Special Issue "Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Krzysztof Schabowicz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering W2/Z1, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: non-destructive testing of building materials and elements; ultrasonic tomography in civil engineering; analysis of the CT images obtained with ultrasound; computer knowledge representation of building materials and elements using non-destructive testing
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The current trend in the development of non-destructive testing in civil engineering is mainly for the detection of flaws and defects in concrete elements and structures, and acoustic methods predominate in this field. Much attention has been devoted to acoustic techniques because they have been greatly developed in recent years and there is a clear trend towards acquiring information about a tested element or structure from acoustic signals processed by proper software using complex data analysis algorithms. Another trend in the development of nondestructive techniques is towards assessing characteristics other than strength in elements or structures, particularly the ones made of concrete or reinforced concrete.

As in medicine, the trend is towards designing test equipment that allows one to obtain a picture of the inside of the tested element. Increasingly, more often the offered apparatus is equipped with software based on sophisticated mathematical algorithms and artificial intelligence, which makes advanced analysis of the test results possible.

This Special Issue is open to new advances in non-destructive testing of materials in civil engineering, involving:

  • detecting defects invisible on the surface,
  • estimating the depth of cracks,
  • determining the dimensions of elements accessible from one side only
  • 2D and 3D imaging of reinforcement distribution in elements.

Prof. Krzysztof Schabowicz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • non-destructive testing
  • diagnostic
  • acoustic methods
  • ultrasound
  • building materials
  • building elements
  • defects

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Non-Destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193237 - 03 Oct 2019
Abstract
This issue was proposed and organized as a means to present recent developments in the field of non-destructive testing of materials in civil engineering. For this reason, the articles highlighted in this editorial relate to different aspects of non-destructive testing of different materials [...] Read more.
This issue was proposed and organized as a means to present recent developments in the field of non-destructive testing of materials in civil engineering. For this reason, the articles highlighted in this editorial relate to different aspects of non-destructive testing of different materials in civil engineering, from building materials to building structures. The current trend in the development of non-destructive testing of materials in civil engineering is mainly concerned with the detection of flaws and defects in concrete elements and structures, and acoustic methods predominate in this field. As in medicine, the trend is towards designing test equipment that allows one to obtain a picture of the inside of the tested element and materials. Interesting results with significance for building practices were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Characteristic Curve and Its Use in Determining the Compressive Strength of Concrete by the Rebound Hammer Test
Materials 2019, 12(17), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12172705 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
During the construction of concrete structures, it is often useful to know compressive strength at an early age. This is an amount of strength required for the safe removal of formwork, also known as stripping strength. It is certainly helpful to determine this [...] Read more.
During the construction of concrete structures, it is often useful to know compressive strength at an early age. This is an amount of strength required for the safe removal of formwork, also known as stripping strength. It is certainly helpful to determine this strength non-destructively, i.e., without any invasive steps that would damage the structure. Second only to the ultrasonic pulse velocity test, the rebound hammer test is the most common NDT method currently used for this purpose. However, estimating compressive strength using general regression models can often yield inaccurate results. The experiment results show that the compressive strength of any concrete can be estimated using one’s own newly created regression model. A traditionally constructed regression model can predict the strength value with 50% reliability, or when two-sided confidence bands are used, with 95% reliability. However, civil engineers usually work with the so-called characteristic value defined as a 5% quantile. Therefore, it appears suitable to adjust conventional methods in order to achieve a regression model with 95% one-sided reliability. This paper describes a simple construction of such a characteristic curve. The results show that the characteristic curve created for the concrete in question could be a useful tool even outside of practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Examining the Distribution of Strength across the Thickness of Reinforced Concrete Elements Subject to Sulphate Corrosion Using the Ultrasonic Method
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162519 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Sulphate corrosion of concrete is a complex chemical and physical process that leads to the destruction of construction elements. Degradation of concrete results from the transportation of sulphate compounds through the pores of exposed elements and their chemical reactions with cementitious material. Sulphate [...] Read more.
