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Materials, Volume 12, Issue 12 (June-2 2019) – 155 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Nanomaterials extensively studied by nanotechnology scientists have been widely applied in [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Metal Nanoparticles Released from Dental Implant Surfaces: Potential Contribution to Chronic Inflammation and Peri-Implant Bone Loss
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122036 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease affecting tissues surrounding dental implants. Although it represents a common complication of dental implant treatments, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully described. The aim of this study is to identify the role of titanium nanoparticles released [...] Read more.
Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease affecting tissues surrounding dental implants. Although it represents a common complication of dental implant treatments, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully described. The aim of this study is to identify the role of titanium nanoparticles released form the implants on the chronic inflammation and bone lysis in the surrounding tissue. We analyzed the in vitro effect of titanium (Ti) particle exposure on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and fibroblasts (FU), evaluating cell proliferation by MTT test and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subsequently, in vivo analysis of peri-implant Ti particle distribution, histological, and molecular analyses were performed. Ti particles led to a time-dependent decrease in cell viability and increase in ROS production in both MSCs and FU. Tissue analyses revealed presence of oxidative stress, high extracellular and intracellular Ti levels and imbalanced bone turnover. High expression of ZFP467 and the presence of adipose-like tissue suggested dysregulation of the MSC population; alterations in vessel morphology were identified. The results suggest that Ti particles may induce the production of high ROS levels, recruiting abnormal quantity of neutrophils able to produce high level of metalloproteinase. This induces the degradation of collagen fibers. These events may influence MSC commitment, with an imbalance of bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies for Guided Tissue Regeneration)
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Open AccessArticle
Imaging Method for Measurements of Particle Density and Solid Holdup of Entangled MWCNTs in a Fluidized Bed
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122035 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
A measurement method of the apparent particle density of the carbon nanotube (CNT) particles, characterized by enveloped volume formed by loosely entangled nanotubes, has been proposed for the CNT fluidized bed application. The method is characterized by obtaining the enveloped volume from the [...] Read more.
A measurement method of the apparent particle density of the carbon nanotube (CNT) particles, characterized by enveloped volume formed by loosely entangled nanotubes, has been proposed for the CNT fluidized bed application. The method is characterized by obtaining the enveloped volume from the CNTs imaging under the free falling condition similar to the fluidized bed. The shape of the falling CNT particles in a column (0.1 m long × 0.012 m wide × 0.60 m high) was photographed using a high-speed camera under the sedimentation condition, and the apparent CNT particle density was calculated from the enveloped volume obtained by image-processing for the particles images. The apparent densities and solid holdups by the imaging method at various conditions were compared with those by the previous Hg-porosimetry method for the two types of CNTs (a vertically aligned CNT and two entangle CNTs) and the nonporous polycarbonate particle (a reference particle). The imaging method reflects well the packed bed and fluidized bed phenomena observed in the experiments with reasonable solid holdups, compared with the Hg-porosimetry method showing high densities and low holdups. The sizes of CNT particles predicted with the density by the imaging method were in good agreement with the measured mean particle sizes when calculated based on the Richardson–Zaki equation, indicating the imaging method represented well the enveloped volume and shape formed by entangled nanotubes on the CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Machinability of Rene 65 Superalloy
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122034 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Nickel-based superalloys are heavily used in the aerospace and power industries due to their excellent material and mechanical properties. They offer high strength at elevated temperatures, high hardness, corrosion resistance, thermal stability and improved fatigue properties. These superalloys were developed to address the [...] Read more.
Nickel-based superalloys are heavily used in the aerospace and power industries due to their excellent material and mechanical properties. They offer high strength at elevated temperatures, high hardness, corrosion resistance, thermal stability and improved fatigue properties. These superalloys were developed to address the demand for materials with the enhanced heat and stress capabilities needed to increase operational temperatures and speeds in jet and turbine engines. However, most of these properties come with machining difficulty, high wear rate, increased force and poor surface finish. Rene 65 is one of the next generation wrought nickel superalloys that addresses these demands at a reduced cost versus powder metallurgy superalloys. It is strengthened by the presence of gamma prime precipitates in its microstructure, which enhance its strength at high temperatures. Notwithstanding its advantages, Rene 65 must also deal with the reality of the poor workability and machinability generally associated with Ni-based superalloys. This study examines the machinability—using drilling tests—of Rene 65 and seeks to establish the influence of hardness (with varying microstructure) and cutting conditions on machinability indicators (surface finish, forces and chip formation). The experimental setup is based on a set of experimental drilling tests using three different heat-treated samples of varying hardness. The results indicate a negligible effect from material hardness, ranging from 41 HRC to 52 HRC, on generated cutting forces and a similarly low effect from cutting speeds. The feed rate was identified as the main factor of relevance in cutting force and chip morphology during the machining of this new superalloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding Dielectrics: Impact of External Salt Water Bath
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122033 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 853
Abstract
As predicted by the theory of super dielectric materials, simple tests demonstrate that dielectric material on the outside of a parallel plate capacitor dramatically increases capacitance, energy density, and power density. Simple parallel plate capacitors with only ambient air between the plates behaved [...] Read more.
