting cysteine metabolic flux, chemoresistance would be reverted. Since the xCT transporter is also able to take up selenium, we used selenium-containing chrysin (SeChry) as a plausible competitive inhibitor of xCT. For that, we tested the effects of SeChry on three different ovarian cancer cell lines (ES2, OVCAR3, and OVCAR8) and in two non-malignant cell lines (HaCaT and HK2). Results showed that, in addition to being highly cytotoxic, SeChry does not affect the uptake of cysteine, although it increases GSH depletion, indicating that SeChry might induce oxidative stress. However, enzymatic assays revealed an inhibitory effect of SeChry toward CBS, thus preventing production of the antioxidant H2S. Notably, our data showed that SeChry and folate-targeted polyurea dendrimer generation four ([email protected]G4-FA) nanoparticles increased the specificity for SeChry delivery to ovarian cancer cells, reducing significantly the toxicity against non-malignant cells. Collectively, our data support [email protected]G4-FA nanoparticles as a targeted strategy to improve ovarian cancer treatment, where GSH depletion and CBS inhibition underlie SeChry cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glutathione Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns May Be Nonproportional Hazards for the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence from Korean Adult Females
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2522; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102522 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 187
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the association between the incidence of type 2 diabetes and various risk factors including dietary patterns based on the rigorous proportional hazards assumption tests. Data for 3335 female subjects aged 40–69 years from the Korea Genome and Epidemiology [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the association between the incidence of type 2 diabetes and various risk factors including dietary patterns based on the rigorous proportional hazards assumption tests. Data for 3335 female subjects aged 40–69 years from the Korea Genome and Epidemiology Study were used. The assumption of proportional hazards was tested using the scaled Schoenfeld test. The stratified Cox regression was used to adjust the nonproportionality of diabetic risk factors, and the regression was adjusted for potential confounding variables, such as age, marital status, physical activity, drinking, smoking, BMI, etc. Metabolic syndrome and meat and fish pattern variables were positively associated with diabetes. However, dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome variables violated the proportional hazards assumption; therefore, the stratified Cox regression with the interaction terms was applied to adjust the nonproportionality and to allow the possible different parameters over each stratum. The highest quartile of meat and fish pattern was associated with diabetes only in subjects aged over 60 years. Moreover, subjects who were obese and had metabolic syndrome had higher risk in bread and snacks (HR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.00–3.40) and meat and fish pattern (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.01–3.26), respectively. In conclusion, a quantitative proportional hazards assumption test should always be conducted before the use of Cox regression because nonproportionality of risk factors could induce limited effect on diabetes incidence. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Improves Nitric Oxide-Dependent Vasodilation in Adipose Tissue Arterioles from Bariatric Surgery Patients
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102521 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 212
Abstract
There is a high prevalence of vitamin-D deficiency in obese individuals that could be attributed to vitamin-D sequestration in the adipose tissue. Associations between vitamin-D deficiency and unfavorable cardiometabolic outcomes were reported. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind these associations are yet to be [...] Read more.
There is a high prevalence of vitamin-D deficiency in obese individuals that could be attributed to vitamin-D sequestration in the adipose tissue. Associations between vitamin-D deficiency and unfavorable cardiometabolic outcomes were reported. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind these associations are yet to be established. In our previous studies, we demonstrated microvascular dysfunction in obese adults that was associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) production. Herein, we examined the role of vitamin D in mitigating microvascular function in morbidly obese adults before and after weight loss surgery. We obtained subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies from bariatric patients at the time of surgery (n = 15) and gluteal SAT samples three months post-surgery (n = 8). Flow-induced dilation (FID) and acetylcholine-induced dilation (AChID) and NO production were measured in the AT-isolated arterioles ± NO synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inhibitor, polyethylene glycol-modified catalase (PEG-CAT), or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Vitamin D improved FID, AChID, and NO production in AT-isolated arterioles at time of surgery; these effects were abolished by L-NAME but not by PEG-CAT. Vitamin-D-mediated improvements were of a higher magnitude in VAT compared to SAT arterioles. After surgery, significant improvements in FID, AChID, NO production, and NO sensitivity were observed. Vitamin-D-induced changes were of a lower magnitude compared to those from the time of surgery. In conclusion, vitamin D improved NO-dependent arteriolar vasodilation in obese adults; this effect was more significant before surgery-induced weight loss. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Improving Cardiovascular Health through Nudging Healthier Food Choices: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2520; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102520 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are considered major public health problems, and their negative impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is profound. Targeting modifiable risk factors such as dietary habits is therefore of great importance. Many of today’s health [...] Read more.
