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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 15, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 39 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Germany is aiming for 15 million battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and 6 million electric heat pumps (HPs) by 2030 in order to achieve its 2030 climate protection targets. However, the power system must be able to transmit the expected new maximum load values. In this respect, this study presents a systematic evaluation of real, typical LV grid structures to provide information on grid compatibility and potential weaknesses that may arise due to the increasing load demands in the future, in order to assess whether each grid’s bottleneck reaches its acceptable limit. The results of this study provide a useful framework that distribution system operators can apply to anticipate the forthcoming challenges and identify when grid reinforcement will be required. View this paper
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18 pages, 1295 KiB  
Article
Resonant Gate Drive Circuit with Active Clamping to Increase Efficiency and Reliability
by Jiaming Zheng, Yi Du, Dachuan Chen, Wucheng Ying, Hui Zhao, Kefu Liu and Jian Qiu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020074 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 944
Abstract
In power converters with high switching frequency, drive losses constitute a significant portion of the overall power losses. Resonant gate drivers can reduce drive losses, thereby enhancing the efficiency. However, resonant drivers suffer certain challenges: parameter drifts lead to the mismatch between the [...] Read more.
In power converters with high switching frequency, drive losses constitute a significant portion of the overall power losses. Resonant gate drivers can reduce drive losses, thereby enhancing the efficiency. However, resonant drivers suffer certain challenges: parameter drifts lead to the mismatch between the resonant frequency and the control frequency, and this mismatch can cause gate-to-source voltage overshoot. Moreover, the resonant driver is susceptible to external interference. This paper proposes a resonant circuit structure and control timing scheme aimed at overcoming these limitations. By incorporating a half-bridge clamp circuit, the proposed design achieves voltage clamping, thereby insulating the system from disturbances caused by mains power fluctuations. When there is a mismatch in resonant frequencies, the strategy employs a combination of hardware circuit diodes and control system timing to prevent overvoltage issues. Additionally, the utilization of MOSFETs minimizes the loss caused by prolonged current flow through body diodes, further reducing the resonant driving losses. Simulations have demonstrated the system’s stability under varying resonant parameters and its effective anti-interference capabilities in voltage clamping. Experiments achieved a power saving of 83.3% at a 1 MHz operating frequency. Both simulations and experimental validations confirm the feasibility of the proposed solution, its effectiveness in interference suppression, handling of resonant mismatches, and its role in further augmenting power conservation. Full article
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15 pages, 3425 KiB  
Article
Research on Cooperative Control of Multiple Intelligent Networked Vehicles Based on the Improved Leader–Follower Method
by Jingyue Wang, Yanchang Lv, Xiaomeng Shan, Haotian Wang and Junnian Wang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020073 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 851
Abstract
In order to study the group cooperative control method of multiple intelligent networked vehicles, the multiple intelligent networked vehicles can move in the form of a fleet. Based on the leader–follower method, the paper optimizes the control effect of the leader–follower method by [...] Read more.
In order to study the group cooperative control method of multiple intelligent networked vehicles, the multiple intelligent networked vehicles can move in the form of a fleet. Based on the leader–follower method, the paper optimizes the control effect of the leader–follower method by solving the error transmission phenomenon in the leader–follower method. In this paper, the modeling of the multiple intelligent connected vehicle adopts the vehicle dynamics model and the Magic Formula/Swift Magic tire model, and adopts the model predictive control (MPC) dynamics trajectory tracking controller for control. Through the CarSim–Simulink multi-vehicle dynamics co-simulation platform established in this paper, the group cooperative control experiments of multiple intelligent networked vehicles under different working conditions were carried out for simulation verification. The analysis results show that the maximum average error of the proposed method decreases from 8.802 to 0.094 in the case of straight line and 0.669 to 0.379 in the case of curve tracking, which proves that the method can effectively reduce the transmission of errors. Full article
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14 pages, 2804 KiB  
Article
A Machine-Learning-Based Approach to Analyse the Feature Importance and Predict the Electrode Mass Loading of a Solid-State Battery
by Wenming Dai, Yong Xiang, Wenyi Zhou and Qiao Peng
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020072 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 918
Abstract
Solid-state batteries are currently developing into one of the most promising battery types for both the electrification of transport and for energy storage applications due to their high energy density and safe operating behaviour. The performance of solid-state batteries is largely determined by [...] Read more.
Solid-state batteries are currently developing into one of the most promising battery types for both the electrification of transport and for energy storage applications due to their high energy density and safe operating behaviour. The performance of solid-state batteries is largely determined by the manufacturing process, particularly in the production of electrodes. However, efficiently analysing the effects of key manufacturing features and predicting the mass loading of electrodes in the early stages of battery manufacturing remain a major challenge. In this study, a machine-learning-based approach is proposed to effectively analyse the importance of manufacturing features and accurately predict the mass loading of electrodes. Specifically, the importance of four key features during the manufacturing process of solid-state batteries is first quantified and analysed using a machine-learning-based method to analyse the importance of features. Then, four effective machine-learning-based regression methods, including decision tree, boosted decision tree, support vector regression and Gaussian process regression, are used to predict the mass loading of the electrodes in the mixing and coating stages. The comparative results show that the developed machine-learning-based approach is able to provide a satisfactory prediction of the electrode mass loading of a solid-state battery with 0.995 R2 while successfully quantifying the importance of four key features in the early manufacturing stages. Due to the advantages of its data-driven nature, the developed machine-learning-based approach can efficiently assist engineers in monitoring/predicting the electrode mass loading of solid-state batteries and analysing/quantifying the importance of manufacturing features of interest. This could benefit the production of solid-state batteries for further energy storage applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicle)
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17 pages, 6709 KiB  
Article
An Open-Circuit Fault Diagnosis System Based on Neural Networks in the Inverter of Three-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)
by Kenny Sau Kang Chu, Kuew Wai Chew, Yoong Choon Chang and Stella Morris
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020071 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Three-phase motors find extensive applications in various industries. Open-circuit faults are a common occurrence in inverters, and the open-circuit fault diagnosis system plays a crucial role in identifying and addressing these faults to enhance the safety of motor operations. Nevertheless, the current open-circuit [...] Read more.