Sulphate corrosion of concrete is a complex chemical and physical process that leads to the destruction of construction elements. Degradation of concrete results from the transportation of sulphate compounds through the pores of exposed elements and their chemical reactions with cementitious material. Sulphate corrosion can develop in all kind of structures exposed to the corrosive environment. The mechanism of the chemical reactions of sulphate ions with concrete compounds is well known and described. Furthermore, the dependence of the compressive strength of standard cubic samples on the duration of their exposure in the sulphate corrosion environment has been described. However, strength tests on standard samples presented in the scientific literature do not provide an answer to the question regarding the measurement methodology and actual distribution of compressive strength in cross-section of reinforced concrete structures exposed to sulphate ions. Since it is difficult to find any description of this type of test in the literature, the authors undertook to conduct them. The ultrasonic method using exponential heads with spot surface of contact with the material was chosen for the measurements of concrete strength in close cross-sections parallel to the corroded surface. The test was performed on samples taken from compartments of a reinforced concrete tank after five years of operation in a corrosive environment. Test measurements showed heterogeneity of strength across the entire thickness of the tested elements. It was determined that the strength of the elements in internal cross-sections of the structure was up to 80% higher than the initial strength. A drop in the mechanical properties of concrete was observed only in the close zone near the exposed surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Scale Structural Assessment of Cellulose Fibres Cement Boards Subjected to High Temperature Treatment
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152449 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The methodology of multi-scale structural assessment of the different cellulose fibre cement boards subjected to high temperature treatment was proposed. Two specimens were investigated: Board A (air-dry reference specimen) and Board B (exposed to a temperature of 230 °C for 3 h). At [...] Read more.
The methodology of multi-scale structural assessment of the different cellulose fibre cement boards subjected to high temperature treatment was proposed. Two specimens were investigated: Board A (air-dry reference specimen) and Board B (exposed to a temperature of 230 °C for 3 h). At macroscale all considered samples were subjected to the three-point bending test. Next, two methodologically different microscopic techniques were used to identify evolution (caused by temperature treatment) of geometrical and mechanical morphology of boards. For that purpose, SEM imaging with EDS analysis and nanoindentation tests were utilized. High temperature was found to have a degrading effect on the fibres contained in the boards. Most of the fibres in the board were burnt-out, or melted into the matrix, leaving cavities and grooves which were visible in all of the tested boards. Nanoindentation tests revealed significant changes of mechanical properties caused by high temperature treatment: “global” decrease of the stiffness (characterized by nanoindentation modulus) and “local” decrease of hardness. The results observed at microscale are in a very good agreement with macroscale behaviour of considered composite. It was shown that it is not sufficient to determine the degree of degradation of fibre-cement boards solely on the basis of bending strength; advanced, microscale laboratory techniques can reveal intrinsic structural changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
A Nondestructive Indirect Approach to Long-Term Wood Moisture Monitoring Based on Electrical Methods
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152373 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Wood has a long tradition of use as a building material due its properties and availability. However, it is very sensitive to moisture. Wood components of building structures basically require a certain level of moisture protection, and thus moisture monitoring to ensure the [...] Read more.
Wood has a long tradition of use as a building material due its properties and availability. However, it is very sensitive to moisture. Wood components of building structures basically require a certain level of moisture protection, and thus moisture monitoring to ensure the serviceability of such components during their whole lifespan while integrated within buildings is relevant to this area. The aim of this study is to investigate two moisture monitoring techniques promoting moisture safety in wood-based buildings (i.e., new structures, as well as renovated and protected buildings). The study is focused on the comparison of two electrical methods that can be employed for the nondestructive moisture monitoring of wood components integrated in the structures of buildings. The main principle of the two presented methods of the moisture measurement by electric resistance is based on a simple resistor–capacitor (RC) circuit system improved with ICM7555 chip and integrator circuit using TLC71 amplifier. The RC-circuit is easier to implement thanks to the digital signals of the used chip, whilst the newly presented integration method allows faster measurement at lower moisture contents. A comparative experimental campaign utilizing spruce wood samples is conducted in this relation. Based on the results obtained, both methods can be successfully applied to wood components in buildings for moisture contents above 8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of the Destruction Process in Quasi Brittle Concrete with Dispersed Fibers Based on Acoustic Emission and Sound Spectrum
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142266 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The paper presents the identification of the destruction process in a quasi-brittle composite based on acoustic emission and the sound spectrum. The tests were conducted on a quasi-brittle composite. The sample was made from ordinary concrete with dispersed polypropylene fibers. The possibility of [...] Read more.