As predicted by the theory of super dielectric materials, simple tests demonstrate that dielectric material on the outside of a parallel plate capacitor dramatically increases capacitance, energy density, and power density. Simple parallel plate capacitors with only ambient air between the plates behaved as per standard theory. Once the same capacitor was partially submerged in deionized water (DI), or DI with low dissolved NaCl concentrations, still with only ambient air between the electrodes, the capacitance, energy density, and power density, at low frequency, increased by more than seven orders of magnitude. Notably, conventional theory precludes the possibility that material outside the volume between the plates will in any fashion impact capacitive behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Characterization of Glass-Ceramics from Combinations of Slag, Fly Ash, and Glass Cullet without Adding Nucleating Agents
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122032 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Developments in the field of materials science are contributing to providing solutions for the recycling of industrial residues to develop new materials. Such approaches generate new products and provide optimal alternatives to the final disposal of different types of industrial wastes. This research [...] Read more.
Developments in the field of materials science are contributing to providing solutions for the recycling of industrial residues to develop new materials. Such approaches generate new products and provide optimal alternatives to the final disposal of different types of industrial wastes. This research focused on identifying and characterizing slag, fly ash, and glass cullet from the Boyacá region in Colombia as raw materials for producing glass-ceramics, with the innovative aspect of the use of these three residues without the addition of nucleating agents to produce the glass-ceramics. To characterize the starting materials, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. The results were used to evaluate the best conditions to produce mixtures of the three waste components and to determine the specific compositions of glass-ceramics to achieve products with attractive technical properties for potential industrial applications. The proposed mixtures were based on three compositions: Mixture 1, 2, and 3. The materials were obtained through thermal treatment at 1200 °C in a tubular furnace in accordance with the results of a comprehensive characterization using thermal analysis. The microstructure, thermal stability, and structural characteristics of the samples were examined through SEM, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and XRD analyses, which showed that the main crystalline phases were diopside and anorthite, with a small amount of enstatite and gehlenite. The obtained glass-ceramics showed properties of technical significance for structural applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Sulfate Attack Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Flumes Containing Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Waste Glass Powder
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122031 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
To prevent chemical erosion of concrete and improve chemical resistance, reinforced concrete flumes were manufactured, conforming to the Korean Industrial Standards (KS). Two different sizes of liquid crystal display (LCD) waste glass powder (LWGP) particles were used (i.e., 5 and 12 µm) with [...] Read more.
To prevent chemical erosion of concrete and improve chemical resistance, reinforced concrete flumes were manufactured, conforming to the Korean Industrial Standards (KS). Two different sizes of liquid crystal display (LCD) waste glass powder (LWGP) particles were used (i.e., 5 and 12 µm) with two substitution types with cement in concrete (i.e., 10% and 20%). Changes in compressive strength, pore structure, weight, volume, and strength of the concrete flumes after immersion in two sulfate solutions (i.e., Na2SO4 and MgSO4) for 84 and 182 days were measured for sulfate attack resistance. The applicability of the LWGP concrete flume with a 0.5 mm crack width was also evaluated based on the bending strength results. The LWGP5, which has a smaller particle size among LWGPs, filled the smaller pores, thereby reducing the porosity and contributing to the compressive strength gain. Higher volume and weight change ratios for all specimens immersed in MgSO4 solution were found than those immersed in Na2SO4 solution under identical conditions. Flexural loads of all the LWGP concrete flumes with 0.05 mm crack widths were greater than 48.5 kN, as required by the KS code; however, these flexural loads were lower than those of ordinary Portland cement. The applicability was also validated via a flexural test complying with KS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
The In-Situ Synthesis of a 3D SnS/N-Doped Graphene Composite with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance as a Low-Cost Anode Material in Sodium Ion Batteries
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122030 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
SnS/N-doped graphene (SnS/NG) composites are promising anode materials for sodium ion batteries. Generally, SnS is synthesized from SnCl2·2H2O. However, SnCl2·2H2O is not suitable for large-scale production due to its high price. Compared with SnCl2 [...] Read more.
SnS/N-doped graphene (SnS/NG) composites are promising anode materials for sodium ion batteries. Generally, SnS is synthesized from SnCl2·2H2O. However, SnCl2·2H2O is not suitable for large-scale production due to its high price. Compared with SnCl2·2H2O, SnCl4·5H2O has a lower price, more stable chemical properties and better water solubility. Until now, there have been no related reports on the synthesis of SnS from SnCl4·5H2O. In this work, the fabrication of SnS/NG in a facile, two-step process, which combines a hot water bath and thermal annealing and uses SnCl4·5H2O as a precursor, is described. The mechanism of phase transformation in the direct synthesis of SnS from Sn4+ is also discussed in detail. Applying our methodology, SnS nanoparticles were grown in-situ on graphene sheets and wrapped by N-doped graphene sheets to form a 3D SnS/NG composite. With 35.35% content of graphene in the SnS/NG composite, the reversible specific capacity remained at 417.8 mAh/g at 1000 mA/g after 100 cycles, exhibiting a high specific capacity and good cycling stability. In addition, the composite also had an excellent rate performance, with a specific capacity of 366.9 mAh/g obtained even at 5000 mA/g. Meanwhile, the fast sodium storage kinetics of SnS/NG were also analyzed, providing some theoretical support for further study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Essential Oil Microcapsules Immobilized on Textiles and Certain Induced Effects
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122029 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
In order to obtain textile materials with potential utility in the development of cosmetic textiles, this study examined the deposition by padding of rose and sage microcapsules on woven textile structures, with different fiber compositions (100% cotton and 50% cotton/50% polyester). Cationization of [...] Read more.