Three-phase motors find extensive applications in various industries. Open-circuit faults are a common occurrence in inverters, and the open-circuit fault diagnosis system plays a crucial role in identifying and addressing these faults to enhance the safety of motor operations. Nevertheless, the current open-circuit fault diagnosis system faces challenges in precisely detecting specific faulty switches. The proposed work presents a neural network-based open-circuit fault diagnosis system for identifying faulty power switches in inverter-driven motor systems. The system leverages trained phase-to-phase voltage data from the motor to recognize the type and location of faults in each phase with high accuracy. Employing separate neural networks for each of the three phases in a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor, the system achieves an outstanding overall fault detection accuracy of approximately 99.8%, with CNN and CNN-LSTM architectures demonstrating superior performance. This work makes two key contributions: (1) implementing neural networks to significantly improve the accuracy of locating faulty switches in open-circuit fault scenarios, and (2) identifying the optimal neural network architecture for effective fault diagnosis within the proposed system. Full article
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19 pages, 2443 KiB  
Review
Grid Integration for Electric Vehicles: A Realistic Strategy for Environmentally Friendly Mobility and Renewable Power
by Pradeep Vishnuram and Sureshkumar Alagarsamy
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020070 - 16 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
The promotion of electric vehicles (EVs) as sustainable energy sources for transportation is advocated due to global considerations such as energy consumption and environmental challenges. The recent incorporation of renewable energy sources into virtual power plants has greatly enhanced the influence of electric [...] Read more.
The promotion of electric vehicles (EVs) as sustainable energy sources for transportation is advocated due to global considerations such as energy consumption and environmental challenges. The recent incorporation of renewable energy sources into virtual power plants has greatly enhanced the influence of electric vehicles in the transportation industry. Vehicle grid integration offers a practical and economical method to improve energy sustainability, addressing the requirements of consumers on the user side. The effective utilisation of electric vehicles in stationary applications is highlighted by technological breakthroughs in the energy sector. The continuous advancement in science and industry is confirming the growing efficiency of electric vehicles (EVs) as virtual power plants. Nonetheless, a thorough inquiry is imperative to elucidate the principles, integration, and advancement of virtual power plants in conjunction with electric automobiles, specifically targeting academics and researchers in this field. The examination specifically emphasises the energy generation and storage components used in electric vehicles. In addition, it explores several vehicle–grid integration (VGI) configurations, such as single-stage, two-stage, and hybrid-multi-stage systems. This study also considers the various types of grid connections and the factors related to them. This detailed investigation seeks to offer insights into the various facets of incorporating electric vehicles into virtual power plants. It takes into account technology improvements, energy sustainability, and the practical ramifications for users. Full article
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23 pages, 744 KiB  
Article
Heuristic Algorithms for Heterogeneous and Multi-Trip Electric Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery
by Li Wang, Yifan Ding, Zhiyuan Chen, Zhiyuan Su and Yufeng Zhuang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020069 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1052
Abstract
In light of the widespread use of electric vehicles for urban distribution, this paper delves into the electric vehicle routing problem (EVRP): specifically addressing multiple trips per vehicle, diverse vehicle types, and simultaneous pickup and delivery. The primary objective is to minimize the [...] Read more.
In light of the widespread use of electric vehicles for urban distribution, this paper delves into the electric vehicle routing problem (EVRP): specifically addressing multiple trips per vehicle, diverse vehicle types, and simultaneous pickup and delivery. The primary objective is to minimize the overall cost, which encompasses travel expenses, waiting times, recharging costs, and fixed vehicle costs. The focal problem is formulated as a heterogeneous and multi-trip electric vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery (H-MT-EVRP-PD). Additionally, we introduce two heuristic algorithms to efficiently approximate solutions within a reasonable computational time. The variable neighborhood search (VNS) algorithm and the adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS) algorithm are presented and compared based on our computational experiences with both. Through solving a series of large-scale real-world instances for the H-MT-EVRP-PD and smaller instances using an exact method, we demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Intelligent Vehicle Path Planning Algorithm)
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19 pages, 7288 KiB  
Article
A State-of-Health Estimation Method for Lithium Batteries under Multi-Dimensional Features
by Yu Zhang, Zhaozhao Hu and Tiezhou Wu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020068 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
In recent years, the number of new energy vehicles has increased rapidly. The online state-of-health (SOH) prediction of lithium-ion batteries, which are core components of new energy vehicles, is crucial for maintaining vehicle safety. However, existing data-driven methods encounter challenges such as the [...] Read more.
