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Special Issue "Advances in Metal Foams"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Liviu Marsavina

University Politehnica Timisoara, Romania
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mechanical characterization of cellular materials
Guest Editor
Dr. Jaroslav Kovacik

Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: aliminum and zinc foams; porous solids; properties characterization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript (full paper, communication, or review paper) to the present Special Issue, “Advances in Metal Foams”, of Materials. The industrial applications of metallic foams have increased significantly in the last two decades. This Special Issue represents a good opportunity for researchers to disseminate different aspects of their work related to metallic foams: Different manufacturing routes, microstructure and mechanical properties determination and their relationship, damping characterization, sound absorption, surface and volume treatment, simulation and modeling of metallic foam behavior, heat exchangers, foams filled with phase change materials, fluid flow across open metallic foam, behavior of sandwich structures with metallic foam cores, novel metallic cellular structures, additive manufacturing of porous metal structures, biocompatible metal foams, and their industrial applications.

Prof. Liviu Marsavina
Dr. Jaroslav Kovacik
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metallic foams
  • cellular microstructure
  • physical and mechanical properties
  • manufacturing routes
  • simulation and modeling
  • nanoporous materials
  • shape memory metal foams
  • biocompatible metal foams
  • additive manufacturing of porous metal foams
  • industrial applications of metal foams