In order to obtain textile materials with potential utility in the development of cosmetic textiles, this study examined the deposition by padding of rose and sage microcapsules on woven textile structures, with different fiber compositions (100% cotton and 50% cotton/50% polyester). Cationization of the textile materials was performed to enhance the degree of uptake the pf the microcapsules on the fabrics’ surface. A commercially acrylate-based binder was used to fix the microcapsules to the textile substrate and to improve the durability against external factors. The finished textile materials were characterized in terms of their physical-mechanical characteristics. The distribution of microcapsules on the fabrics surface before and after five washing cycles and 1000 abrasion cycles was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The biocompatibility in terms of cell viability, cell membrane integrity and inflammation status of the functionalized fabrics was evaluated on CCD-1070Sk normal human dermal fibroblasts. The cell morphology was evaluated by F-actin staining using fluorescence microscopy and no significant changes were noticed after the incubation in the presence of fabrics compared with control. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation on human skin cells confirmed the absence of cytotoxicity after the short-term exposure, supporting further in vivo use of these innovative textiles with improved properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of MnS Inclusions Formation in Resulphurised Steel via Modeling and Experiments
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122028 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 644
Abstract
Controlling the formation of MnS inclusions during solidification influences the mechanical properties and machinability of the resulfurized steel. A coupled segregation–nucleation–growth model was developed by the finite-difference method involving solute redistribution, heterogeneous nucleation and growth kinetics. Laboratory solidification experiments were performed under various [...] Read more.
Controlling the formation of MnS inclusions during solidification influences the mechanical properties and machinability of the resulfurized steel. A coupled segregation–nucleation–growth model was developed by the finite-difference method involving solute redistribution, heterogeneous nucleation and growth kinetics. Laboratory solidification experiments were performed under various cooling rates in resulphurised 49MnVS steel. In this work, the influence of cooling rate on solute redistribution and growth size of MnS inclusions were simulated using the current coupled model, and the calculated results can provide a valuable reference for MnS formation. Increasing of the cooling rate led to early precipitation and refinement of formed MnS inclusions. Based on the simulation results and experimental data, mathematical relationships between the growing size of MnS with the cooling rate in the low ductility temperature region and in the whole solidification were obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Destructive Testing of Technical Conditions of RC Industrial Tall Chimneys Subjected to High Temperature
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122027 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
Non-destructive tests of reinforced concrete chimneys, especially high ones, are an important element in assessing their condition, making it possible to forecast their safe life. Industrial chimneys are often exposed to the strong action of acidic substances, They are negatively exposed to the [...] Read more.
Non-destructive tests of reinforced concrete chimneys, especially high ones, are an important element in assessing their condition, making it possible to forecast their safe life. Industrial chimneys are often exposed to the strong action of acidic substances, They are negatively exposed to the condensation of the flue gases. Condensate affects the inside of the thermal insulation and penetrates the chimney wall from the outside. This is one reason for the corrosion of concrete and reinforcing steel. Wet thermal insulation settles, and drastically reduces its insulating properties. This leads to an increase in temperature in the reinforced concrete chimney wall and creates additional large variations in temperature fields. This consequently causes a large increase in internal forces, which mainly increase tensile and shear stresses. This results in the appearance of additional cracks in the wall. The acid condensate penetrates these cracks, destroying the concrete cover and reinforcement. Thermographic studies are very helpful in monitoring the changes in temperature and consequently, the risk of concrete and reinforcement corrosion. This simple implication between changes in temperature of the chimney wall and increasing inner forces as shown in this article is particularly important when the chimney cannot be switched off due to the nature of the production process. Methods for interpreting the results of thermovision tests are presented to determine the safety and durability of industrial chimneys. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
VOC Emissions from Spruce Strands and Hemp Shive: In Search for a Low Emission Raw Material for Bio-Based Construction Materials
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122026 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) reduce indoor air quality. They are associated with negative effects on human health and wellbeing. In terms of legislation requirements and consumer pressure, VOCs from engineered wood materials are reduced due to use of water based additives and adhesives [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) reduce indoor air quality. They are associated with negative effects on human health and wellbeing. In terms of legislation requirements and consumer pressure, VOCs from engineered wood materials are reduced due to use of water based additives and adhesives in their formulation. Therefore, the main source of VOCs remains the raw material—the wood itself. Alternatives to wood strands, annual plant materials, are tested nowadays due to their advantages: The short cycle; the raw material is sourced naturally and can be produced more sustainably; and faster sequestering atmospheric carbon. The aim of this work was to investigate volatile organic compounds emitted from untreated and chemically treated hemp shive and compare the emission characteristics to soft wood strands. Simple, yet effective chemical treatments, like tartaric acid, citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were used in order to reduce VOC emissions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to analyse the volatile compounds emissions. Specific VOCs like acetic acid; Benzaldehyde; hexanal, α-, β-pinenes; limonene and camphene were monitored before and after the treatments. Non-target screening was performed to identify the most responsible compound for differentiation of samples according to their treatments. Comparing untreated samples, spruce strands showed highest amounts of total VOCs, while untreated hemp shive showed the lowest. Further, due to the chemical modification of hemp woody core components, such as hemicelluloses, lignin, and extractives, the key VOCs showed significant changes leading to an increase in the amount of total emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Composites: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy-Density Improvement in Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries Based on LiCoO2 + LiV3O8 and Graphite + Li-Metal Hybrid Electrodes
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122025 - 24 Jun 2019
Viewed by 716
Abstract
We developed a novel battery system consisting of a hybrid (LiCoO2 + LiV3O8) cathode in a cell with a hybrid (graphite + Li-metal) anode and compared it with currently used systems. The hybrid cathode was synthesized using various [...] Read more.