The paper presents the identification of the destruction process in a quasi-brittle composite based on acoustic emission and the sound spectrum. The tests were conducted on a quasi-brittle composite. The sample was made from ordinary concrete with dispersed polypropylene fibers. The possibility of identifying the destruction process based on the acoustic emission and sound spectrum was confirmed and the ability to identify the destruction process was demonstrated. It was noted that in order to recognize the failure mechanisms accurately, it is necessary to first identify them separately. Three- and two-dimensional spectra were used to identify the destruction process. The three-dimensional spectrum provides additional information, enabling a better recognition of changes in the structure of the samples on the basis of the analysis of sound intensity, amplitudes, and frequencies. The paper shows the possibility of constructing quasi-brittle composites to limit the risk of catastrophic destruction processes and the possibility of identifying those processes with the use of acoustic emission at different stages of destruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Pore Structure Damages in Cement-Based Materials by Mercury Intrusion: A Non-Destructive Assessment by X-Ray Computed Tomography
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142220 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is questioned for possibly damaging the micro structure of cement-based materials (CBMs), but this theme still has a lack of quantitative evidence. By using X-ray computed tomography (XCT), this study reported an experimental investigation on probing the pore structure [...] Read more.
Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is questioned for possibly damaging the micro structure of cement-based materials (CBMs), but this theme still has a lack of quantitative evidence. By using X-ray computed tomography (XCT), this study reported an experimental investigation on probing the pore structure damages in paste and mortar samples after a standard MIP test. XCT scans were performed on the samples before and after mercury intrusion. Because of its very high mass attenuation coefficient, mercury can greatly enhance the contrast of XCT images, paving a path to probe the same pores with and without mercury fillings. The paste and mortar showed the different MIP pore size distributions but similar intrusion processes. A grey value inverse for the pores and material skeletons before and after MIP was found. With the features of excellent data reliability and robustness verified by a threshold analysis, the XCT results characterized the surface structure of voids, and diagnosed the pore structure damages in terms of pore volume and size of the paste and mortar samples. The findings of this study deepen the understandings in pore structure damages in CBMs by mercury intrusion, and provide methodological insights in the microstructure characterization of CBMs by XCT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Freeze–Thaw Cycling on the Failure of Fibre-Cement Boards, Assessed Using Acoustic Emission Method and Artificial Neural Network
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132181 - 07 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents the results of investigations into the effect of freeze–thaw cycling on the failure of fibre-cement boards and on the changes taking place in their structure. Fibre-cement board specimens were subjected to one and ten freeze–thaw cycles and then investigated under [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of investigations into the effect of freeze–thaw cycling on the failure of fibre-cement boards and on the changes taking place in their structure. Fibre-cement board specimens were subjected to one and ten freeze–thaw cycles and then investigated under three-point bending by means of the acoustic emission method. An artificial neural network was employed to analyse the results yielded by the acoustic emission method. The investigations conclusively proved that freeze–thaw cycling had an effect on the failure of fibre-cement boards, as indicated mainly by the fall in the number of acoustic emission (AE) events recognized as accompanying the breaking of fibres during the three-point bending of the specimens. SEM examinations were carried out to gain better insight into the changes taking place in the structure of the tested boards. Interesting results with significance for building practice were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Variation in Compressive Strength of Concrete aross Thickness of Placed Layer
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132162 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Is the variation in the compressive strength of concrete across the thickness of horizontally cast elements negligibly small or rather needs to be taken into account at the design stage? There are conflicting answers to this question. In order to determine if the [...] Read more.
Is the variation in the compressive strength of concrete across the thickness of horizontally cast elements negligibly small or rather needs to be taken into account at the design stage? There are conflicting answers to this question. In order to determine if the compressive strength of concrete varies across the thickness of horizontally cast elements, ultrasonic tests and destructive tests were carried out on core samples taken from a 350 mm thick slab made of class C25/30 concrete. Special point-contact probes were used to measure the time taken for the longitudinal ultrasonic wave to pass through the tested sample. The correlation between the velocity of the longitudinal ultrasonic wave and the compressive strength of the concrete in the slab was determined. The structure of the concrete across the thickness of the slab was evaluated using GIMP 2.10.4. It was found that the destructively determined compressive strength varied only slightly (by 3%) across the thickness of the placed layer of concrete. Whereas the averaged ultrasonically determined strength of the concrete in the same samples does not vary across the thickness of the analyzed slab. Therefore, it was concluded that the slight increase in concrete compressive strength with depth below the top surface is a natural thing and need not be taken into account in the assessment of the strength of concrete in the structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Destructive Testing of a Sport Tribune under Synchronized Crowd-Induced Excitation Using Vibration Analysis
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132148 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents the concept of repairing the stand of a motorbike speedway stadium. The synchronized dancing of fans cheering during a meeting brought the stand into excessive resonance. The main goal of this research was to propose a method for the structural [...] Read more.
