Special Issue "Diet and Energy Metabolism"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Chris Melby
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Colorado State University, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Fort Collins, United States
Interests: Metabolic flexibility; energy metabolism;obesity treatment; interaction of diet and exercise on cardiometabolic disease risk; exercise metabolism
Prof. Barry Braun
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Colorado State University, Department of Health and Exercise Science, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States
Interests: Optimizing the use of exercise with and without pharmacology to prevent and/or manage type-2 diabetes; Impact of sedentary behavior on metabolism; Hormonal regulation of appetite by activity and inactivity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is considerable interest among scientists and confusion in the general public regarding optimal dietary approaches to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight and composition. Given the importance of this issue, the journal Nutrients is planning a Special Issue on “Diet and Energy Metabolism” with the aim of providing a source for accurate, up-to-date scientific information on this topic. We invite you and your co-workers to consider submission of your original research findings or a review article on the topic. Manuscripts should focus on the impact of controlled dietary perturbations on energy and macronutrient metabolism as they influence energy balance and body weight regulation, metabolic efficiency, metabolic flexibility, postprandial thermogenesis, macronutrient trafficking, appetite regulation, metabolic flexibility, and exercise performance. Examples of short and long-term dietary perturbations include energy restriction, overfeeding, intermittent fasting, and low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. Submissions can include exercise studies but should have a dietary component as well. We encourage authors to discuss the impact of their results and to identify gaps in knowledge that can guide future research studies.

Prof. Chris Melby
Prof. Barry Braun
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Metabolic flexibility
  • Thermic effect of macronutrient ingestion
  • Dietary macronutrient composition and energy balance
  • Changes in energy expenditure associated with caloric reduction
  • Energy efficiency changes associated with calorie reduction
  • Energy compensation in response to dietary or activity changes
  • Energy Flux
  • Effects of activity or inactivity on appetite and energy intake

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Dose–Response Relationship between Meal Protein Content and Postprandial Thermogenesis: Effect of Sex and the Oral Contraceptive Pill
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071599 - 15 Jul 2019
Abstract
Implementation of efficacious dietary interventions to regulate energy balance requires understanding of the determinants of individual response. To date, information regarding individual variability in response to elevated meal protein content is lacking. This study investigates whether sex and/or oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use [...] Read more.
Implementation of efficacious dietary interventions to regulate energy balance requires understanding of the determinants of individual response. To date, information regarding individual variability in response to elevated meal protein content is lacking. This study investigates whether sex and/or oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use play a role in the response to elevated meal protein in 21 healthy young adults (seven men, seven women not taking OCP, and seven women who were OCP users). Participants consumed each of three standardized isocaloric (590 kcal) meals of differing protein content (11, 23, 31% kcal protein). Resting energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), hunger and satiety were measured at baseline (fasting) and during 180 min postprandial. Whilst significant dose–response increases in EE were observed in men, meal protein-induced EE in women without OCP reached a maximum at <23% protein. Women taking OCP reported lower postprandial fullness than women without OCP, despite similar body size, but also, most notably, no significant difference in EE response between any of the meals. Whilst the mechanisms underpinning this thermogenic inflexibility in response across a wide-range (three-fold) of protein meal content require further investigation, this highlights the need for careful consideration of factors that may influence an individual’s metabolic response to dietary interventions aimed at optimising postprandial thermogenesis for body weight regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Energy Metabolism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Interscapular and Perivascular Brown Adipose Tissue Respond Differently to a Short-Term High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051065 - 13 May 2019
Abstract