In recent years, the number of new energy vehicles has increased rapidly. The online state-of-health (SOH) prediction of lithium-ion batteries, which are core components of new energy vehicles, is crucial for maintaining vehicle safety. However, existing data-driven methods encounter challenges such as the difficult application of health feature extraction methods in practice, single feature dimensions, and complex algorithm models. This study extracted the peak height of the incremental capacity (IC) curve, constant-current charging time, and time when the battery surface temperature reaches its maximum value as health features from multiple dimensions. Furthermore, by randomly generating prey, the Pelican Optimization Algorithm (POA) fundamentally overcomes the shortcomings of traditional swarm intelligence optimization algorithms which are prone to falling into local optimal solutions. POA was introduced to optimize the Deep Extreme Learning Machine (DELM), which maximally simplified the algorithm model while ensuring accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that this method does not require extensive historical data support. Whether applied to batteries under the same or different working conditions, all four battery groups exhibit excellent prediction results, with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) values below 1.2%. Full article
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34 pages, 7106 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Electric Vehicle Charging Recommendation in Smart Cities: A Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning Approach
by Pannee Suanpang and Pitchaya Jamjuntr
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020067 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
As global awareness for preserving natural energy sustainability rises, electric vehicles (EVs) are increasingly becoming a preferred choice for transportation because of their ability to emit zero emissions, conserve energy, and reduce pollution, especially in smart cities with sustainable development. Nonetheless, the lack [...] Read more.
As global awareness for preserving natural energy sustainability rises, electric vehicles (EVs) are increasingly becoming a preferred choice for transportation because of their ability to emit zero emissions, conserve energy, and reduce pollution, especially in smart cities with sustainable development. Nonetheless, the lack of adequate EV charging infrastructure remains a significant problem that has resulted in varying charging demands at different locations and times, particularly in developing countries. As a consequence, this inadequacy has posed a challenge for EV drivers, particularly those in smart cities, as they face difficulty in locating suitable charging stations. Nevertheless, the recent development of deep reinforcement learning is a promising technology that has the potential to improve the charging experience in several ways over the long term. This paper proposes a novel approach for recommending EV charging stations using multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) algorithms by comparing several popular algorithms, including the deep deterministic policy gradient, deep Q-network, multi-agent DDPG (MADDPG), Real, and Random, in optimizing the placement and allocation of the EV charging stations. The results demonstrated that MADDPG outperformed other algorithms in terms of the Mean Charge Waiting Time, CFT, and Total Saving Fee, thus indicating its superiority in addressing the EV charging station problem in a multi-agent setting. The collaborative and communicative nature of the MADDPG algorithm played a key role in achieving these results. Hence, this approach could provide a better user experience, increase the adoption of EVs, and be extended to other transportation-related problems. Overall, this study highlighted the potential of MARL as a powerful approach for solving complex optimization problems in transportation and beyond. This would also contribute to the development of more efficient and sustainable transportation systems in smart cities for sustainable development. Full article
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15 pages, 3580 KiB  
Article
Design Analysis of High-Power Level 4 Smart Charging Infrastructure Using Next-Generation Power Devices for EVs and Heavy Duty EVs
by Tehseen Ilahi, Tahir Izhar, Muhammad Zahid, Akhtar Rasool, Kelebaone Tsamaase, Tausif Zahid and Ehtisham Muhammad Khan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020066 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Trending electric vehicles with different battery technologies need universally compatible and fast chargers. Present semiconductor technology is not suitable for designing high-power-rating converters. The increasing demand for high-capacity electric vehicle chargers requires efficient and optimum advanced material technology. This research presents next-generation material-based [...] Read more.
Trending electric vehicles with different battery technologies need universally compatible and fast chargers. Present semiconductor technology is not suitable for designing high-power-rating converters. The increasing demand for high-capacity electric vehicle chargers requires efficient and optimum advanced material technology. This research presents next-generation material-based smart ultra-fast electric vehicle charging infrastructure for upcoming high-capacity EV batteries. The designed level 4 charger will be helpful for charging future heavy-duty electric vehicles with battery voltages of up to 2000 V. The designed infrastructure will be helpful for charging both EVs and heavy-duty electric trucks with a wide range of power levels. Wireless sensor-based smart systems monitor and control the overall charging infrastructure. The detailed design analysis of the proposed charger using the Simscape physical modeling tool is discussed using mathematical equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Charging Strategies for Plug-In Electric Vehicles)
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33 pages, 21932 KiB  
Article
Decoupling Control of Yaw Stability of Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles
by Weijun Wang, Zefeng Liu, Songlin Yang, Xiyan Song, Yuanyuan Qiu and Fengjuan Li
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020065 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 977
Abstract
Most of the research on driving stability control of distributed drive electric vehicles is based on a yaw motion design controller. The designed controller can improve the lateral stability of the vehicle well but rarely mentions its changes to the roll and pitch [...] Read more.