We developed a novel battery system consisting of a hybrid (LiCoO2 + LiV3O8) cathode in a cell with a hybrid (graphite + Li-metal) anode and compared it with currently used systems. The hybrid cathode was synthesized using various ratios of LiCoO2:LiV3O8, where the 80:20 wt% ratio yielded the best electrochemical performance. The graphite and Li-metal hybrid anode, the composition of which was calculated based on the amount of non-lithiated cathode material (LiV3O8), was used to synthesize a full cell. With the addition of LiV3O8, the discharge capacity of the LiCoO2 + LiV3O8 hybrid cathode increased from 142.03 to 182.88 mA h g−1 (a 28.76% improvement). The energy density of this cathode also increased significantly, from 545.96 to 629.24 W h kg−1 (a 15.21% improvement). The LiCoO2 + LiV3O8 hybrid cathode was characterized through X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Its electrochemical performance was analyzed using a battery-testing system and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We expect that optimized synthesis conditions will enable the development of a novel battery system with an increase in energy density and discharge capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatigue Modeling Containing Hardening Particles and Grain Orientation for Aluminum Alloy FSW Joints
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122024 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
The macro-mesoscopic joint fatigue model containing hardening particles and crystal characteristics is established to study the effect of the hardening particles and the grain orientation on fatigue properties of an aluminum alloy friction stir welding (FSW) joint. The macroscopic model is composed of [...] Read more.
The macro-mesoscopic joint fatigue model containing hardening particles and crystal characteristics is established to study the effect of the hardening particles and the grain orientation on fatigue properties of an aluminum alloy friction stir welding (FSW) joint. The macroscopic model is composed of the weld nugget zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone, heat-affected zone, and base material, according to the metallurgical morphology and hardness distribution of the joint. Cyclic stress and strain data are used to determine the material properties. The fatigue parameters used in the calculation of cyclic stresses and strains are obtained with the four-point correlation method. The mesoscopic models of different zones are inserted into the joint macroscopic model as submodules. The models containing the information of hardening particles and grain orientation are established with crystal plasticity theory for the grains and isotropic hardening rule for the hardening particles. The effects of hardening particles and grain orientation on the stress and strain responses are discussed. The simulation results show that high-angle misorientation of adjacent grains hinders the stress transfer. The particle cluster or cracked particles intensify the stress and strain concentrations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Filler Materials of Metal Matrix Syntactic Foams
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122023 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
Metal matrix syntactic foams (MMSFs) are becoming increasingly relevant from the lightweight structural materials point of view. They are also used as energy absorbers and as core materials for sandwich structures. The mechanical properties of MMSFs are extensively influenced by the properties of [...] Read more.