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are considered major public health problems, and their negative impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is profound. Targeting modifiable risk factors such as dietary habits is therefore of great importance. Many of today’s health challenges with overweight and obesity may have behavioral roots, and traditional methods such as regulations and campaigns are often insufficient to improve dietary choices. Nudging or choice architecture might be a viable tool to influence people’s everyday choices and behaviors to better outcomes. This paper reviews the current state of the rapidly expanding number of experimental field studies that investigate the effects/associations of nudging on healthy food choices. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, where 142 citations were identified. Based on selection criteria, six randomized controlled trials and 15 non-randomized controlled trials were ultimately included. The results of this systematic review show that many of the studies included traffic-light labeling, which may be a promising strategy. The reviewed findings, however, also highlight the challenges that confront experimental studies examining the impact of nudging on diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Magnesium Intake Predicts Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Black South African Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2519; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102519 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 185
Abstract
This prospective study investigated the association between nutrient intake, dietary patterns, and changes in bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal urban black South African women over two years. These women (n = 144) underwent BMD measurements at the distal [...] Read more.
This prospective study investigated the association between nutrient intake, dietary patterns, and changes in bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal urban black South African women over two years. These women (n = 144) underwent BMD measurements at the distal radius, lumbar spine, femoral neck (FN), as well as a biochemical analysis which included the parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, C-Telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1) in 2010 and 2012. Their dietary intake was assessed in 2010 using a food frequency questionnaire, and sociodemographic and health information was collected. Four dietary patterns explained 54.4% of the variance of dietary intake, namely staple foods and processed meats, home cooking, snacking, and high sugar. Dietary magnesium negatively correlated with CTx-1 in 2012 (r = −0.21, p = 0.02), calcium correlated with distal radius BMD in 2010 (r = 0.22, p = 0.01) and 2012 (r = 0.24, p = 0.005), and the snacking dietary pattern score correlated with FN BMD in 2010 (r = 0.18, p = 0.03) and 2012 (r = 0.21, p = 0.02). The baseline CTx-1 and dietary magnesium intake predicted 22% of the variance in percentage change of CTx-1 over two years (p < 0.001).The magnesium intake predicted short-term bone resorption over two years. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Similarities in Metabolic Flexibility and Hunger Hormone Ghrelin Exist between FTO Gene Variants in Response to an Acute Dietary Challenge
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102518 - 18 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The rs9939609 polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has been associated with obesity, and studies have also shown that environmental/lifestyle interaction such as dietary intake might mediate this effect. The current study investigates the postprandial hormonal regulators of hunger and [...] Read more.
The rs9939609 polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has been associated with obesity, and studies have also shown that environmental/lifestyle interaction such as dietary intake might mediate this effect. The current study investigates the postprandial hormonal regulators of hunger and indirect markers of substrate utilisation and metabolic flexibility following a dietary challenge to determine if suppression of circulating ghrelin levels and/or reduced metabolic flexibility exist between FTO genotypes. One hundred and forty seven healthy, sedentary males and females (29.0 ± 0.7 yrs; 70.2 ± 1.1 kg; 169.1 ± 0.8 cm; 24.5 ± 0.3 kg/m2) complete a single experimental session. Anthropometric measures, circulating levels of active ghrelin, insulin and glucose, and substrate oxidation via indirect calorimetry, are measured pre-prandial and/or post-prandial. The FTO rs9939609 variant is genotyped using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Metabolic flexibility (∆RER) is similar between FTO genotypes of the rs9939609 (T > A) polymorphism (p > 0.05). No differences in pre-prandial and/or postprandial substrate oxidation, plasma glucose, serum insulin or ghrelin are observed between genotypes (p > 0.05). These observations are independent of body mass index and gender. Altered postprandial responses in hunger hormones and metabolic flexibility may not be a mechanism by which FTO is associated with higher BMI and obesity in healthy, normal-weighted individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Peptides from Alaska Pollock on Intestinal Mucosal Immunity Function and Purification of Active Fragments
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102517 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 157
Abstract
The intestinal mucosal barrier plays an important role in systemic immune functions. This study aimed to find the mechanism of peptide from Alaska Pollock (APP) on intestinal mucosal immunity in mice induced by cyclophosphamide (Cy). Cy-induced decreases of body weight and index of [...] Read more.