Most of the research on driving stability control of distributed drive electric vehicles is based on a yaw motion design controller. The designed controller can improve the lateral stability of the vehicle well but rarely mentions its changes to the roll and pitch motion of the body, and the uneven distribution of the driving force will also cause instability in the vehicle speed, resulting in wheel transition slip, wheel sideslip, and vehicle stability loss. In order to improve the spatial stability of distributed-driven electric vehicles and resolve the control instability caused by their motion coupling, a decoupled control strategy of yaw, roll, and pitch motion based on multi-objective constraints was proposed. The strategy adopts hierarchical control logic. At the upper level, a yaw motion controller based on robust model predictive control, a roll motion controller, and a pitch motion controller based on feedback optimal control are designed. In the lower level, through the motion coupling analysis of the vehicle yaw control process, based on the coupling analysis, the vehicle yaw, roll, and pitch decoupling controller based on multi-objective constraints is designed. Finally, the effectiveness of the decoupling controller is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle System Dynamics and Intelligent Control for Electric Vehicles)
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22 pages, 12650 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Performance Characteristics of a Traction Battery in an Electric Vehicle
by Boris V. Malozyomov, Nikita V. Martyushev, Vladislav V. Kukartsev, Vladimir Yu. Konyukhov, Tatiana A. Oparina, Nadezhda S. Sevryugina, Valeriy E. Gozbenko and Viktor V. Kondratiev
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020064 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Electric vehicles are the most innovative and promising area of the automotive industry. The efficiency of a traction battery is an important factor in the performance of an electric vehicle. This paper presents a mathematical model of an electric truck, including modules for [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles are the most innovative and promising area of the automotive industry. The efficiency of a traction battery is an important factor in the performance of an electric vehicle. This paper presents a mathematical model of an electric truck, including modules for the traction battery to determine the depth of battery discharge during the operation of the electric truck, a traction electric system for the electric truck and a system for calculating traction forces on the shaft in electric motors. As a result of the modelling, the charging and discharging currents of an accumulator battery in a real cycle of movement in peak and nominal modes of operation in electric motors and at different voltages of the accumulator battery are determined. A functional scheme of a generalized model of the electric vehicle traction electrical equipment system is developed. An experimental battery charge degree, torques of asynchronous electric motors, temperature of electric motors and inverters, battery voltage and the speed of electric motors have been measured and analysed. The developed complex mathematical model of an electric vehicle including a traction battery, two inverters and two asynchronous electric motors integrated into an electric portal bridge allowed us to obtain and study the load parameters of the battery in real driving cycles. Data were verified by comparing simulation results with the data obtained during driving. Full article
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15 pages, 2730 KiB  
Review
Research Progress and Prospects of Public Transportation Charging Station Layout Methods
by Hao Lei, Xinghua Hu, Jiahao Zhao, Dongde Deng and Ran Wang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020063 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Electric buses have been vigorously promoted and implemented in major countries worldwide and have generated a huge demand for charging stations. Optimizing the daily charging experience of electric buses, adapting the daily operation scheduling, improving the utilization rate of charging stations, reducing the [...] Read more.
Electric buses have been vigorously promoted and implemented in major countries worldwide and have generated a huge demand for charging stations. Optimizing the daily charging experience of electric buses, adapting the daily operation scheduling, improving the utilization rate of charging stations, reducing the load on the power grid, and improving the operation efficiency of electric bus line networks require the reasonable layout of the charging stations. In this study, public transportation charging station layout and siting is the research object. We summarize the progress of analysis methods from the charging station and vehicle sides; introduce related research on the planning and layout of charging stations based on optimization models, including cost analysis and siting and layout for electric bus systems; summarize the data-driven station planning and siting research; and provide an overview of the current charging demand estimation, accuracy, and charging efficiency. Finally, we address the problems of the charging demand estimation accuracy, the mismatch between the charging station layouts for electric buses, and the charging demand on a long time scale. We suggest that research be conducted on data fusion for the temporal and spatial refinement of charging demand prediction in the context of the electrification of public transportation systems and the big data of telematics. Full article
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15 pages, 6961 KiB  
Article
Research on YOLOv5 Vehicle Detection and Positioning System Based on Binocular Vision
by Yixiao Zhang, Yuanming Gong and Xiaolong Chen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020062 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Vehicle detection and location is one of the key sensing tasks of automatic driving systems. Traditional detection methods are easily affected by illumination, occlusion and scale changes in complex scenes, which limits the accuracy and robustness of detection. In order to solve these [...] Read more.
Vehicle detection and location is one of the key sensing tasks of automatic driving systems. Traditional detection methods are easily affected by illumination, occlusion and scale changes in complex scenes, which limits the accuracy and robustness of detection. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a vehicle detection and location method for YOLOv5(You Only Look Once version 5) based on binocular vision. Binocular vision uses two cameras to obtain images from different angles at the same time. By calculating the difference between the two images, more accurate depth information can be obtained. The YOLOv5 algorithm is improved by adding the CBAM attention mechanism and replacing the loss function to improve target detection. Combining these two techniques can achieve accurate detection and localization of vehicles in 3D space. The method utilizes the depth information of binocular images and the improved YOLOv5 target detection algorithm to achieve accurate detection and localization of vehicles in front. Experimental results show that the method has high accuracy and robustness for vehicle detection and localization tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning Applications for Electric Vehicles)
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23 pages, 7872 KiB  
Article
Research on Energy Management Strategy of Fuel Cell Tractor Hybrid Power System
by Sixia Zhao, Zhi Gao, Xianzhe Li, Yanying Li and Liyou Xu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020061 - 09 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to fuel cell-based hybrid tractors. In order to optimize the global power distribution of tractors and further improve the fuel economy and fuel cell durability of the system, this paper designs an energy [...] Read more.