Metal matrix syntactic foams (MMSFs) are becoming increasingly relevant from the lightweight structural materials point of view. They are also used as energy absorbers and as core materials for sandwich structures. The mechanical properties of MMSFs are extensively influenced by the properties of their filler materials which are used to create and ensure the porosity inside the metal matrix. As the properties of fillers are of such importance in the case of MMSFs, in this paper three different filler materials: (i) ceramic hollow spheres (CHSs), (ii) metallic hollow spheres (MHSs) and (iii) lightweight expanded clay particles (LECAPs), have been investigated in numerous aspects. The investigations cover the microstructural features of the fillers and the basic mechanical properties of the fillers and the produced MMSFs as well. The microstructure was studied by optical and electron microscopy extended by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, while the basic mechanical properties were mapped by standardized compression tests. It was found that in the terms of cost-awareness the LECAPs are the best fillers, because they are ~100 times cheaper than the CHSs or MHSs, but their mechanical properties can be compared to the aforementioned, relatively expensive filler materials and still exceed the properties of the most ‘conventional’ metallic foams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced and High Performance Metallic Foams)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Characterization of Composites Consisting of Calcium Phosphate Cements and Mesoporous Bioactive Glass for Extrusion-Based Fabrication
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122022 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) and mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG) are two degradable biomaterial groups widely under investigation concerning their applicability to treat bone defects. MBG-CPC composites were recently shown to possess enhanced degradation properties in comparison to pure CPC. In addition, modification of [...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) and mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG) are two degradable biomaterial groups widely under investigation concerning their applicability to treat bone defects. MBG-CPC composites were recently shown to possess enhanced degradation properties in comparison to pure CPC. In addition, modification of MBG allows an easy incorporation of therapeutically effective ions. Additive manufacturing of such composites enables the fabrication of patient-specific geometries with further improved degradation behavior due to control over macroporosity. In this study, we developed composites prepared from a non-aqueous carrier-liquid (cl) based CPC paste and MBG particles suitable for extrusion-based additive manufacturing (3D plotting). CPC with the addition of up to 10 wt % MBG were processible by adjusting the amount of cl. Scaffolds consisting of a 4, 6 and 8%-MBG-CPC composite were successfully manufactured by 3D plotting. While mechanically characterization of the scaffolds showed an influence of the MBG, no changes of microstructure were observed. During degradation of the composite, the release of Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions could be controlled by the MBG composition and plotted scaffolds with macropores showed a significant higher release than bulk samples of comparable mass. These findings demonstrate a high flexibility regarding ion release of the developed composites and suggest utilizing the drug binding capacities of MBG as a prospective delivery system for biologically active proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Bone Cements: Current Status and Future Prospects)
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Open AccessArticle
Research of Method for Solving Relaxation Modulus Based on Three-Point Bending Creep Test
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122021 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 673
Abstract
A method was developed for solving the relaxation modulus of high viscosity asphalt sand (HVAS) based on the three-point bending creep test, and was verified by comparison with experimental results. In this method, firstly, a transcendental equation was obtained by the convolution, and [...] Read more.
A method was developed for solving the relaxation modulus of high viscosity asphalt sand (HVAS) based on the three-point bending creep test, and was verified by comparison with experimental results. In this method, firstly, a transcendental equation was obtained by the convolution, and then equations were obtained by Taylor’s formula, which were solved by Mathmatica to obtain the relaxation modulus by Newton’s method. Subsequently, the laboratory investigations of the viscoelastic parameters of the Burgers model for the HVAS by three-point bending creep tests were carried out. In addition, the method was verified by comparing the relaxation moduli with the indoor relaxation experiments. Results showed that the numerical calculation and the test data were in good agreement, and the relaxation characteristics of the HVAS were reflected more accurately. The method can be used to study the relaxation characteristics of the asphalt mixtures effectively. In addition, this study provides a research basis for road crack prevention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Adsorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Phase Solutions Using Polypyrrole-Based Activated Carbon
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122020 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
In this study, polypyrrole-based activated carbon was prepared by the carbonization of polypyrrole at 650 °C for 2 h in the presence of four-times the mass of KOH as a chemical activator. The structural and morphological properties of the product (polypyrrole-based activated carbon [...] Read more.
In this study, polypyrrole-based activated carbon was prepared by the carbonization of polypyrrole at 650 °C for 2 h in the presence of four-times the mass of KOH as a chemical activator. The structural and morphological properties of the product (polypyrrole-based activated carbon (PPyAC4)), analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis, support its applicability as an adsorbent. The adsorption characteristics of PPyAC4 were examined through the adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solutions. The influence of various factors, including initial ion concentration, pH, contact time, and adsorbent dose, on the adsorption of Pb2+ was investigated to identify the optimum adsorption conditions. The experimental data fit well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.9997) and the Freundlich isotherm equation (R2 = 0.9950), suggesting a chemisorption pathway. The adsorption capacity was found to increase with increases in time and initial concentration, while it decreased with an increase in adsorbent dose. Additionally, the highest adsorption was attained at pH 5.5. The calculated maximum capacity, qm, determined from the Langmuir model was 50 mg/g. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Zeolite Adsorption of Chloride from a Synthetic Alkali-Activated Cement Pore Solution
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2019; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122019 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
This work presents experimental evidence that confirms the potential for two specific zeolites, namely chabazite and faujasite (with a cage size ~2–13 Å), to adsorb small amounts of chloride from a synthetic alkali-activated cement (AAC) pore solution. Four synthetic zeolites were first exposed [...] Read more.