The intestinal mucosal barrier plays an important role in systemic immune functions. This study aimed to find the mechanism of peptide from Alaska Pollock (APP) on intestinal mucosal immunity in mice induced by cyclophosphamide (Cy). Cy-induced decreases of body weight and index of immune organ were significantly improved by APP as compared with Cy group (p < 0.05). APP could promote the secretion of SIgA and IgA on intestinal mucosa (p < 0.05) and mainly had an impact on the final differentiation of IgA+ B cell, thereby promoting the secretion of plasma cells, which can be corroborated by the increases of IL-6 and IL-10 (p < 0.05). APP with high immune activity was separated and two peptides were purified and identified as Gly–Val–Ile–Lys and Ala–Cys–Asn–Gly–Arg. Therefore, APP can be considered as beneficial ingredients to protect the intestinal barrier disruption induced by Cy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Moderate Alcohol Consumption Inhibits Sodium-Dependent Glutamine Co-Transport in Rat Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Vitro and Ex Vivo
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102516 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 167
Abstract
Malnutrition is present in chronic alcoholics. However, how moderate alcohol consumption affects the absorption of nutrients like glutamine has not been investigated. Glutamine, an amino acid, is vital to gastrointestinal health. Glutamine is absorbed via sodium-dependent glutamine co-transport (B0AT1; SLC6A19) along the [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is present in chronic alcoholics. However, how moderate alcohol consumption affects the absorption of nutrients like glutamine has not been investigated. Glutamine, an amino acid, is vital to gastrointestinal health. Glutamine is absorbed via sodium-dependent glutamine co-transport (B0AT1; SLC6A19) along the brush border membrane of absorptive villus cells. Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) and sixteen-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were administered the equivalent of a 0.04% blood alcohol content of ethanol (8.64 mM; 2 g/kg) to investigate the effect of moderate alcohol on sodium-glutamine co-transport. Sodium-dependent 3H-glutamine uptakes were performed to measure B0AT1 activity. Inorganic phosphate was measured as a function of Na-K-ATPase activity. Protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. Ethanol significantly inhibited sodium-dependent glutamine absorption and Na-K-ATPase activity in enterocytes in vitro and ex vivo. Kinetic studies suggested that the mechanism of inhibition was due to decreased maximal rate of uptake (Vmax) of the B0AT1 co-transporter, corresponding to decreased B0AT1 protein expression and secondary to an inhibited sodium-gradient at the cellular level in vitro and ex vivo. In all, moderate ethanol significantly inhibited glutamine absorption at the level of decreased B0AT1 expression at the brush border membrane and a reduced sodium gradient, which may contribute to malnutrition present in chronic alcoholics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability of Repeated Measures of Nutrient Intake by Diet Records in Residents in the Western Region of Japan
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2515; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102515 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 176
Abstract
Objective: We aimed to assess the day-to-day variation in twelve one-day diet records over one year from 131 residents of urban and rural areas in the western region of Japan. Methods: Between 2014 and 2015, the participants provided repeated one-day diet records once [...] Read more.
Objective: We aimed to assess the day-to-day variation in twelve one-day diet records over one year from 131 residents of urban and rural areas in the western region of Japan. Methods: Between 2014 and 2015, the participants provided repeated one-day diet records once a month. We estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCs) for intakes for energy and 39 crude and energy-adjusted nutrients using linear mixed models. Results: Among the unadjusted nutrients, ICCs ranged from 0.05 (95 percent confidence interval = 0.03–0.09) for vitamin A retinol equivalent (RE) to 0.55 (95% CI = 0.48–0.62) for potassium. After energy adjustment, the ICCs were 0.02 (95 percent confidence interval = 0.03–0.09) for vitamin A (RE) and 0.52 (95 percent confidence interval = 0.45–0.59) for potassium. Intakes of energy-adjusted macronutrients tended to have moderate degrees of day-to-day coefficients of variation (CVw, range = 0.13–0.23, mean = 0.18), while the coefficients of variation for intakes of micronutrients varied dramatically (CVw, range = 0.17–2.59, mean = 0.54). Conclusion: There were large day-to-day variations in nutrient intake assessed by diet records among urban and rural residents in the western region of Japan. This study provided information on the reproducibility of crude and energy-adjusted nutrients that may be useful for other dietary studies in Japanese populations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Changes in Microbiota and Bacterial Protein Caseinolytic Peptidase B During Food Restriction in Mice: Relevance for the Onset and Perpetuation of Anorexia Nervosa
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102514 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Microbiota contributes to the regulation of eating behavior and might be implicated in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa. ClpB (Caseinolytic peptidase B) protein produced mainly by the Enterobacteriaceae family has been identified as a conformational mimetic of α-MSH, which could result in similar [...] Read more.