In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to fuel cell-based hybrid tractors. In order to optimize the global power distribution of tractors and further improve the fuel economy and fuel cell durability of the system, this paper designs an energy management strategy to maximize external energy efficiency based on fuel cell/lithium battery/supercapacitor hybrid tractors. This strategy aims to reduce the real-time hydrogen consumption of the system while maximizing the external energy output so as to reduce the impact of load randomness on the output power of the fuel cell. Under the typical ploughing conditions of the tractor, the simulation is compared with the state machine strategy and the equivalent hydrogen consumption minimization strategy. The results show that the proposed strategy meets the power requirements of a given ploughing condition, and compared with the two traditional strategy systems, the performance characteristics of auxiliary energy are more fully exerted. It reduces the burden on fuel cells and improves the durability of fuel cells. The hydrogen consumption of the system was reduced by 11.03 g and 16.54 g, respectively, improving the overall economy of the hybrid system. Full article
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18 pages, 3096 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Electric Vehicle Battery Life: A Machine Learning Approach for Sustainable Transportation
by K. Karthick, S. Ravivarman and R. Priyanka
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020060 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming increasingly popular, due to their beneficial environmental effects and low operating costs. However, one of the main challenges with EVs is their short battery life. This study presents a comprehensive approach for predicting the Remaining Useful Life (RUL) [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming increasingly popular, due to their beneficial environmental effects and low operating costs. However, one of the main challenges with EVs is their short battery life. This study presents a comprehensive approach for predicting the Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of Nickel Manganese Cobalt-Lithium Cobalt Oxide (NMC-LCO) batteries. This research utilizes a dataset derived from the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, encompassing 14 individual batteries subjected to over 1000 cycles under controlled conditions. A multi-step methodology is adopted, starting with data collection and preprocessing, followed by feature selection and outlier elimination. Machine learning models, including XGBoost, BaggingRegressor, LightGBM, CatBoost, and ExtraTreesRegressor, are employed to develop the RUL prediction model. Feature importance analysis aids in identifying critical parameters influencing battery health and lifespan. Statistical evaluations reveal no missing or duplicate data, and outlier removal enhances model accuracy. Notably, XGBoost emerged as the most effective algorithm, providing near-perfect predictions. This research underscores the significance of RUL prediction for enhancing battery lifecycle management, particularly in applications like electric vehicles, ensuring optimal resource utilization, cost efficiency, and environmental sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Propulsion Systems of EVs 2.0)
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16 pages, 8889 KiB  
Article
Reducing the Environmental Impact of Large Battery Systems with Conductive Electric Road Systems—A Technical Overview
by David Wenander and Mats Alaküla
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020059 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1316
Abstract
A radical transformation of the transport industry is required in order to achieve a fossil-fuel-free vehicle fleet and reach the greenhouse gas emissions goals. Electrification plays a crucial role in this radical process. An electric road system (ERS) is a road that supplies [...] Read more.
A radical transformation of the transport industry is required in order to achieve a fossil-fuel-free vehicle fleet and reach the greenhouse gas emissions goals. Electrification plays a crucial role in this radical process. An electric road system (ERS) is a road that supplies power to electric vehicles as they drive on it, offering numerous advantages. These include an extended driving range, decreased reliance on batteries, and increased flexibility and convenience for drivers, eliminating the need to stop for recharging. This paper highlights the transformative potential of ERS in revolutionizing the land transport sector. Through thorough testing with a conductive ERS demonstrator, the viability of the presented technology is validated. Essential aspects like power transfer, efficiency, safety, and environmental impact showcase ERS’s adaptability and scalability across diverse vehicle types. This study recommends widespread ERS support for battery electric vehicles, emphasizing the route toward a sustainable future. Full article
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18 pages, 6243 KiB  
Article
Research on the Multiple Capacitor Current Sharing of High-Current Receiving Coils in a Series–Series Wireless Charging System
by Yuxin Xie, Shengkun Cai, Guangye Li, Zhizhen Liu, Yuandi Zhao, Gangjie Qiao and Xianglin Li
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020058 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 981
Abstract
In order to improve wireless charging power and reduce heating problems, the optimal design of the high-current wireless charging coil has always been the research focus of wireless charging system research. This paper proposes a multi-branch and multi-capacitance current sharing method for series–series [...] Read more.
In order to improve wireless charging power and reduce heating problems, the optimal design of the high-current wireless charging coil has always been the research focus of wireless charging system research. This paper proposes a multi-branch and multi-capacitance current sharing method for series–series (SS) receiving coils. Firstly, the current sharing model with n branches that are connected parallel to multiple compensation capacitors is established. The current sharing situation of parallel coils with three branches and three capacitors with independently resonant compensation is analyzed. Then, the wireless charging system with the parallel coils of 48 V/100 A receiving coils is simulated. The results show that when one capacitor is used for compensation, the three-coil currents highly differ; when three capacitors are compensated independently, the three-coil currents are basically equal. The simulation results show that the current sharing method can effectively improve the charging power of the system and reduce the maximum temperature of the receiving coil, which proves the effectiveness of this method. Finally, through the experimental comparison, it is verified that the current sharing measure can make the current of each wire basically equal. Full article
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13 pages, 1225 KiB  
Article
Optimization of H2 Supply to the Refuelling Infrastructure for Long-Haul Trucks: Centralized versus Local H2 Production, and Using Transportation by Tanker Truck or Pipeline
by Nafisa Mahbub and Hajo Ribberink
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020057 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1074
Abstract
In a simulation study, it was investigated how the costs of supplying H2 for the refuelling of long-haul trucks along highways in Canada can be minimized by optimizing the design of the refuelling infrastructure. Scenarios using local or centralized blue H2 production were [...] Read more.
In a simulation study, it was investigated how the costs of supplying H2 for the refuelling of long-haul trucks along highways in Canada can be minimized by optimizing the design of the refuelling infrastructure. Scenarios using local or centralized blue H2 production were evaluated using two different modes of H2 transportation (liquid H2 tanker trucks and pipelines). For each scenario, the average H2 supply costs were determined considering H2 production costs from facilities of different sizes and transportation costs for H2 that was not produced locally. Average H2 supply costs were 2.83 CAD/kg H2 for the scenario with local H2 production at each refuelling site, 3.22–3.27 CAD/kg H2 for scenarios using centralized H2 production and tanker truck transportation, and 2.92–2.96 CAD/kg H2 for centralized H2 production scenarios with pipeline transportation. Optimized scenarios using the cheaper transportation option (tanker truck or pipeline) for each highway segment had average H2 supply costs (2.82–2.88 CAD/kg H2) similar to those of using only local H2 production, with slightly lower costs for the scenario using the largest H2 production volumes. Follow-on research is recommended to include the impact of CO2 transportation (from blue H2 production) on the design of an optimum supply infrastructure. Full article
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9 pages, 1312 KiB  
Communication
Flexibility Potential of Smart Charging Electric Trucks and Buses
by Christian Will and Fabian Ocker
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020056 - 07 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1740
Abstract
In addition to passenger vehicles, battery-electric trucks and buses could offer substantial flexibility to the energy system. Using a Bass diffusion model, we extrapolated the unidirectional charging needs and availability of trucks in five of eleven typical applications, as well as city buses, [...] Read more.