This work presents experimental evidence that confirms the potential for two specific zeolites, namely chabazite and faujasite (with a cage size ~2–13 Å), to adsorb small amounts of chloride from a synthetic alkali-activated cement (AAC) pore solution. Four synthetic zeolites were first exposed to a chlorinated AAC pore solution, two faujasite zeolites (i.e., FAU, X-13), chabazite (i.e., SSZ-13), and sodium-stabilized mordenite (i.e., Na-Mordenite). The mineralogy and chemical composition were subsequently investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and both energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS), respectively. Upon exposure to a chlorinated AAC pore solution, FAU and SSZ-13 displayed changes to their diffraction patterns (i.e., peak shifting and broadening), characteristic of ion entrapment within zeolitic aluminosilicate frameworks. Elemental mapping with WDS confirmed the presence of small amounts of elemental chlorine. Results indicate that the chloride-bearing capacity of zeolites is likely dependent on both microstructural features (e.g., cage sizes) and chemical composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Durable Concrete Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of New Thiophene-Derived Diphenyl Aminophosphonates on Growth of Terrestrial Plants
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122018 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the thiophene-derived aminophosphonates 16 on seedling emergence and growth of monocotyledonous oat (Avena sativa) and dicotyledonous radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and phytotoxicity against three persistent and resistant [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the thiophene-derived aminophosphonates 16 on seedling emergence and growth of monocotyledonous oat (Avena sativa) and dicotyledonous radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and phytotoxicity against three persistent and resistant weeds (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Rumex acetosa L., and Chenopodium album). Aminophosphonates 16 have never been described in the literature. The phytotoxicity of tested aminophosphonates toward their potential application as soil-applied herbicides was evaluated according to the OECD (Organization for Economic and Cooperation Development Publishing) 208 Guideline. In addition, their ecotoxicological impact on crustaceans Heterocypris incongruens and bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri was measured using the OSTRACODTOXKITTM and Microtox® tests. Obtained results showed that none of the tested compounds were found sufficiently phytotoxic and none of them have any herbicidal potential. None of the tested compounds showed important toxicity against Aliivibrio fischeri but they should be considered as slightly harmful. Harmful impacts of compounds 16 on Heterocypris incongruens were found to be significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Problems of the Organic Chemistry of Sulfur and Selenium)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Pore Size Variation on Thermal Conductivity of Open-Porous Foams
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122017 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
This study addresses the influence of pore size variation on the effective thermal conductivity of open-cell foam structures. Numerical design procedure which renders it possible to control chosen structural parameters has been developed based on characterization of commercially available open-cell copper foams. Open-porous [...] Read more.
This study addresses the influence of pore size variation on the effective thermal conductivity of open-cell foam structures. Numerical design procedure which renders it possible to control chosen structural parameters has been developed based on characterization of commercially available open-cell copper foams. Open-porous materials with various pore size distribution were numerically designed using the Laguerre–Voronoi Tessellations procedure. Heat transfer through an isolated structure was simulated with the finite element method. The results reveal that thermal conductivity is strongly related to porosity, which is in agreement with the literature. The influence of pore size distribution has also been observed and compared with analytical formulas proposed in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Foams)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrospun Bilayer Chitosan/Hyaluronan Material and Its Compatibility with Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122016 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
A bilayer nonwoven material for tissue regeneration was prepared from chitosan (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) by needleless electrospinning wherein 10–15 wt% (with respect to polysaccharide) polyethylene oxide was added as spinning starter. A fiber morphology study confirmed the material’s uniform defect-free structure. [...] Read more.
A bilayer nonwoven material for tissue regeneration was prepared from chitosan (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) by needleless electrospinning wherein 10–15 wt% (with respect to polysaccharide) polyethylene oxide was added as spinning starter. A fiber morphology study confirmed the material’s uniform defect-free structure. The roughness of the bilayer material was in the range of 1.5–3 μm, which is favorable for cell growth. Electrospinning resulted in the higher orientation of the polymer structure compared with that of corresponding films, and this finding may be related to the orientation of the polymer chains during the spinning process. These structural changes increased the intermolecular interactions. Thus, despite a high swelling degree of 1.4–2.8 g/g, the bilayer matrix maintained its shape due to the large quantity of polyelectrolyte contacts between the chains of oppositely charged polymers. The porosity of the bilayer CS–HA nonwoven material was twice lower, while the Young’s modulus and break stress were twice higher than that of a CS monolayer scaffold. Therefore, during the electrospinning of the second layer, HA may have penetrated into the pores of the CS layer, thereby increasing the polyelectrolyte contacts between the two polymers. The bilayer CS–HA scaffold exhibited good compatibility with mesenchymal stem cells. This characteristic makes the developed material promising for tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharide Biomaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Analysis of Secondary Adhesion Wear Mechanism on Hard Machining of Titanium Aerospace Alloy
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122015 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
Titanium alloys are widely used in important manufacturing sectors such as the aerospace industry, internal components of motor or biomechanical components, for the development of functional prostheses. The relationship between mechanical properties and weight and its excellent biocompatibility have positioned this material among [...] Read more.
Titanium alloys are widely used in important manufacturing sectors such as the aerospace industry, internal components of motor or biomechanical components, for the development of functional prostheses. The relationship between mechanical properties and weight and its excellent biocompatibility have positioned this material among the most demanded for specific applications. However, it is necessary to consider the low machinability as a disadvantage in the titanium alloys features. This fact is especially due to the low thermal conductivity, producing significant increases in the temperature of the contact area during the machining process. In this aspect, one of the main objectives of strategic industries is focused on the improvement of the efficiency and the increase of the service life of the elements involved in the machining of this alloy. With the aim to understand the most relevant effects in the machinability of the Ti6Al4V alloy, an analysis is required of different variables of the machining process like tool wear evolution, based on secondary adhesion mechanisms, and the relation between surface roughness of the work-pieces with the cutting parameters. In this research work, a study on the machinability of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy has been performed. For that purpose, in a horizontal turning process, the influence of cutting tool wear effects has been evaluated on the surface finish of the machined element. As a result, parametric behavior models for average roughness (Ra) have been determined as a function of the machining parameters used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation on Preparation Process and Storage Stability of Modified Asphalt Binder by Grafting Activated Crumb Rubber
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122014 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
According to the theory of molecular design, crumb rubber was grafting activated with acrylamide and then used as asphalt binder modifier. An orthogonal three-factor, three-level test was designed to optimize the preparation process of modified asphalt. Softening point, viscosity, rutting factor, ductility, stiffness [...] Read more.