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) function may depend on its anatomical location and developmental origin. Interscapular BAT (iBAT) regulates acute macronutrient metabolism, whilst perivascular BAT (PVAT) regulates vascular function. Although phenotypically similar, whether these depots respond differently to acute nutrient excess is unclear. Given [...] Read more.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) function may depend on its anatomical location and developmental origin. Interscapular BAT (iBAT) regulates acute macronutrient metabolism, whilst perivascular BAT (PVAT) regulates vascular function. Although phenotypically similar, whether these depots respond differently to acute nutrient excess is unclear. Given their distinct anatomical locations and developmental origins and we hypothesised that iBAT and PVAT would respond differently to brief period of nutrient excess. Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 weeks (n=12) were fed either a standard (10% fat, n=6) or high fat diet (HFD: 45% fat, n=6) for 72h and housed at thermoneutrality. Following an assessment of whole body physiology, fat was collected from both depots for analysis of gene expression and the proteome. HFD consumption for 72h induced rapid weight gain (c. 2.6%) and reduced serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with no change in either total adipose or depot mass. In iBAT, an upregulation of genes involved in insulin signalling and lipid metabolism was accompanied by enrichment of lipid-related processes and functions, plus glucagon and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signalling pathways. In PVAT, HFD induced a pronounced down-regulation of multiple metabolic pathways which was accompanied with increased abundance of proteins involved in apoptosis (e.g., Hdgf and Ywaq) and toll-like receptor signalling (Ube2n). There was also an enrichment of DNA-related processes and functions (e.g., nucleosome assembly and histone exchange) and RNA degradation and cell adhesion pathways. In conclusion, we show that iBAT and PVAT elicit divergent responses to short-term nutrient excess highlighting early adaptations in these depots before changes in fat mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Energy Metabolism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Myricetin Exerts Anti-Obesity Effects through Upregulation of SIRT3 in Adipose Tissue
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121962 - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Myricetin is a biologically active natural polyphenol with beneficial effects on metabolic health. This study aimed to examine the effects of myricetin on the expression levels of genes involved in lipolysis and mitochondrial respiration in adipocytes and the anti-obesity potential of myricetin. The [...] Read more.
Myricetin is a biologically active natural polyphenol with beneficial effects on metabolic health. This study aimed to examine the effects of myricetin on the expression levels of genes involved in lipolysis and mitochondrial respiration in adipocytes and the anti-obesity potential of myricetin. The results indicated that myricetin reduced triglyceride (TG) content and increased mitochondrial content and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in adipocytes in vitro. To determine anti-obesity effect of myricetin, C57BL6/J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for eight weeks and then treated with myricetin (10 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. The in vivo treatment of myricetin reduced body weight by 11%. Furthermore, it improved the glucose tolerance, and increased fatty acid consumption of HFD-fed mice. Myricetin treatment increased Sirt3 expression and reduced the acetylation of mitochondrial proteins in adipose tissue. Finally, the knockdown of Sirt3 in adipocytes reduced the myricetin-induced increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate by about 27% compared to controls. Our results indicated that myricetin exerted anti-obesity effects through the upregulation of Sirt3 expression and mitochondrial metabolism in adipose tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Energy Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of an Encapsulated Nutrient Mixture on Food Intake and Satiety: A Double-Blind Randomized Cross-Over Proof of Concept Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111787 - 17 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Activation of the intestinal brake by infusing nutrients into the distal small intestine with catheters inhibits food intake and enhances satiety. Encapsulation of macronutrients, which protects against digestion in the proximal gastrointestinal tract, can be a non-invasive alternative to activate this brake. In [...] Read more.
Activation of the intestinal brake by infusing nutrients into the distal small intestine with catheters inhibits food intake and enhances satiety. Encapsulation of macronutrients, which protects against digestion in the proximal gastrointestinal tract, can be a non-invasive alternative to activate this brake. In this study, we investigate the effect of oral ingestion of an encapsulated casein and sucrose mixture (active) targeting the distal small intestine versus a control product designed to be released in the stomach on food intake, satiety, and plasma glucose concentrations. Fifty-nine volunteers received the active and control product on two separate test days. Food intake was determined during an ad libitum meal 90 min after ingestion of the test product. Visual analogue scale scores for satiety and blood samples for glucose analysis were collected at regular intervals. Ingestion of the active product decreased food intake compared to the control product (655 kcal compared with 699 kcal, respectively, p < 0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) for hunger was decreased (p < 0.05) and AUC for satiety was increased (p < 0.01) after ingestion of the active product compared to the control product. Ingestion of an encapsulated protein-carbohydrate mixture resulted in inhibition of food intake compared to a non-encapsulated control product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Energy Metabolism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Effectiveness of Intermittent Fasting and Time-Restricted Feeding Compared to Continuous Energy Restriction for Weight Loss
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102442 - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
The current obesity epidemic is staggering in terms of its magnitude and public health impact. Current guidelines recommend continuous energy restriction (CER) along with a comprehensive lifestyle intervention as the cornerstone of obesity treatment, yet this approach produces modest weight loss on average. [...] Read more.