In addition to passenger vehicles, battery-electric trucks and buses could offer substantial flexibility to the energy system. Using a Bass diffusion model, we extrapolated the unidirectional charging needs and availability of trucks in five of eleven typical applications, as well as city buses, for Germany until 2040. Combined, these heavy-duty vehicles could provide up to 23 GW of down-regulating flexibility potential (i.e., in case of excess power supply) in 2040. The resulting revenues could contribute to reducing electricity costs for depot operators. These results illustrate the need to provide easy and automated market access to heavy-duty vehicle fleets. Full article
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17 pages, 2064 KiB  
Article
An Optimal Approach to Energy Management Control of a Fuel-Cell Vehicle
by Francesco Cerrito, Massimo Canale and Massimiliana Carello
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020055 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
This paper presents the design of an energy management control system to improve powertrain efficiency and optimize the amount of fuel used by a hybrid fuel cell vehicle in a route-based scenario. To reach this goal, a complete tank-to-wheel model is developed under [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design of an energy management control system to improve powertrain efficiency and optimize the amount of fuel used by a hybrid fuel cell vehicle in a route-based scenario. To reach this goal, a complete tank-to-wheel model is developed under the assumption of a known scenario, the speed profile that best minimizes the energy required to complete the test is computed, and a controller able to handle the power request is designed. In particular, a Model Predictive Control architecture is used to split the power request between the primary and the secondary power source (fuel cell and supercapacitors). The effectiveness of the proposed approach is assessed through extensive simulation tests using a realistic model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Electric Fuel Cell-Based Vehicles)
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12 pages, 8904 KiB  
Article
Comparison of EV Fast Charging Protocols and Impact of Sinusoidal Half-Wave Fast Charging Methods on Lithium-Ion Cells
by Sai Bhargava Althurthi, Kaushik Rajashekara and Tutan Debnath
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020054 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
In electric vehicle fast charging systems, it is important to minimize the effect of fast charging on the grid and it is also important to operate the charging system at high efficiencies. In order to achieve these objectives, in this paper, a sinusoidal [...] Read more.
In electric vehicle fast charging systems, it is important to minimize the effect of fast charging on the grid and it is also important to operate the charging system at high efficiencies. In order to achieve these objectives, in this paper, a sinusoidal half-wave DC current charging protocol and a sinusoidal half-wave pulsed current charging protocol are proposed for the fast charging of Li-ion batteries. A detailed procedure is presented for implementing the following proposed methods: (a) a pre-defined half-sine wave current function and (b) a pulsed half-sine wave current method. Unlike the conventional full-wave sinusoidal ripple current charging protocols, the proposed study does not utilize any sinusoidal full-wave ripple. The performance of these new charging methods on Ni-Co-Al-type Li-cells is studied and compared with the existing constant current and positive pulsed current charging protocols, which have been discussed in the existing literature. In addition, the changes in the electrochemical impedance spectrograph of each cell are examined to study the effects of the applied charging methods on the internal resistance of the Li cell. Finally, the test results are presented for 250 life cycles of charging at 2C (C: charging rate) and the degradation in cell capacities are compared among the four different methods for the Ni-Co-Al-type Li cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fast-Charging Station for Electric Vehicles: Challenges and Issues)
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26 pages, 15997 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis of Multiple Open-Circuit Faults in Three-Phase Induction Machine Drive Systems Based on Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Algorithm
by Badii Gmati, Amine Ben Rhouma, Houda Meddeb and Sejir Khojet El Khil
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020053 - 05 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
Availability and continuous operation under critical conditions are very important in electric machine drive systems. Such systems may suffer from several types of failures that affect the electric machine or the associated voltage source inverter. Therefore, fault diagnosis and fault tolerance are highly [...] Read more.
Availability and continuous operation under critical conditions are very important in electric machine drive systems. Such systems may suffer from several types of failures that affect the electric machine or the associated voltage source inverter. Therefore, fault diagnosis and fault tolerance are highly required. This paper presents a new robust deep learning-based approach to diagnose multiple open-circuit faults in three-phase, two-level voltage source inverters for induction-motor drive applications. The proposed approach uses fault-diagnosis variables obtained from the sigmoid transformation of the motor stator currents. The open-circuit fault-diagnosis variables are then introduced to a bidirectional long short-term memory algorithm to detect the faulty switch(es). Several simulation and experimental results are presented to show the proposed fault-diagnosis algorithm’s effectiveness and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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22 pages, 3084 KiB  
Article
Modeling the Impact of Different Policies on Electric Vehicle Adoption: An Investigative Study
by Pg Emeroylariffion Abas and Benedict Tan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020052 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Electric Vehicles (EVs) emerge as a crucial solution for alleviating the environmental footprint of the transportation sector. However, fostering their widespread adoption demands effective, targeted policies. This study introduces a versatile model, amalgamating stakeholders and policies and leveraging local data with broader market [...] Read more.