This paper presents the concept of repairing the stand of a motorbike speedway stadium. The synchronized dancing of fans cheering during a meeting brought the stand into excessive resonance. The main goal of this research was to propose a method for the structural tuning of stadium stands. Non-destructive testing by vibration methods was conducted on a selected stand segment, the structure of which recurred on the remaining stadium segments. Through experiments, we determined the vibration forms throughout the stand, taking into account the dynamic impact of fans. Numerical analyses were performed on the 3-D finite element method (FEM) stadium model to identify the dynamic jump load function. The results obtained on the basis of sensitivity tests using the finite element method allowed the tuning of the stadium structure to successfully meet the requirements of the serviceability limit state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
The Use of the Acoustic Emission Method to Identify Crack Growth in 40CrMo Steel
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132140 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The article presents the application of the acoustic emission (AE) technique for detecting crack initiation and examining the crack growth process in steel used in engineering structures. The tests were carried out on 40CrMo steel specimens with a single edge notch in bending [...] Read more.
The article presents the application of the acoustic emission (AE) technique for detecting crack initiation and examining the crack growth process in steel used in engineering structures. The tests were carried out on 40CrMo steel specimens with a single edge notch in bending (SENB). In the tests crack opening displacement, force parameter, and potential drop signal were measured. The fracture mechanism under loading was classified as brittle. Accurate AE investigations of the cracking process and SEM observations of the fracture surfaces helped to determine that the cracking process is a more complex phenomenon than the commonly understood brittle fracture. The AE signals showed that the frequency range in the initial stage of crack development and in the further crack growth stages vary. Based on the analysis of parameters and frequencies of AE signals, it was found that the process of apparently brittle fracture begins and ends according to the mechanisms characteristic of ductile crack growth. The work focuses on the comparison of selected parameters of AE signals recorded in the pre-initiation phase and during the growth of brittle fracture cracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Viscoelastic Parameters of Asphalt Mixtures Identified in Static and Dynamic Tests
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132084 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
We present two methods used in the identification of viscoelastic parameters of asphalt mixtures used in pavements. The static creep test and the dynamic test, with a frequency of 10 Hz, were carried out based on the four-point bending beam (4BP). In the [...] Read more.
We present two methods used in the identification of viscoelastic parameters of asphalt mixtures used in pavements. The static creep test and the dynamic test, with a frequency of 10 Hz, were carried out based on the four-point bending beam (4BP). In the method identifying viscoelastic parameters for the Brugers’ model, we included the course of a creeping curve (for static creep) and fatigue hysteresis (for dynamic test). It was shown that these parameters depend significantly on the load time, method used, and temperature and asphalt content. A similar variation of parameters depending on temperature was found for the two tests, but different absolute values were obtained. Additionally, the share of viscous deformations in relation to total deformations is presented, on the basis of back calculations and finite element methods. We obtained a significant contribution of viscous deformations (about 93% for the static test and 25% for the dynamic test) for the temperature 25 °C. The received rheological parameters from both methods appeared to be sensitive to a change in asphalt content, which means that these methods can be used to design an optimal asphalt mixture composition—e.g., due to the permanent deformation of pavement. We also found that the parameters should be determined using the creep curve for the static analyses with persistent load, whereas in the case of the dynamic studies, the hysteresis is more appropriate. The 4BP static creep and dynamic tests are sufficient methods for determining the rheological parameters for materials designed for flexible pavements. In the 4BP dynamic test, we determined relationships between damping and viscosity coefficients, showing material variability depending on the test temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Destructive Testing of Technical Conditions of RC Industrial Tall Chimneys Subjected to High Temperature
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122027 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Non-destructive tests of reinforced concrete chimneys, especially high ones, are an important element in assessing their condition, making it possible to forecast their safe life. Industrial chimneys are often exposed to the strong action of acidic substances, They are negatively exposed to the [...] Read more.