Microbiota contributes to the regulation of eating behavior and might be implicated in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa. ClpB (Caseinolytic peptidase B) protein produced mainly by the Enterobacteriaceae family has been identified as a conformational mimetic of α-MSH, which could result in similar anorexigenic effects. The aim of this study was to highlight the role of the microbiome and the ClpB protein in deregulation and self-maintenance of anorexia pathology. Male C57Bl/6 mice were undergone to the ABA (Activity-Based Anorexia) protocol: after 5 days of acclimatization, both ABA and LFA (Limited Food Access) mice had progressively limited access to food until D17. At the end of protocol, the plasma ClpB concentration and Enterobacteriaceae DNA in colonic content were measured. As expected, dietary restriction induced lost weight in LFA and ABA mice. At D10, colonic permeability and plasma concentration of the ClpB protein were significantly increased in LFA and ABA mice vs. controls. At D17, plasma concentration of ClpB was increased in LFA and ABA mice and, it was correlated with proportion of Enterobacteriaceae in the faeces. These abnormally high ClpB concentrations and all associated factors, and therefore might contribute to the initiation and/or perpetuation of anorexia nervosa by interfering with satiety signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Intake of 100% Fruit Juice Is Associated with Improved Diet Quality of Adults: NHANES 2013–2016 Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2513; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102513 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Fruit intake is generally associated with better diet quality and overall health. This report examined the effect of 100% fruit juice (considered a part of total fruit servings) and its replacement with whole fruits equivalents on nutrient intake and diet quality. National Health [...] Read more.
Fruit intake is generally associated with better diet quality and overall health. This report examined the effect of 100% fruit juice (considered a part of total fruit servings) and its replacement with whole fruits equivalents on nutrient intake and diet quality. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2016 data (24-h dietary recall) from adults 19+ years (n = 10,112) were used to assess the diet quality and nutrient intakes and to isocalorically replace with 100% fruit juice intakes whole fruit equivalents in a modeling analysis. About 15.6% adults were 100% fruit juice consumers. Consumers had higher diet quality (10% higher Healthy Eating Index, HEI 2015 score), and higher intakes of energy, calcium, magnesium, potassium, vitamin C and vitamin D than non-consumers. Consumption of 100% fruit juice was also associated with lower risk of being overweight/obese (−22%) and having metabolic syndrome (−27%). Replacing 100% fruit juice with whole fruits equivalents did not affect nutrient intake except for a modest increase (+6.4%) in dietary fiber. Results show that 100% fruit juice intake was associated with better diet quality and higher nutrient intake. Replacement of 100% fruit juice intake with whole fruits equivalents had no significant effect on nutrients except for dietary fiber. Full article
Open AccessReview
Short Chain Fatty Acids and Fecal Microbiota Abundance in Humans with Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2512; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102512 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 369
Abstract
There have been mixed results regarding the relationship among short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), microbiota, and obesity in human studies. We selected studies that provided data on SCFA levels or fecal microbiota abundance in obese and nonobese individuals and then combined the published [...] Read more.
There have been mixed results regarding the relationship among short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), microbiota, and obesity in human studies. We selected studies that provided data on SCFA levels or fecal microbiota abundance in obese and nonobese individuals and then combined the published estimates using a random-effects meta-analysis. Obese individuals had significantly higher fecal concentrations of acetate (SMD (standardized mean differences) = 0.87, 95% CI (confidence interva) = 0.24–1.50, I2 (I–squared) = 88.5), propionate (SMD = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.35–1.36, I2 = 82.3%), and butyrate (SMD = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.29–1.27, I2 = 81.7%) than nonobese controls. The subgroup analyses showed no evidence of heterogeneity among obese individuals with a BMI >30 kg/m2 (I2 = 0.0%). At the phylum level, the abundance of fecal microbiota was reduced in obese compared to nonobese individuals, but the difference was not statistically significant (Bacteroidetes phylum, SMD = −0.36, 95% CI = −0.73–0.01; Firmicutes phylum, SMD = −0.10, 95% CI = −0.31–0.10). The currently available human case-control studies show that obesity is associated with high levels of SCFA but not gut microbiota richness at the phylum level. Additional well-designed studies with a considerable sample size are needed to clarify whether this association is causal, but it is also necessary to identify additional contributors to SCFA production, absorption, and excretion in humans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Obesity in Adolescents Who Skip Breakfast Is Not Associated with Physical Activity
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102511 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 165
Abstract
It has been hypothesized that breakfast consumption is generally associated with healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as increased physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between breakfast consumption, adiposity measures and physical activity among adolescents. This investigation is a [...] Read more.