Electric Vehicles (EVs) emerge as a crucial solution for alleviating the environmental footprint of the transportation sector. However, fostering their widespread adoption demands effective, targeted policies. This study introduces a versatile model, amalgamating stakeholders and policies and leveraging local data with broader market applicability. It delineates two key EV adopter groups—innovators and imitators—shedding light on their evolving impact on adoption trends. A pivotal feature of the model is the factoring of EV attractiveness, comprising Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Driving Range, Charging Time, and infrastructure availability, all of which are expected to improve with the fast technological advancement of EVs. Financial policies, notably subsidies, prove potent in boosting EV adoption but fall short of targeted sales due to imitator lag. In response, a pragmatic solution is proposed: a government-led EV acquisition of 840 EVs, coupled with a 20% subsidy on new EV purchases and a 20% tax on new ICEV purchases, potentially realizing a 30% EV sales target by 2035. Future research avenues may delve into behavioral dynamics prompting imitators’ adoption, optimizing EV infrastructure strategies, and assessing the socio-economic impacts of EVs. Interdisciplinary approaches hold promise for enriched insights for effective EV integration policies. Full article
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14 pages, 4244 KiB  
Article
Long Downhill Braking and Energy Recovery of Pure Electric Commercial Vehicles
by Weisheng Cai and Chengye Liu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020051 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1152
Abstract
The thermal decay of the brake has a great impact on the long downhill braking stability of pure electric commercial vehicles. Based on the road slope and using the fuzzy control method, the motor regenerative braking force and friction braking force distribution strategies [...] Read more.
The thermal decay of the brake has a great impact on the long downhill braking stability of pure electric commercial vehicles. Based on the road slope and using the fuzzy control method, the motor regenerative braking force and friction braking force distribution strategies were designed to reduce the friction braking force, improve the braking stability and recover the braking energy. By establishing road driving conditions with different slopes, numerical analysis methods are used to verify the proposed control strategy. The results show that the vehicle maintains a constant speed downhill at 30 km/h under the condition of 6% constant slope driving, and the braking energy recovery rate reaches 50.93% under 60% initial battery SOC, 50.89% under 70% initial battery SOC, and 50.81% under 80% initial battery SOC. The speed of the vehicle fluctuates slightly under the driving condition of an 18 km long variable slope distance, but the power torque of the electric mechanism can still be maintained at a constant speed of 30 km/h by adjusting the electric mechanism, and the braking energy recovery rate reaches 49.96%. During the downhill driving at a constant speed, the friction braking force does not participate in braking, and the recuperation rate of braking is determined by the slope and the magnitude of braking deceleration. Full article
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11 pages, 1043 KiB  
Article
Economic Prospects of Taxis Powered by Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Palestine
by Fady M. A. Hassouna and Kangwon Shin
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020050 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Recently, major problems related to fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have arisen in the transportation sector. Therefore, developing transportation modes powered by alternative fuels has become one of the main targets for car manufacturers and governments around the world. This study [...] Read more.
Recently, major problems related to fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have arisen in the transportation sector. Therefore, developing transportation modes powered by alternative fuels has become one of the main targets for car manufacturers and governments around the world. This study aimed to investigate the economic prospects of using hydrogen fuel cell technology in taxi fleets in Westbank. For this purpose, a model that could predict the number of taxis was developed, and the expected economic implications of using hydrogen fuel cell technology in taxi fleets were determined based on the expected future fuel consumption and future fuel cost. After analysis of the results, it was concluded that a slight annual increase in the number of taxis in Palestine is expected in the future, due to the government restrictions on issuing new taxi permits in order to get this sector organized. Furthermore, using hydrogen fuel cells in taxi fleets is expected to become more and more feasible over time due to the expected future increase in oil price and the expected significant reduction in hydrogen cost as a result of the new technologies that are expected to be used in the production and handling of hydrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power and Energy Systems for E-mobility)
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20 pages, 5015 KiB  
Article
Systematic Evaluation of Possible Maximum Loads Caused by Electric Vehicle Charging and Heat Pumps and Their Effects on Common Structures of German Low-Voltage Grids
by Parnian Fakhrooeian, Volker Pitz and Birgit Scheppat
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020049 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
In this paper, we present a comprehensive assessment of the effects of residential loads, electric vehicles (EVs), and electric heat pumps (HPs) on low-voltage (LV) grids in urban, suburban, and rural areas of Germany. Firstly, real data are used to determine the typical [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a comprehensive assessment of the effects of residential loads, electric vehicles (EVs), and electric heat pumps (HPs) on low-voltage (LV) grids in urban, suburban, and rural areas of Germany. Firstly, real data are used to determine the typical structures for each LV grid region. Secondly, nine scenarios are defined with different levels of EV and HP penetration. Thirdly, the Low Voltage Load Flow Calculation in the DIgSILENT PowerFactory is performed for all scenarios while taking the simultaneity factor (SF) for each load type into consideration to calculate the minimum voltage and maximum loadings of transformer and lines in each grid; this allows for the grid’s potential bottlenecks to be identified. The network simulations are carried out with the consideration of charging powers of 11 kW and 22 kW in order to evaluate how an increasing EV load in the future may affect the grid’s parameters. To the best of our knowledge, no study in the literature has simultaneously addressed all of the aforementioned topics. The results of this study provide a useful framework that distribution system operators (DSOs) may apply to anticipate the forthcoming challenges and figure out when grid reinforcement will be required. Full article
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39 pages, 9920 KiB  
Article
Neural Sliding Mode Control of a Buck-Boost Converter Applied to a Regenerative Braking System for Electric Vehicles
by Jose A. Ruz-Hernandez, Ramon Garcia-Hernandez, Mario Antonio Ruz Canul, Juan F. Guerra, Jose-Luis Rullan-Lara and Jaime R. Vior-Franco
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020048 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1686
Abstract
This paper presents the design and simulation of a neural sliding mode controller (NSMC) for a regenerative braking system in an electric vehicle (EV). The NSMC regulates the required current and voltage of the bidirectional DC-DC buck–boost converter, an element of the auxiliary [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design and simulation of a neural sliding mode controller (NSMC) for a regenerative braking system in an electric vehicle (EV). The NSMC regulates the required current and voltage of the bidirectional DC-DC buck–boost converter, an element of the auxiliary energy system (AES), to improve the state of charge (SOC) of the battery of the EV. The controller is based on a recurrent high-order neural network (RHONN) trained using the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) as the tools to train the neural networks to obtain a higher SOC in the battery. The performance of the controller with the two training algorithms is compared with a proportional integral (PI) controller illustrating the differences and improvements obtained with the EKF and the UKF. Furthermore, robustness tests considering Gaussian noise and varying of parameters have demonstrated the outcome of the NSMC over a PI controller. The proposed controller is a new strategy with better results than the PI controller applied to the same buck–boost converter circuit, which can be used for the main energy system (MES) efficiency in an EV architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics for Electric Vehicles)
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14 pages, 3941 KiB  
Article
Series-Hybrid Powertrains: Advancing Mobility Control in Electric Tracked Vehicle Technology
by Dersu Çeliksöz and Varlık Kılıç
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020047 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1370
Abstract
This work focuses on developing a mobility control system for high-speed series-hybrid electric tracked vehicles, which operate with independent traction motors for each track. The scope of this research includes modeling a series-hybrid powertrain specific to military tracked vehicles and conducting an in-depth [...] Read more.