Non-destructive tests of reinforced concrete chimneys, especially high ones, are an important element in assessing their condition, making it possible to forecast their safe life. Industrial chimneys are often exposed to the strong action of acidic substances, They are negatively exposed to the condensation of the flue gases. Condensate affects the inside of the thermal insulation and penetrates the chimney wall from the outside. This is one reason for the corrosion of concrete and reinforcing steel. Wet thermal insulation settles, and drastically reduces its insulating properties. This leads to an increase in temperature in the reinforced concrete chimney wall and creates additional large variations in temperature fields. This consequently causes a large increase in internal forces, which mainly increase tensile and shear stresses. This results in the appearance of additional cracks in the wall. The acid condensate penetrates these cracks, destroying the concrete cover and reinforcement. Thermographic studies are very helpful in monitoring the changes in temperature and consequently, the risk of concrete and reinforcement corrosion. This simple implication between changes in temperature of the chimney wall and increasing inner forces as shown in this article is particularly important when the chimney cannot be switched off due to the nature of the production process. Methods for interpreting the results of thermovision tests are presented to determine the safety and durability of industrial chimneys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Wave Frequency Effects on Damage Imaging in Adhesive Joints Using Lamb Waves and RMS
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111842 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Structural adhesive joints have numerous applications in many fields of industry. The gradual deterioration of adhesive material over time causes a possibility of unexpected failure and the need for non-destructive testing of existing joints. The Lamb wave propagation method is one of the [...] Read more.
Structural adhesive joints have numerous applications in many fields of industry. The gradual deterioration of adhesive material over time causes a possibility of unexpected failure and the need for non-destructive testing of existing joints. The Lamb wave propagation method is one of the most promising techniques for the damage identification of such connections. The aim of this study was experimental and numerical research on the effects of the wave frequency on damage identification in a single-lap adhesive joint of steel plates. The ultrasonic waves were excited at one point of an analyzed specimen and then measured in a certain area of the joint. The recorded wave velocity signals were processed by the way of a root mean square (RMS) calculation, giving the actual position and geometry of defects. In addition to the visual assessment of damage maps, a statistical analysis was conducted. The influence of an excitation frequency value on the obtained visualizations was considered experimentally and numerically in the wide range for a single defect. Supplementary finite element method (FEM) calculations were performed for three additional damage variants. The results revealed some limitations of the proposed method. The main conclusion was that the effectiveness of measurements strongly depends on the chosen wave frequency value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Waste Brick Dust as Potential Sorbent of Lead and Cesium from Contaminated Water
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101647 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Adsorption properties of waste brick dust (WBD) were studied by the removing of PbII and CsI from an aqueous system. For adsorption experiments, 0.1 M and 0.5 M aqueous solutions of Cs+ and Pb2+ and two WBD (Libochovice—LB, and [...] Read more.
Adsorption properties of waste brick dust (WBD) were studied by the removing of PbII and CsI from an aqueous system. For adsorption experiments, 0.1 M and 0.5 M aqueous solutions of Cs+ and Pb2+ and two WBD (Libochovice—LB, and Tyn nad Vltavou—TN) in the fraction below 125 µm were used. The structural and surface properties of WBD were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in combination with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface area (SBET), total pore volume and zero point of charge (pHZPC). LB was a more amorphous material showing a better adsorption condition than that of TN. The adsorption process indicated better results for Pb2+, due to the inner-sphere surface complexation in all Pb2+ systems, supported by the formation of insoluble Pb(OH)2 precipitation on the sorbent surface. A weak adsorption of Cs+ on WBD corresponded to the non-Langmuir adsorption run followed by the outer-sphere surface complexation. The leachability of Pb2+ from saturated WBDs varied from 0.001% to 0.3%, while in the case of Cs+, 4% to 12% of the initial amount was leached. Both LB and TN met the standards for PbII adsorption, yet completely failed for any CsI removal from water systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Condition of Wharf Timber Sheet Wall Material by Means of Selected Non-Destructive Methods
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091532 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper presents an assessment of the condition of wood coming from a wharf timber sheet wall after 70 years of service in a (sea) water environment. Samples taken from the structure’s different zones, i.e., the zone impacted by waves and characterised by [...] Read more.
This paper presents an assessment of the condition of wood coming from a wharf timber sheet wall after 70 years of service in a (sea) water environment. Samples taken from the structure’s different zones, i.e., the zone impacted by waves and characterised by variable water-air conditions, the zone immersed in water and the zone embedded in the ground, were subjected to non-destructive or semi-destructive tests. Also, the basic parameters of the material, such as its density and moisture content, were determined. Moreover, the ultrasonic, stress wave and drilling resistance methods were used. Then, an X-ray microtomographic analysis was carried out. The results provided information about the structure of the material on the micro and macroscale, and the condition of the material was assessed on their basis. Also, correlations between the particular parameters were determined. Moreover, the methods themselves were evaluated with regard to their usefulness for the in situ testing of timber and to estimate, on this basis, the mechanical parameters needed for the static load analysis of the whole structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Machine Learning Techniques in Concrete Mix Design
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081256 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Concrete mix design is a complex and multistage process in which we try to find the best composition of ingredients to create good performing concrete. In contemporary literature, as well as in state-of-the-art corporate practice, there are some methods of concrete mix design, [...] Read more.