According to the theory of molecular design, crumb rubber was grafting activated with acrylamide and then used as asphalt binder modifier. An orthogonal three-factor, three-level test was designed to optimize the preparation process of modified asphalt. Softening point, viscosity, rutting factor, ductility, stiffness modulus and creep speed index were selected as evaluation indicators to study the effects of rubber content, shear time and shear temperature by variance analysis and range analysis. The results show that the rubber content had a significant impact on the performance of modified asphalt with grafting-activated crumb rubber, while the shear temperature and shear time had little effect. The grafting activated crumb rubber content of 20%, shear temperature of 170–190 °C, and shear time of 90 min was determined as the reasonable preparation process. Modified asphalt with common crumb rubber (CRMA) and modified asphalt with grafting activated crumb rubber (A-G-R) were prepared, respectively, using the reasonable process to analyze the influence of grafting activation of crumb rubber. The results indicate that A-G-R had smaller softening point difference, lower segregation index and more stable and uniform dispersed phase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study between Knocked-Down Aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Buckypaper-Based Strain Sensors
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122013 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most promising materials in sensing applications due to their electrical and mechanical properties. This paper presents a comparative study between CNT Buckypaper (BP) and aligned CNT-based strain sensors. The Buckypapers were produced by vacuum filtration of [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most promising materials in sensing applications due to their electrical and mechanical properties. This paper presents a comparative study between CNT Buckypaper (BP) and aligned CNT-based strain sensors. The Buckypapers were produced by vacuum filtration of commercial CNTs dispersed in two different solvents, N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) and ethanol, forming freestanding sheets, which were cut in 10 × 10 mm squares and transferred to polyimide (PI) films. The morphology of the BP was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The initial electrical resistivity of the samples was measured, and then relative electrical resistance versus strain measurements were obtained. The results were compared with the knocked-down vertically aligned CNT/PI based sensors previously reported. Although both types of sensors were sensitive to strain, the aligned CNT/PI samples had better mechanical performance and the advantage of inferring strain direction due to their electrical resistivity anisotropic behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical, Thermal and Optical Properties of Nanocarbon Materials)
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Open AccessReview
Thin-Wall Machining of Light Alloys: A Review of Models and Industrial Approaches
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122012 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Thin-wall parts are common in the aeronautical sector. However, their machining presents serious challenges such as vibrations and part deflections. To deal with these challenges, different approaches have been followed in recent years. This work presents the state of the art of thin-wall [...] Read more.
Thin-wall parts are common in the aeronautical sector. However, their machining presents serious challenges such as vibrations and part deflections. To deal with these challenges, different approaches have been followed in recent years. This work presents the state of the art of thin-wall light-alloy machining, analyzing the problems related to each type of thin-wall parts, exposing the causes of both instability and deformation through analytical models, summarizing the computational techniques used, and presenting the solutions proposed by different authors from an industrial point of view. Finally, some further research lines are proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Properties of Mo-Si-B Alloys Doped with La2O3 and Tested at 293–1173 K
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122011 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 843
Abstract
According to the stoichiometric ratios of Mo-10Si-7B, Mo-12Si-8.5B, Mo-14Si-9.8B, and Mo-25Si-8.5B, some new Mo-Si-B alloys doped with 0.3 wt % lanthanum (III) oxide (La2O3) were prepared via liquid-liquid (L-L) doping, mechanical alloying (MA), and hot-pressing (HP) sintering technology. The [...] Read more.
According to the stoichiometric ratios of Mo-10Si-7B, Mo-12Si-8.5B, Mo-14Si-9.8B, and Mo-25Si-8.5B, some new Mo-Si-B alloys doped with 0.3 wt % lanthanum (III) oxide (La2O3) were prepared via liquid-liquid (L-L) doping, mechanical alloying (MA), and hot-pressing (HP) sintering technology. The phase-composition and microstructure were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The worn surfaces of the plate specimens were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Then, the tribological properties of Mo-Si-B alloy doped with sliding plate specimens of 0.3 wt % La2O3 were investigated against the Si3N4 ball specimens. The friction coefficients of Mo-Si-B alloys decreased and the wear rates of the alloys increased with test load. The high-temperature friction and wear behavior of Mo-Si-B alloy are related to the surface-oxidation and contact-deformation of the alloy at a high temperature. The low friction coefficients and the reduced wear rates are thought to be due to the formation of low friction MoO3 films. MoO3 changed the contact state of the friction pairs and behaved as lubricating films. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles-Coated Cotton Fabrics
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122010 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Herein, the amino-capped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using tetrabutyl titanate and amino polymers by a two-step sol-gel and hydrothermal method technique for the fabrication of functional cotton fabric. The prepared TiO2 nanoparticles and the treated cotton fabric were characterized by transmission [...] Read more.