This work focuses on developing a mobility control system for high-speed series-hybrid electric tracked vehicles, which operate with independent traction motors for each track. The scope of this research includes modeling a series-hybrid powertrain specific to military tracked vehicles and conducting an in-depth analysis of its dynamic behavior. Subsequently, this study conducts a critical review of mobility control approaches sourced from the literature, identifying key techniques relevant to high-inertia vehicular applications. Building on foundational models, this study proposes a robust closed-loop mobility control system aimed at ensuring precise and stable off-road vehicle operations. The system’s resilience and adaptability to a variety of driving conditions are emphasized, with a particular focus on handling maneuvers such as steering and pivoting, which are challenging operations for tracked vehicle agility. The performance of the proposed mobility control system is tested through a series of simulations, covering a spectrum of operational scenarios. These tests are conducted in both offline simulation settings, which permit meticulous fine-tuning of system parameters, and real-time environments that replicate actual field conditions. The simulation results demonstrate the system’s capacity to improve the vehicular response and highlight its potential impact on future designs of mobility control systems for the heavy-duty vehicle sector, particularly in defense applications. Full article
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30 pages, 23629 KiB  
Article
Advanced Torque Control of Interior Permanent Magnet Motors for Electrical Hypercars
by Ettore Bianco, Sandro Rubino, Massimiliana Carello and Iustin Radu Bojoi
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020046 - 01 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Nowadays, electric vehicles have gained significant attention as a promising solution to the environmental concerns associated with traditional combustion engine vehicles. With the increasing demand for high-performance hypercars, the need for advanced torque control strategies has become paramount. Field-Oriented Control using Current Vector [...] Read more.
Nowadays, electric vehicles have gained significant attention as a promising solution to the environmental concerns associated with traditional combustion engine vehicles. With the increasing demand for high-performance hypercars, the need for advanced torque control strategies has become paramount. Field-Oriented Control using Current Vector Control represents a consolidated solution to implement torque control. However, this kind of control must take into account the DC link voltage variation and the variation of motor parameters depending on the magnets’ temperature while providing the maximum torque production for specific inverter current and voltage limitations. Multidimensional lookup tables are needed to provide a robust torque control from zero speed up to maximum speed under deep flux-weakening operation. Therefore, this article aims to explore the application of FOC 4D control in electrical hypercars and its impact on enhancing their overall performance and control stability. The article will delve into the principles underlying FOC 4D control and its advantages, challenges, and potential solutions to optimize the operation of electric hypercars. An electric powertrain model has been developed in the Simulink environment with the Simscape tool using a S-function block for the implementation of digital control in C-code. High-power electric motor electromagnetic parameters, derived from a Finite Element Method magnetic model, have been used in the simulation. The 4D LUTs have been computed from the motor flux maps and implemented in C-code in the S-function. The choice of FOC 4D control has been validated in the main load points of a hypercar application and compared to the conventional FOC. The final part of the research underlines the benefits of the FOC 4D on reliability, critical in motorsport applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics, Control and Simulation of Electrified Vehicles)
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16 pages, 4079 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Design Considerations for Transmitter-Compensated Inductance Mistuning in a WPT System with LCC-S Topology
by Benhui Zhang, Yan Cao, Yanjin Hou, Siyu Hou, Yanhua Guo, Jiawei Tian and Xu He
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020045 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
In this paper, theoretical analysis and system simulations are carried out to study the effects of the transmitter-compensated inductance mistuning on charging power, transfer efficiency, and the phase angle between the input voltage and input current in a wireless power transfer (WPT) system [...] Read more.
In this paper, theoretical analysis and system simulations are carried out to study the effects of the transmitter-compensated inductance mistuning on charging power, transfer efficiency, and the phase angle between the input voltage and input current in a wireless power transfer (WPT) system using inductor/capacitor/capacitor-series (LCC-S) topology. To cancel out the effects of the mistuning, an integrated transmitting coil design scheme is proposed, in which the transmitting coil is unipolar while the compensation coils are bipolar. Theoretical calculations and simulations are performed to show that the proposed compensation inductor guarantees the stability of the compensation inductance when the permeability of the magnetic sheet changes. Furthermore, it is verified that by using the integrated structure the effect of the horizontal misalignment can be ignored. Finally, an experimental platform is built to validate the above results of theoretical analysis and simulation. This proves that the theoretical analysis and simulation results are consistent with each other, which confirmed the stability and feasibility of the integrated compensation inductor. Full article
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