It has been hypothesized that breakfast consumption is generally associated with healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as increased physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between breakfast consumption, adiposity measures and physical activity among adolescents. This investigation is a part of the Croatian physical activity in adolescence longitudinal study (CRO-PALS). This investigation is based on 802 participants (48% girls and 52% boys), aged between 15.2 and 16.0 years. Physical activity level and sedentary behaviors were assessed using the SHAPES questionnaire. Adiposity measures included the sum of four skinfolds, and multi-pass 24-h recall was used as the dietary assessment method. Participants who consumed breakfast had significantly lower body fat % (p = 0.011 for boys; p ≤ 0.001 for girls) compared to breakfast non-consumers. Physical activity has no mediating effect in the association of breakfast consumption on adiposity in boys (Sobel’s t = −0.541; p = 0.588) and girls (Sobel’s t = 1.020; p = 0.307). Breakfast consumption was negatively associated with adiposity only in the boys at the highest tertile of physical activity (p = 0.04). Physical activity has no mediating effect on the associations between breakfast consumption and adiposity, but has a moderation effect only in the most active boys. Breakfast consumption might exert beneficial effects only in the most active male adolescents, but not in the inactive ones. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Ketogenic Diet and Epilepsy
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2510; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102510 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 242
Abstract
Currently available pharmacological treatment of epilepsy has limited effectiveness. In epileptic patients, pharmacological treatment with available anticonvulsants leads to seizure control in <70% of cases. Surgical intervention can lead to control in a selected subset of patients, but still leaves a significant number [...] Read more.
Currently available pharmacological treatment of epilepsy has limited effectiveness. In epileptic patients, pharmacological treatment with available anticonvulsants leads to seizure control in <70% of cases. Surgical intervention can lead to control in a selected subset of patients, but still leaves a significant number of patients with uncontrolled seizures. Therefore, in drug-resistant epilepsy, the ketogenic diet proves to be useful. The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of what was published about the benefits of ketogenic diet treatment in patients with epilepsy. Clinical data on the benefits of ketogenic diet treatment in terms of clinical symptoms and adverse reactions in patients with epilepsy have been reviewed. Variables that could have influenced the interpretation of the data were also discussed (e.g., gut microbiota). The data in this review contributes to a better understanding of the potential benefits of a ketogenic diet in the treatment of epilepsy and informs scientists, clinicians, and patients—as well as their families and caregivers—about the possibilities of such treatment. Since 1990, the number of publications on attempts to treat drug-resistant epilepsy with a ketogenic diet has grown so rapidly that it has become a challenge to see the overall trajectory and major milestones achieved in this field. In this review, we hope to provide the latest data from randomized clinical trials, practice guidelines, and new research areas over the past 2 years. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improving the Health Benefits of Snap Bean: Genome-Wide Association Studies of Total Phenolic Content
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2509; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102509 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Snap beans are a significant source of micronutrients in the human diet. Among the micronutrients present in snap beans are phenolic compounds with known beneficial effects on human health, potentially via their metabolism by the gut-associated microbiome. The genetic pathways leading to the [...] Read more.
Snap beans are a significant source of micronutrients in the human diet. Among the micronutrients present in snap beans are phenolic compounds with known beneficial effects on human health, potentially via their metabolism by the gut-associated microbiome. The genetic pathways leading to the production of phenolics in snap bean pods remain uncertain. In this study, we quantified the level of total phenolic content (TPC) in the Bean Coordinated Agriculture Program (CAP) snap bean diversity panel of 149 accessions. The panel was characterized spectrophotometrically for phenolic content with a Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric assay. Flower, seed and pod color were also quantified, as red, purple, yellow and brown colors are associated with anthocyanins and flavonols in common bean. Genotyping was performed through an Illumina Infinium Genechip BARCBEAN6K_3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) analysis identified 11 quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) associated with TPC. An SNP was identified for TPC on Pv07 located near the P gene, which is a major switch in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Candidate genes were identified for seven of the 11 TPC QTN. Five regulatory genes were identified and represent novel sources of variation for exploitation in developing snap beans with higher phenolic levels for greater health benefits to the consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bean Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Bone Fracture Risk in Middle-Aged Women: A Case Control Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102508 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 176
Abstract
The prevention of bone mass loss and related complications associated with osteoporosis is a significant public health issue. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is favorably associated with bone health, a potentially modifiable risk factor. The objective of this research was to determine MD adherence [...] Read more.