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Investigation of Polymer Coated Nanoporous Gold
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132178
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 6 July 2019
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Abstract
Nanoporous metals represent a fascinating class of materials. They consist of a bi-continuous three-dimensional network of randomly intersecting pores and ligaments where the ligaments form the skeleton of the structure. The open-pore structure allows for applying a thin electrolytic coating on the ligaments. [...] Read more.
Nanoporous metals represent a fascinating class of materials. They consist of a bi-continuous three-dimensional network of randomly intersecting pores and ligaments where the ligaments form the skeleton of the structure. The open-pore structure allows for applying a thin electrolytic coating on the ligaments. In this paper, we will investigate the stiffening effect of a polymer coating numerically. Since the coating adds an additional difficulty for the discretization of the microstructure by finite elements, we apply the finite cell method. This allows for deriving a mesh in a fully automatic fashion from the high resolution 3D voxel model stemming from the 3D focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope tomography data of nanoporous gold. By manipulating the voxel model in a straightforward way, we add a thin polymer layer of homogeneous thickness numerically and study its effect on the macroscopic elastic properties systematically. In order to lower the influence of the boundary conditions on the results, the window method, which is known from homogenization procedures, is applied. In the second part of the paper, we fill the gap between numerical simulations and experimental investigations and determine real material properties of an electrolytic applied polypyrrole coating by inverse computations. The simulations provide an estimate for the mechanical properties of the ligaments and the polymeric coating and are in accordance with experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Foams)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Pore Size Variation on Thermal Conductivity of Open-Porous Foams
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122017
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 16 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
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Abstract
This study addresses the influence of pore size variation on the effective thermal conductivity of open-cell foam structures. Numerical design procedure which renders it possible to control chosen structural parameters has been developed based on characterization of commercially available open-cell copper foams. Open-porous [...] Read more.
This study addresses the influence of pore size variation on the effective thermal conductivity of open-cell foam structures. Numerical design procedure which renders it possible to control chosen structural parameters has been developed based on characterization of commercially available open-cell copper foams. Open-porous materials with various pore size distribution were numerically designed using the Laguerre–Voronoi Tessellations procedure. Heat transfer through an isolated structure was simulated with the finite element method. The results reveal that thermal conductivity is strongly related to porosity, which is in agreement with the literature. The influence of pore size distribution has also been observed and compared with analytical formulas proposed in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Foams)
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Open AccessArticle
Early Compressive Deformation of Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam Based on a Three-Dimensional Realistic Structure
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111792
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
It is well-known that cell morphology plays a vital role in the mechanical properties of the closed-cell aluminum foam. In this work, a three-dimensional (3D) realistic structure was obtained by using the synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography technique and then translated into a numerical model [...] Read more.
It is well-known that cell morphology plays a vital role in the mechanical properties of the closed-cell aluminum foam. In this work, a three-dimensional (3D) realistic structure was obtained by using the synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography technique and then translated into a numerical model for a further finite-element simulation. In order to investigate the early compressive deformation in the closed-cell aluminum foam, we chose three different strain levels, namely, 0.2% (initiation of plastic strain), 2.8% (propagation of plastic strain band), and 6% (formation of collapse band) to discuss the evolution forms of plastic strain concentration by simulation. We found that the curvature, anisotropy, and distribution of cell volume of adjacent cells played a vital role in the initiation of plastic strain. Furthermore, the phenomenon that plastic strain band propagated along the direction aligned 45° with respect to the orientation of the compression was also investigated in the propagation of the plastic strain band and formation of the collapse band. Finally, the comparison between experimental results and simulation results was performed to illustrate the early location of these three different levels in the whole compressive deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Foams)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Compressive Behaviors of Two-Layer Graded Aluminum Foams under Blast Loading
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091445
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
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Abstract
Experimental and numerical analyses were carried out to reveal the behaviors of two-layer graded aluminum foam materials for their dynamic compaction under blast loading. Blast experiments were conducted to investigate the deformation and densification wave formation of two-layer graded foams with positive and [...] Read more.
Experimental and numerical analyses were carried out to reveal the behaviors of two-layer graded aluminum foam materials for their dynamic compaction under blast loading. Blast experiments were conducted to investigate the deformation and densification wave formation of two-layer graded foams with positive and negative gradients. The shape of the stress waveform changed during the propagation process, and the time of edge rising was extended. Finite element models of two-layer graded aluminum foam were developed using the periodic Voronoi technique. Numerical analysis was performed to simulate deformation, energy absorption, and transmitted impulse of the two-layer graded aluminum foams by the software ABAQUS/Explicit. The deformation patterns were presented to provide insights into the influences of the foam gradient on compaction wave mechanisms. Results showed that the densification wave occurred at the blast end and then gradually propagated to the distal end for the positive gradient; however, compaction waves simultaneously formed in both layers and propagated to the distal end in the same direction for the negative gradient. The energy absorption and impulse transfer were examined to capture the effect of the blast pressure and the material gradient. The greater the foam gradient, the more energy dissipated and the more impulse transmitted. The absorbed energy and transferred impulse are conflicting objectives for the blast resistance capability of aluminum foam materials with different gradient distributions. The results could help in understanding the performance and mechanisms of two-layer graded aluminum foam materials under blast loading and provide a guideline for effective design of energy-absorbing materials and structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Foams)
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Open AccessArticle
Coupling Effect of Porosity and Cell Size on the Deformation Behavior of Al Alloy Foam under Quasi-Static Compression
Materials 2019, 12(6), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060951
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Closed-cell AlCu5Mn alloy foam with porosity range of ~45–90% were fabricated by the melt-foaming route. The pore structure of the fabricated Al alloy foam was analyzed and the coupling effect of porosity and cell size on the quasi-static compression behavior of the foam [...] Read more.
Closed-cell AlCu5Mn alloy foam with porosity range of ~45–90% were fabricated by the melt-foaming route. The pore structure of the fabricated Al alloy foam was analyzed and the coupling effect of porosity and cell size on the quasi-static compression behavior of the foam was investigated. The results show that the cell size of the foam decreases with the porosity decline from the view of the contribution rate to the porosity and the hierarchical pore structure characteristics becomes obvious when the foam porosity is low; the compression stress–strain curves of the foams with high porosity (>74%) are serrated due to the large cell size being easy to deform and more strain needed to let the stress recover. Meanwhile, the compression curve of the foams with low porosity (<74%) are smooth without serration, which is attributed to the hierarchical pore structure and less strain needed to let the stress recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Foams)
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Open AccessArticle
Poisson’s Ratio of Closed-Cell Aluminium Foams
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101904
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 7 October 2018
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A nondestructive impulse excitation technique was used to investigate Poisson’s ratio of powder metallurgical pure closed-cell aluminium foams according to ASTM E 1876 within the foam density range of 0.430–1.390 g·cm−3. Instead of a constant value of 0.34, as according to [...] Read more.
A nondestructive impulse excitation technique was used to investigate Poisson’s ratio of powder metallurgical pure closed-cell aluminium foams according to ASTM E 1876 within the foam density range of 0.430–1.390 g·cm−3. Instead of a constant value of 0.34, as according to Gibson and Ashby’s assumption for the Poisson’s ratio of metallic foams, the decrease of the Poisson’s ratio with decreasing foam density was observed. Observed Poisson’s ratio data were in the range of 0.21–0.34. To check the validity of the results, the Young’s modulus was calculated using Poisson’s ratio and its dependence on relative density was successfully modelled using the usual power law function with characteristic exponent of 1.72 ± 0.1. This confirms that the obtained experimental results for Poisson’s ratio are valid. Finally, rule of mixture and percolation theory were used to model the observed decrease of Poisson’s ratio with increasing porosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Foams)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
On the Lateral Compressive Behavior of Empty and Ex-Situ Aluminum Foam-Filled Tubes at High Temperature
Materials 2018, 11(4), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040554
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (17327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this research work, the effect of lateral loading (LL) on the crushing performance of empty tubes (ETs) and ex situ aluminum foam-filled tubes (FFTs) was investigated at 300 °C. The cylindrical thin-walled steel tube was filled with the closed-cell aluminum alloy foam [...] Read more.
In this research work, the effect of lateral loading (LL) on the crushing performance of empty tubes (ETs) and ex situ aluminum foam-filled tubes (FFTs) was investigated at 300 °C. The cylindrical thin-walled steel tube was filled with the closed-cell aluminum alloy foam that compressed under quasi-static loading conditions. During the compression test, the main mechanical properties of the ETs improved due to the interaction effect between the cellular structure of the foam and the inner wall of the empty tube. In addition, the initial propagated cracks on the steel tubes reduced considerably as a result of such interaction. Furthermore, the obtained results of the LL loading were compared with the axial loading (AL) results for both ETs and FFTs at the same temperature. The findings indicated that the application of loading on the lateral surface of the composite causes the lower mechanical properties of both ETs and FFTs in comparison with the axial loading conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Foams)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Planned Paper 1