Herein, the amino-capped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using tetrabutyl titanate and amino polymers by a two-step sol-gel and hydrothermal method technique for the fabrication of functional cotton fabric. The prepared TiO2 nanoparticles and the treated cotton fabric were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microcopy (FE-SEM) photocatalytic and antibacterial measurement. The results indicate the typical characteristic anatase form of the amino-capped TiO2 NPs with an average crystallite size of 14.9 nm. The treated cotton fabrics exhibit excellent antibacterial property and good photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Measurement of Fracture Strength of Zirconia Dental Implant Abutments with Internal and External Connections Using Acoustic Emission
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122009 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the fracture behaviour of four different groups of zirconia abutments with internal and external connections: (A) Astra Tech ZirDesign™ abutment on Astra Tech Implants, (B) Procera® Esthetic abutment on Nobel Biocare MK III Groovy [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the fracture behaviour of four different groups of zirconia abutments with internal and external connections: (A) Astra Tech ZirDesign™ abutment on Astra Tech Implants, (B) Procera® Esthetic abutment on Nobel Biocare MK III Groovy Implants, (C) IPS e.max® on Straumann Implants, and (D) ZiReal® Posts on Biomet 3I implants. The load was applied on the assemblies using a Zwick universal testing machine: the initial and final failure loads and amplitude were recorded using acoustic emission technique. Mean initial and final failure force was found to be significantly different in each group (P < 0.001). IPS e.max® Straumann abutments exhibited the highest resistance to final fracture force compared to other abutment types. Acoustic emission can be used as one of the methods to detect fracture behaviour of implant abutments. There were no significant differences in fracture loads between the internal and externally connected zirconia abutments studied. However, externally connected abutments demonstrated screw loosening and some deformations. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Dental Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Predation Capability of Periodontopathogens Bacteria by Bdellovibrio Bacteriovorus HD100. An in Vitro Study
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122008 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Treatment options against periodontitis attempt to completely remove oral microbiota even if several species in dental plaque demonstrate protective features. Predatory bacteria that selectively predate solely on Gram-negative bacteria might be a viable therapeutic alternative. Therefore, the aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
Treatment options against periodontitis attempt to completely remove oral microbiota even if several species in dental plaque demonstrate protective features. Predatory bacteria that selectively predate solely on Gram-negative bacteria might be a viable therapeutic alternative. Therefore, the aim of this study is to in vitro evaluate the susceptibility of some oral pathogens to predation by B. bacteriovorus HD100 in liquid suspension. Cultures of prey cell were prepared in brain heart infusion broth (BHI) broth incubating overnight at the appropriate conditions for each organism to reach log phase of growth. Predatory activity was assessed by measuring optical density at 600 nm after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann–Whitney U test and p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The study demonstrated that B. bacteriovorus is able to predate on aerobic species and on microaerophilic ones (p < 0.05) but also that its predatory capacity is strongly compromised by the conditions of anaerobiosis. B. bacteriovorus, in fact, was unable to predate the anaerobic species involved in the present study (F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis). The findings of the study suggest that B. bacteriovorus is able to tolerate microaerophilic conditions and that in anaerobiosis it cannot exert its predatory capacity. Such evidence could lead to its use as an agent to prevent recolonization of the periodontal pocket following therapy. Further studies are needed to investigate the activity of B. bacteriovorus against recently recognized periodontopathogens, alone or organized in biofilms of multi-species communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral and Dentofacial Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle
Bending Flexibility of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys Edulis) with Functionally Graded Structure
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122007 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
As one of the most renewable and sustainable resources on Earth, bamboo with its high flexibility has been used in the fabrication of a wide variety of composite structures due to its properties. A bamboo-based winding composite (BWC) is an innovative bamboo product [...] Read more.
As one of the most renewable and sustainable resources on Earth, bamboo with its high flexibility has been used in the fabrication of a wide variety of composite structures due to its properties. A bamboo-based winding composite (BWC) is an innovative bamboo product which has revolutionized pipe structures and their applications throughout China as well as improving their impact on the environment. However, as a natural functionally graded composite, the flexibility mechanism of bamboo has not yet been fully understood. Here, the bending stiffness method based on the cantilever beam principle was used to investigate the gradient and directional bending flexibility of bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) slivers under different loading Types during elastic stages. Results showed that the graded distribution and gradient variation of cell size of the fibers embedded in the parenchyma cells along the thickness of the bamboo culm was mainly responsible for the exhibited gradient bending flexibility of bamboo slivers, whereas the shape and size difference of the vascular bundles from inner to outer layers played a critical role in directional bending flexibility. A validated rule of mixture was used to fit the bending stiffness under different loading Types as a function of fiber volume fraction. This work provides insights to the bionic preparation and optimization of high-performance BWC pipes. Full article
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