Concrete mix design is a complex and multistage process in which we try to find the best composition of ingredients to create good performing concrete. In contemporary literature, as well as in state-of-the-art corporate practice, there are some methods of concrete mix design, from which the most popular are methods derived from The Three Equation Method. One of the most important features of concrete is compressive strength, which determines the concrete class. Predictable compressive strength of concrete is essential for concrete structure utilisation and is the main feature of its safety and durability. Recently, machine learning is gaining significant attention and future predictions for this technology are even more promising. Data mining on large sets of data attracts attention since machine learning algorithms have achieved a level in which they can recognise patterns which are difficult to recognise by human cognitive skills. In our paper, we would like to utilise state-of-the-art achievements in machine learning techniques for concrete mix design. In our research, we prepared an extensive database of concrete recipes with the according destructive laboratory tests, which we used to feed the selected optimal architecture of an artificial neural network. We have translated the architecture of the artificial neural network into a mathematical equation that can be used in practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Accuracy of Eddy-Current and Radar Methods Used in Reinforcement Detection
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071168 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This article presents results from non-destructive testing (NDT) that referred to the location and diameter or rebars in beam and slab members. The aim of paper was to demonstrate that the accuracy and deviations of the NDT methods could be higher than the [...] Read more.
This article presents results from non-destructive testing (NDT) that referred to the location and diameter or rebars in beam and slab members. The aim of paper was to demonstrate that the accuracy and deviations of the NDT methods could be higher than the allowable execution or standard deviations. Tests were conducted on autoclaved aerated concrete beam and nine specimens that were specially prepared from lightweight concrete. The most advanced instruments that were available on the market were used to perform tests. They included two electromagnetic scanners and one ground penetrating radar (GPR). The testing equipment was used to analyse how the rebar (cover) location affected the detection of their diameters and how their mutual spacing influenced the detected quantity of rebars. The considerations included the impact of rebar depth on cover measurements and the spread of obtained results. Tests indicated that the measurement error was clearly greater when the rebars were located at very low or high depths. It could lead to the improper interpretation of test results, and consequently to the incorrect estimation of the structure safety based on the design resistance analysis. Electromagnetic and radar devices were unreliable while detecting the reinforcement of small (8 and 10 mm) diameters at close spacing (up to 20 mm) and of large (20 mm) diameters at a close spacing and greater depths. Recommendations for practical applications were developed to facilitate the evaluation of a structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Singular Value Truncation Method for Non-Destructive Evaluation of Structural Damage Using Natural Frequencies
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071021 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
As natural frequencies can be easily and accurately measured, structural damage evaluation by frequency changes is very common in engineering practice. However, this type of method is often limited by data, such as when the available natural frequencies are very few or contaminated. [...] Read more.
As natural frequencies can be easily and accurately measured, structural damage evaluation by frequency changes is very common in engineering practice. However, this type of method is often limited by data, such as when the available natural frequencies are very few or contaminated. Although much progress has been made in frequency-based methods, there is still much room for improvement in calculation accuracy and efficiency. To this end, an enhanced singular value truncation method is proposed in this paper to evaluate structural damage more effectively by using a few lower order natural frequencies. The main innovations of the enhanced singular value truncation method lie in two aspects: The first is the normalization of linear systems of equations; the second is the multiple computations based on feedback evaluation. The proposed method is very concise in theory and simple to implement. Two numerical examples and an experimental example are employed to verify the proposed method. In the numerical examples, it was found that the proposed method can successively obtain more accurate damage evaluation results compared with the traditional singular value truncation method. In the experimental example, it was shown that the proposed method possesses more precise and fewer calculations compared with the existing optimization algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Nanoindentation and 2D and 3D Imaging to Characterise Selected Features of the Internal Microstructure of Spun Concrete
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071016 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The spinning of concrete is a process in which concrete mixture is moulded and compacted under the action of the centrifugal force arising during the fast rotational motion of the mould around its longitudinal axis. As a result of the spinning of the [...] Read more.
The spinning of concrete is a process in which concrete mixture is moulded and compacted under the action of the centrifugal force arising during the fast rotational motion of the mould around its longitudinal axis. As a result of the spinning of the liquid concrete mixture, an element annular in cross section, characterised by an inhomogeneous layered wall structure, is produced. The heavier constituents tend towards the cross-section wall’s outer side, while the lighter components tend towards its inner side. The way in which the particular constituents are distributed in the element’s cross section is of key importance for the macro properties of the manufactured product. This paper presents procedures for investigating spun concrete and interpreting the results of such investigations, which make it possible to characterise the microstructure of the concrete. Three investigative methods were used to assess the distribution of the constituents in the cross section of the element: micro-computed tomography (µCT), 2D imaging (using an optical scanner) and nanoindentation. A procedure for interpreting and analysing the results is proposed. The procedure enables one to quantitatively characterise the following features of the microstructure of spun concrete: the mechanical parameters of the mortar, the aggregate content, the pore content, the cement paste content, the aggregate grading and the size (dimensions) of the pores. Special attention is devoted to the determination of the variation of the analysed quantities in the cross section of the element. The result of the application of the investigative procedures is presented for an exemplary spun concrete element. The proposed procedures constitute a valuable tool for evaluating the process of manufacturing spun concrete elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Structural Degradation of Fiber Cement Boards Due to Thermal Impact
Materials 2019, 12(6), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060944 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the degradation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of fiber cement board (FCB), which was exposed to environmental hazards, resulting in thermal impact on the microstructure of the board. The process of structural degradation [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the degradation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of fiber cement board (FCB), which was exposed to environmental hazards, resulting in thermal impact on the microstructure of the board. The process of structural degradation was conducted under laboratory conditions by storing the FCB specimens in a dry, electric oven for 3 h at a temperature of 230 °C. Five sets of specimens, that differed in cement and fiber content, were tested. Due to the applied heating procedure, the process of carbonization and resulting embrittlement of the fibers was observed. The fiber reinforcement morphology and the mechanical properties of the investigated compositions were identified both before, and after, their carbonization. Visual light and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray micro tomography, flexural strength, and work of flexural test Wf measurements were used. A dedicated instrumentation set was prepared to determine the ultrasound testing (UT) longitudinal wave velocity cL in all tested sets of specimens. The UT wave velocity cL loss was observed in all cases of thermal treatment; however, that loss varied from 2% to 20%, depending on the FCB composition. The results obtained suggest a possible application of the UT method for an on-site assessment of the degradation processes occurring in fiber cement boards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Inverse Contrast in Non-Destructive Materials Research by Using Active Thermography
Materials 2019, 12(5), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050835 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: it is undesirable for defects to occur in building partitions and units. There is a need to develop and improve research techniques for locating such defects, especially non-destructive techniques for active thermography. The aim of the experiment was to explore the possibility [...] Read more.
Background: it is undesirable for defects to occur in building partitions and units. There is a need to develop and improve research techniques for locating such defects, especially non-destructive techniques for active thermography. The aim of the experiment was to explore the possibility of using active thermography for testing large-sized building units (with high heat capacity) in order to locate material inclusions. Methods: as part of the experiment, two building partition models—one made of gypsum board (GB) and another made of oriented strand board (OSB)—were built. Three material inclusions (styrofoam, granite, and steel), considerably differing in their thermal parameters, were placed in each of the partitions. A 7.2 kW infrared radiator was used for thermally exciting (heating) the investigated element for 30 min. The distribution of the temperature field was studied on both sides of the partition for a few hours. Results: using the proposed investigative method, one can detect defects in building partitions under at least 22 mm of thick cladding. At a later cooling down phase, inverse temperature contrasts were found to occur—the defects, which at the beginning of cooling down were visible as warmer areas, at a later phase of cooling down are perceived as cooler areas, and vice versa (on the same front surface). In the transmission mode, the defects are always visible as areas warmer than defect-free areas. Moreover, a quantitative (defect location depth) analysis with an accuracy of up to 10% was carried out using the Echo Defect Shape method. Conclusions: active thermography can be used in construction for non-destructive materials testing. When the recording of thermograms is conducted for an appropriate length of time, inverse contrasts can be observed (on the same front surface). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of the Degree of Degradation of Fibre-Cement Boards Exposed to Fire by Means of the Acoustic Emission Method and Artificial Neural Networks
Materials 2019, 12(4), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040656 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper presents the results of research aimed at identifying the degree of degradation of fibre-cement boards exposed to fire. The fibre-cement board samples were initially exposed to fire at various durations in the range of 1–15 min. The samples were then subjected [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of research aimed at identifying the degree of degradation of fibre-cement boards exposed to fire. The fibre-cement board samples were initially exposed to fire at various durations in the range of 1–15 min. The samples were then subjected to three-point bending and were investigated using the acoustic emission method. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were employed to analyse the results yielded by the acoustic emission method. Fire was found to have a degrading effect on the fibres contained in the boards. As the length of exposure to fire increased, the fibres underwent gradual degradation, which was reflected in a decrease in the number of acoustic emission (AE) events recognised by the artificial neural networks as accompanying the breaking of the fibres during the three-point bending of the sample. It was shown that it is not sufficient to determine the degree of degradation of fibre-cement boards solely on the basis of bending strength (MOR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Residual Magnetic Field Non-Destructive Testing of Gantry Cranes
Materials 2019, 12(4), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040564 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Non-destructive tests of gantry cranes by means of the residual magnetic field (RMF) method were carried out for a duration of 7 years. Distributions of the residual magnetic field tangential and the normal components of their gradients were determined. A database of magnetograms [...] Read more.
Non-destructive tests of gantry cranes by means of the residual magnetic field (RMF) method were carried out for a duration of 7 years. Distributions of the residual magnetic field tangential and the normal components of their gradients were determined. A database of magnetograms was created. The results show that the gradients of tangential components can be used to identify and localize stress concentration zones in gantry crane beams. Special attention was given to the unsymmetrical distribution of the tangential component gradient on the surface of the crane beam No. 5 (which was the most loaded one). The anomaly was the effect of a slight torsional deflection of the beam as it was loaded. Numerical simulations with the finite element method (FEM) were used to explain this phenomenon. The displacement boundary conditions introduced into the simulations were established experimentally. Validation was carried out using the X-ray diffraction method, which confirmed the location of strain concentration zones (SCZs) identified by means of RMF testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of Selected Non-Destructive Methods for Determining the Compressive Strength of Masonry Units Made of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete
Materials 2019, 12(3), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030389 - 26 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Minor-destructive (MDT) and non-destructive (NDT) techniques are not commonly used for masonry as they are complex and difficult to perform. This paper describes validation of the following methods: semi-non-destructive, non-destructive, and ultrasonic technique for autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). The subject of this study [...] Read more.
Minor-destructive (MDT) and non-destructive (NDT) techniques are not commonly used for masonry as they are complex and difficult to perform. This paper describes validation of the following methods: semi-non-destructive, non-destructive, and ultrasonic technique for autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). The subject of this study covers the compressive strength of AAC test elements with declared various density classes of: 400, 500, 600, and 700 (kg/m3), at various moisture levels. Empirical data including the shape and size of specimens, were established from tests on 494 cylindrical and cuboid specimens, and standard cube specimens 100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm using the general relationship for ordinary concrete (Neville’s curve). The effect of moisture on AAC was taken into account while determining the strength fBw for 127 standard specimens tested at different levels of water content (w = 100%, 67%, 33%, 23%, and 10%). Defined empirical relations were suitable to correct the compressive strength of dry specimens. For 91 specimens 100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm, the P-wave velocity cp was tested with the transmission method using the ultrasonic pulse velocity method with exponential transducers. The curve (fBwcp) for determining the compressive strength of AAC elements with any moisture level (fBw) was established. The developed methods turned out to be statistically significant and can be successfully applied during in-situ tests. Semi-non-destructive testing can be used independently, whereas the non-destructive technique can be only applied when the developed curve fbwcp is scaled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Destructive Assessment of Masonry Pillars using Ultrasonic Tomography
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122543 - 13 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
In this paper, a condition assessment of masonry pillars is presented. Non-destructive tests were performed on an intact pillar as well as three pillars with internal inclusions in the form of a hole, a steel bar grouted by gypsum mortar, and a steel [...] Read more.
In this paper, a condition assessment of masonry pillars is presented. Non-destructive tests were performed on an intact pillar as well as three pillars with internal inclusions in the form of a hole, a steel bar grouted by gypsum mortar, and a steel bar grouted by cement mortar. The inspection utilized ultrasonic stress waves and the reconstruction of the velocity distribution was performed by means of computed tomography. The results showed the possibilities of tomographic imaging in characterizing the internal structure of pillars. Particular attention was paid to the assessment of the adhesive connection between a steel reinforcing bar, embedded inside pillars, and the surrounding pillar body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering)
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