Compressive Behavior of Metal Foams: Links between Processing Method, Pore Morphology, and Compressive Properties (Review)

Author: Dr. Heeman Choe

Planned paper 2

Author: Dr. Richard Yang

Planned Paper 3

Recent Developments on Porous Metals Science and Technology - Fabrication, Properties and Applications

Authors: Prof. Hideo Nakajima

Planned Paper 4

Cross-property connection between shear modulus and electrical conductivity of closed-cell aluminum foam

Authors: Prof. Igor Sevostianov, Dr. Jaroslav Kovacik

Planned Paper 5

Fabrication of antibacterial foam based on in-situ synthesis of gold nanoclusters in sponge

Author: Pengfei Zhuang, Kuo Li, Peng Zhang, Xifan Mei, Dan Li(@jzmu.edu.cn)

Abstract: Dishcloth is widely used for cleaning the table, which can contain various types of bacteria, including E. coli, salmonella, and listeria, etc. The pathogens can’t be eliminated though it is rinsing thoroughly with hot water. In this work, an antimicrobial foam was simply developed by the growth of gold nanoclusters inside the sponge. The prepared foam was characterized using SEM, TEM, XPS, and FT-IR. Antibacterial activity of the prepared sponges was evaluated using the typical Gram-negative bacterial (Escherichia coli), and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The as-prepared antibacterial foam showed excellent antimicrobial property against the tested organisms. Cytotoxicity studies were investigated using epithelial cells. The results suggest that the material could be used as safe material that exhibited little toxicity.

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