The prevention of bone mass loss and related complications associated with osteoporosis is a significant public health issue. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is favorably associated with bone health, a potentially modifiable risk factor. The objective of this research was to determine MD adherence in a sample of women with and without osteoporosis. In this observational case-control study of 139 women (64 women with and 75 without osteoporosis) conducted in a primary-care health center in Girona (Spain), MD adherence, lifestyle, physical exercise, tobacco and alcohol consumption, pathological antecedents, and FRAX index scores were analyzed. Logistic multilinear regression modeling to explore the relationship between the MD and bone fracture risk indicated that better MD adherence was associated with a lower bone risk fracture. Non-pharmacological preventive strategies to reduce bone fracture risk were also reviewed to explore the role of lifestyle and diet in bone mass maintenance and bone fracture prevention. Full article
Open AccessReview
Translation of a Mediterranean-Style Diet into the Australian Dietary Guidelines: A Nutritional, Ecological and Environmental Perspective
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102507 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 223
Abstract
A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been widely investigated and promoted as one of the ‘healthiest’ dietary patterns with respect to reductions in chronic disease risk and longevity. Moreover, it also emphasizes a plant-based dietary pattern consistent with an environmentally sustainable healthy reference diet [...] Read more.
A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been widely investigated and promoted as one of the ‘healthiest’ dietary patterns with respect to reductions in chronic disease risk and longevity. Moreover, it also emphasizes a plant-based dietary pattern consistent with an environmentally sustainable healthy reference diet conveyed by the EAT-Lancet Commission report. Nevertheless, the MedDiet does not exclude, but rather moderates consumption of animal-based foods, and therefore has emerged as a dietary pattern that could address both health and environmental concerns. However, whether non-Mediterranean countries such as Australia can adhere to such dietary principles is less clear. In this narrative review, we present evidence from eight randomized control trials conducted in Australia which demonstrates impressive and sustained adherence to a MedDiet intervention. However, we also report heterogeneity in the dietary protocols and prescriptive interpretation of a MedDiet across all studies presented in this review, making interpretations of the efficacy and adherence challenging. Based on the observable health benefits, translating key dietary elements of a Mediterranean-style diet within the Australian population remains attractive. However, adapting or modernizing traditional dietary patterns to satisfy the population’s nutritional requirements and/or acceptability warrants further exploration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oily Fish Consumption and the Risk of Dyslipidemia in Korean Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study Based on the Health Examinees Gem (HEXA-G) Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102506 - 17 Oct 2019
Viewed by 217
Abstract
Despite the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids from fish or fish oil on cardiovascular diseases, limited information is available regarding the effects of oily fish in the diet on the risk of dyslipidemia. This study aimed to investigate the association between oily [...] Read more.
Despite the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids from fish or fish oil on cardiovascular diseases, limited information is available regarding the effects of oily fish in the diet on the risk of dyslipidemia. This study aimed to investigate the association between oily fish consumption and the incidence of dyslipidemia among Korean adults included in the Health Examinees Gem (HEXA-G) cohort during 5 years of follow-up. In total, 20,670 participants (5710 men and 14,960 women) were included in this study. The average intake of oily fish including dark meat fish, such as mackerel, pacific saury, and Spanish mackerel, and eel, was estimated using food frequency questionnaires. Oily fish consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia in both men (Relative risk (RR) comparing extreme quintiles = 0.75; 95% CI 0.60–0.95; P for trend = 0.0121) and women (RR comparing extreme quintiles = 0.81; 95% CI 0.69–0.96; P for trend = 0.0110) after adjusting for potential confounders. In conclusion, increased consumption of oily fish was significantly associated with a lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia in the general Korean population. Future randomized clinical trials or prospective studies are required to confirm these findings in the Korean or other Asian populations. Full article
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