The current obesity epidemic is staggering in terms of its magnitude and public health impact. Current guidelines recommend continuous energy restriction (CER) along with a comprehensive lifestyle intervention as the cornerstone of obesity treatment, yet this approach produces modest weight loss on average. Recently, there has been increased interest in identifying alternative dietary weight loss strategies that involve restricting energy intake to certain periods of the day or prolonging the fasting interval between meals (i.e., intermittent energy restriction, IER). These strategies include intermittent fasting (IMF; >60% energy restriction on 2–3 days per week, or on alternate days) and time-restricted feeding (TRF; limiting the daily period of food intake to 8–10 h or less on most days of the week). Here, we summarize the current evidence for IER regimens as treatments for overweight and obesity. Specifically, we review randomized trials of ≥8 weeks in duration performed in adults with overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) in which an IER paradigm (IMF or TRF) was compared to CER, with the primary outcome being weight loss. Overall, the available evidence suggests that IER paradigms produce equivalent weight loss when compared to CER, with 9 out of 11 studies reviewed showing no differences between groups in weight or body fat loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Energy Metabolism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Accounting for the Nutritional Context to Correctly Interpret Results from Studies of Exercise and Sedentary Behavior
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092230 - 16 Sep 2019
Abstract
There is a wealth of research lauding the benefits of exercise to oppose cardiometabolic disease such as diabetes, CVD and hypertension. However, in the great majority of these studies, the nutritional context (energy balance, deficit, or surplus) has been ignored, despite its profound [...] Read more.
There is a wealth of research lauding the benefits of exercise to oppose cardiometabolic disease such as diabetes, CVD and hypertension. However, in the great majority of these studies, the nutritional context (energy balance, deficit, or surplus) has been ignored, despite its profound effect on responses to both exercise and inactivity. Even a minor energy deficit or surplus can strongly modulate the magnitude and duration of the metabolic responses to an intervention; therefore, failure to account for this important confounding variable obscures clear interpretation of the results from studies of exercise or inactivity. The aim of this review is to highlight key lessons from studies examining the interaction between exercise and sedentary behavior, energy status, and glucose and insulin regulation. In addition to identifying notable problems, we suggest a few potential solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Energy Metabolism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Nutrition in Ultra-Endurance: State of the Art
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121995 - 16 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Athletes competing in ultra-endurance sports should manage nutritional issues, especially with regards to energy and fluid balance. An ultra-endurance race, considered a duration of at least 6 h, might induce the energy balance (i.e., energy deficit) in levels that could reach up to [...] Read more.
Athletes competing in ultra-endurance sports should manage nutritional issues, especially with regards to energy and fluid balance. An ultra-endurance race, considered a duration of at least 6 h, might induce the energy balance (i.e., energy deficit) in levels that could reach up to ~7000 kcal per day. Such a negative energy balance is a major health and performance concern as it leads to a decrease of both fat and skeletal muscle mass in events such as 24-h swimming, 6-day cycling or 17-day running. Sport anemia caused by heavy exercise and gastrointestinal discomfort, under hot or cold environmental conditions also needs to be considered as a major factor for health and performance in ultra-endurance sports. In addition, fluid losses from sweat can reach up to 2 L/h due to increased metabolic work during prolonged exercise and exercise under hot environments that might result in hypohydration. Athletes are at an increased risk for exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) and limb swelling when intake of fluids is greater than the volume lost. Optimal pre-race nutritional strategies should aim to increase fat utilization during exercise, and the consumption of fat-rich foods may be considered during the race, as well as carbohydrates, electrolytes, and fluid. Moreover, to reduce the risk of EAH, fluid intake should include sodium in the amounts of 10–25 mmol to reduce the risk of EAH and should be limited to 300–600 mL per hour of the race. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Energy Metabolism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop