Special Issue "Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Filippo Berto
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: fatigue of advanced and traditional materials; fracture mechanics; solid mechanics; structural integrity; additive materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Deformation, fracture, and fatigue of structural components are very common problems to be managed during the design of complex products and structures. They can provoke unexpected failures or inappropriate behavior of structural components under in-service loading conditions with a shortening of the fatigue life. Aim of this Special Issue is to provide an update to the state-of-the-art on these problems, showing a clear link between material micro-nano behavior and the behavior of a real structure. Multiscale approaches are usually employed to capture these features in a unified way. Recent advanced criteria for fracture and fatigue predictions are fully considered in this Special Issue, keeping in mind the introduction and use of new advanced materials as additive materials, functionally graded materials, and multifunctional materials.

Prof. Dr. Filippo Berto
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • local approaches
  • fatigue assessment
  • advanced design
  • multiscale approach
  • new materials

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Validity of Selected Criteria of Fatigue Life Prediction
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142310 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The paper reports on the results of a comparison involving mathematical models applied for fatigue life calculations where the mean load value is taken into account. Several models based on the critical plane approach and energy density parameter were tested and analyzed. A [...] Read more.
The paper reports on the results of a comparison involving mathematical models applied for fatigue life calculations where the mean load value is taken into account. Several models based on the critical plane approach and energy density parameter were tested and analyzed. A fatigue test results for three types of materials are presented in this paper. The specimens were subjected to bending, torsion and a combination of bending with torsion with mean value of the load. Analysis of the calculation results show that the best fatigue life estimations are obtained by using models that are sensitive to the changes of material behavior under fatigue loading in relation to the specified number of cycles of the load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Part I: The Analytical Model Predicting Post-Yield Behavior of Concrete-Encased Steel Beams Considering Various Confinement Effects by Transverse Reinforcements and Steels
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142302 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of the work was to propose analytical model considering double confinements (provided by both transverse reinforcements and a wide flange steel section), which was verified by the nonlinear finite element analysis considering concrete-damaged plasticity. The scope of the effort and the [...] Read more.
The purpose of the work was to propose analytical model considering double confinements (provided by both transverse reinforcements and a wide flange steel section), which was verified by the nonlinear finite element analysis considering concrete-damaged plasticity. The scope of the effort and the procedures to achieve the aim of this study included the identification of the concrete confinements provided by both transverse reinforcements and a wide flange steel section based on the elasto-plastic model in tension for both rebar/steel sections and elasto-buckling for rebars in compression. The influence of rebar buckling in the compression zone on flexural moment strength was also investigated with and without considering confining effects offered by steel sections. The analytical approach predicted a post-yield behavior of composite beams based on the confining effect offered by both the shear reinforcement and wide steel flange sections. However, for beams without axial loads, the compressive zones with high and partial confinements for concrete sections at the yield and maximum load limit state were limited when compressive buckling failure was not considered, preventing the confining factors from significantly influencing the flexural load resisting capacity. An accurate flexural capacity of composite beams can be obtained when rebar was modeled with buckling in the compression zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
High Sulfate Attack Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Flumes Containing Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Waste Glass Powder
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122031 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To prevent chemical erosion of concrete and improve chemical resistance, reinforced concrete flumes were manufactured, conforming to the Korean Industrial Standards (KS). Two different sizes of liquid crystal display (LCD) waste glass powder (LWGP) particles were used (i.e., 5 and 12 µm) with [...] Read more.
To prevent chemical erosion of concrete and improve chemical resistance, reinforced concrete flumes were manufactured, conforming to the Korean Industrial Standards (KS). Two different sizes of liquid crystal display (LCD) waste glass powder (LWGP) particles were used (i.e., 5 and 12 µm) with two substitution types with cement in concrete (i.e., 10% and 20%). Changes in compressive strength, pore structure, weight, volume, and strength of the concrete flumes after immersion in two sulfate solutions (i.e., Na2SO4 and MgSO4) for 84 and 182 days were measured for sulfate attack resistance. The applicability of the LWGP concrete flume with a 0.5 mm crack width was also evaluated based on the bending strength results. The LWGP5, which has a smaller particle size among LWGPs, filled the smaller pores, thereby reducing the porosity and contributing to the compressive strength gain. Higher volume and weight change ratios for all specimens immersed in MgSO4 solution were found than those immersed in Na2SO4 solution under identical conditions. Flexural loads of all the LWGP concrete flumes with 0.05 mm crack widths were greater than 48.5 kN, as required by the KS code; however, these flexural loads were lower than those of ordinary Portland cement. The applicability was also validated via a flexural test complying with KS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Cyclic Behaviour of Martensitic Steel with J2 Plasticity and Crystal Plasticity
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111767 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In order to capture the stress-strain response of metallic materials under cyclic loading, it is necessary to consider the cyclic hardening behaviour in the constitutive model. Among different cyclic hardening approaches available in the literature, the Chaboche model proves to be very efficient [...] Read more.
In order to capture the stress-strain response of metallic materials under cyclic loading, it is necessary to consider the cyclic hardening behaviour in the constitutive model. Among different cyclic hardening approaches available in the literature, the Chaboche model proves to be very efficient and convenient to model the kinematic hardening and ratcheting behaviour of materials observed during cyclic loading. The purpose of this study is to determine the material parameters of the Chaboche kinematic hardening material model by using isotropic J2 plasticity and micromechanical crystal plasticity (CP) models as constitutive rules in finite element modelling. As model material, we chose a martensitic steel with a very fine microstructure. Thus, it is possible to compare the quality of description between the simpler J2 plasticity and more complex micromechanical material models. The quality of the results is rated based on the quantitative comparison between experimental and numerical stress-strain hysteresis curves for a rather wide range of loading amplitudes. It is seen that the ratcheting effect is captured well by both approaches. Furthermore, the results show that concerning macroscopic properties, J2 plasticity and CP are equally suited to describe cyclic plasticity. However, J2 plasticity is computationally less expensive whereas CP finite element analysis provides insight into local stresses and plastic strains on the microstructural length scale. With this study, we show that a consistent material description on the microstructural and the macroscopic scale is possible, which will enable future scale-bridging applications, by combining both constitutive rules within one single finite element model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
An Energy-Based Unified Approach to Predict the Low-Cycle Fatigue Life of Type 316L Stainless Steel under Various Temperatures and Strain-Rates
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071090 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
An energy-based low-cycle fatigue model was proposed for applications at a range of temperatures. An existing model was extended to the integrated approach, incorporating the simultaneous effects of strain rate and temperature. A favored material at high temperature, type 316L stainless steel, was [...] Read more.
An energy-based low-cycle fatigue model was proposed for applications at a range of temperatures. An existing model was extended to the integrated approach, incorporating the simultaneous effects of strain rate and temperature. A favored material at high temperature, type 316L stainless steel, was selected in this study and its material characteristics were investigated. Tensile tests and low-cycle fatigue tests were performed using several strain rates at a temperature ranging from room temperature to 650 °C. Material properties were obtained in terms of temperature using the displacement-controlled tensile tests and further material response were investigated using strain-controlled tensile tests. Consequently, no pronounced reduction in strengths occurred at temperatures between 300 and 550 °C, and a negative strain rate response was observed in the temperature range. Based on the low-cycle fatigue tests by varying strain rates and temperature, it was found that a normalized plastic strain energy density and a strain-rate modified cycle were successfully correlated. The accuracy of the model was discussed by comparing between predicted and experimental lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Corrosive Fatigue Life of Submarine Pipelines of API 5L X56 Steel Materials
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071031 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Corrosive fatigue failure of submarine pipelines is very common because the pipeline is immersed in a sea environment. In Bohai sea, many old pipelines are made of API 5L X56 steel materials, and it is necessary to provide an accurate method for predicting [...] Read more.
Corrosive fatigue failure of submarine pipelines is very common because the pipeline is immersed in a sea environment. In Bohai sea, many old pipelines are made of API 5L X56 steel materials, and it is necessary to provide an accurate method for predicting the residual life of these pipelines. As Paris law has been proven to be reliable in predicting the fatigue crack growth in metal materials, the two constants in Paris law for API 5L X56 steel materials are obtained by using a new proposed shape factor based on the analysis of experimental data measured from fatigue tests on compact tension specimens immersed in the water of Bohai sea. The results of the newly proposed shape factor show that, for a given stress intensity factor range (ΔK), the fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) in seawater is 1.6 times of that that in air. With the increase of fatigue crack growth rate, the influence of seawater on corrosive fatigue decreases gradually. Thereafter, a finite element model for analyzing the stress intensity factor of fatigue crack in pipelines is built, and the corrosive fatigue life of a submarine pipeline is then predicted according to the Paris law. To verify the presented method, the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of an API 5L X56 pipeline with an initial crack under cyclic load is tested. Comparison between the prediction and the tested result indicates that the presented method is effective in evaluating the corrosive fatigue life of API 5L X56 pipelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression
Materials 2019, 12(4), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040643 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Based on the base force element method (BFEM), the dynamic mechanical behavior of concrete under uniaxial compression loading at different strain rates is investigated. The concrete can be considered as a three-phase composite material composed of aggregate, cement mortar, and interfacial transition zone [...] Read more.
Based on the base force element method (BFEM), the dynamic mechanical behavior of concrete under uniaxial compression loading at different strain rates is investigated. The concrete can be considered as a three-phase composite material composed of aggregate, cement mortar, and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) on the meso-level. A two-dimensional random aggregate model is generated by the Monte Carlo method. A multi-linear two-dimensional damage model is applied to describe the damage properties of each phase in the concrete. The strain-softening behavior, strain-rate effect, and failure patterns of the concrete are studied. The numerical results find that the peaks of compressive stress and compressive strain of concrete show the rate-sensitivity in various degrees under different strain rates. The calculated results of the dynamic enhancement factors are in a good agreement with the formula given by the Comité Euro-International du Béton (CEB) and other experimental results. The failure diagram of the specimen clearly describes the compressive failure process of the concrete specimen. This failure’s characteristics are similar to the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Grain-Size Distribution Effects on the Attenuation of Laser-Generated Ultrasound in α-Titanium Alloy
Materials 2019, 12(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010102 - 29 Dec 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Average grain size is usually used to describe a polycrystalline medium; however, many investigations demonstrate the grain-size distribution has a measurable effect on most of mechanical properties. This paper addresses the experimental quantification for the effects of grain-size distribution on attenuation in α-titanium [...] Read more.
Average grain size is usually used to describe a polycrystalline medium; however, many investigations demonstrate the grain-size distribution has a measurable effect on most of mechanical properties. This paper addresses the experimental quantification for the effects of grain-size distribution on attenuation in α-titanium alloy by laser ultrasonics. Microstructures with different mean grain sizes of 26–49 μm are obtained via annealing at 800 °C for different holding times, having an approximately log-normal distribution of grain sizes. Experimental measurements were examined by using two different theoretical models: (i) the classical Rokhlin’s model considering a single mean grain size, and (ii) the improved Turner’s model incorporating a log-normal distribution of grain sizes in the attenuation evaluation. Quantitative agreement between the experiment and the latter model was found in the Rayleigh and the Rayleigh-to-stochastic transition regions. A larger attenuation level was exhibited than the classical theoretical prediction considering a single mean grain size, and the frequency dependence of attenuation reduced from a classical fourth power to an approximately second power due to a greater probability of large grains than the assumed Poisson statistics. The provided results would help support the use of laser ultrasound technology for the non-destructive evaluation of grain size distribution in polycrystalline materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hot- Rolled and Cold-Rolled Medium-Mn TRIP Steels
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112242 - 11 Nov 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
This study investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled and cold-rolled medium-Mn transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel. The experimental steel, processed by quenching and tempering (Q & T) heat treatment, exhibited excellent mechanical properties for hot-rolled and Q & T steels (strength of [...] Read more.
This study investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled and cold-rolled medium-Mn transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel. The experimental steel, processed by quenching and tempering (Q & T) heat treatment, exhibited excellent mechanical properties for hot-rolled and Q & T steels (strength of 1050–1130 MPa and ductility of 16–34%), as well as for cold-rolled and Q & T steels (strength of 878–1373 MPa and ductility of 18–40%). The mechanical properties obtained after isothermal holding at 775 °C for one hour for cold-rolled/Q & T steel were superior to that of hot-rolled/Q & T steel. Excellent mechanical properties were attributed to the large amount of retained austenite, which produced a discontinuous TRIP effect. Additionally, the differences in mechanical properties correlated with the morphology, stability and content of retained austenite. The cold-rolled sample, quenched from 650 °C (CR 650°C) had extensive TRIP effects in the middle and late stages of the deformation, leading to better mechanical properties. The fracture modes of the hot-rolled sample, quenched from 650 °C, and the cold-rolled sample quenched from 650 °C, were ductile fractures, resulting in excellent ductility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Steam Generator Tubes under Axial Loading
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101944 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Compared with the fatigue properties of the material (Inconel Alloy 690), the real fatigue lives of tubes are more meaningful in the fatigue design and assessment of steam generator (SG) tube bundles. However, it is almost impossible to get a satisfactory result by [...] Read more.
Compared with the fatigue properties of the material (Inconel Alloy 690), the real fatigue lives of tubes are more meaningful in the fatigue design and assessment of steam generator (SG) tube bundles. However, it is almost impossible to get a satisfactory result by conducting fatigue tests on the tube directly. A tube with a uniform and thin wall easily fails near the clamping ends under cyclic loading due to the stress concentration. In this research, a set-up for fatigue tests of real tubes is proposed to overcome the stress concentration. With the set-up, low cycle fatigue tests were conducted in accordance with an existing fatigue design curve for Alloy 690. Strain control mode was applied with fully reversed push–pull loading under different strain amplitudes (0.15%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4%). A favourable result was obtained, and the low cycle fatigue behavior was investigated. The results showed that the fatigue life tested by the real tube was below the strain–life curve of Alloy 690 which was fitted by conventional solid specimens. A cyclic hardening behavior was found by the cyclic stress–strain curve when compared with the monotonic stress–strain curve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Loading Frequency and Loading Type on High-Cycle and Very-High-Cycle Fatigue of a High-Strength Steel
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081456 - 16 Aug 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
High-cycle and very-high-cycle fatigue tests via rotary bending (52.5 Hz), electromagnetic resonance (120 Hz) axial cycling, and ultrasonic (20 kHz) axial cycling were performed for a high-strength steel with three heat treatment conditions, and the effects of loading frequency and loading type on [...] Read more.
High-cycle and very-high-cycle fatigue tests via rotary bending (52.5 Hz), electromagnetic resonance (120 Hz) axial cycling, and ultrasonic (20 kHz) axial cycling were performed for a high-strength steel with three heat treatment conditions, and the effects of loading frequency and loading type on fatigue strength and fatigue life were investigated. The results revealed that the loading frequency effect is caused by the combined response of strain rate increase and induced temperature rise. A parameter η was proposed to judge the occurrence of loading frequency effect, and the calculated results were in agreement with the experimental data. In addition, a statistical method based on the control volume was used to reconcile the effect of loading type, and the predicted data were consistent with the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Temperature Superplasticity and Deformation Mechanism of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071212 - 13 Jul 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The low-temperature superplastic tensile behavior and the deformation mechanisms of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are investigated in this paper. Through the experiments carried out, elongation to failure (δ) is calculated and a set of values are derived that subsequently includes the strain rate sensitivity exponent [...] Read more.
The low-temperature superplastic tensile behavior and the deformation mechanisms of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are investigated in this paper. Through the experiments carried out, elongation to failure (δ) is calculated and a set of values are derived that subsequently includes the strain rate sensitivity exponent (m), deformation activation energy (Q) at low-temperature superplastic deformation, and the variation of δ, m and Q at different strain rates and temperatures. Microstructures are observed before and after superplastic deformation. The deformation mechanism maps incorporating the density of dislocations inside grains at temperatures of 973 and 1123 K are drawn respectively. By applying the elevated temperature deformation mechanism maps based on Burgers vector compensated grain size and modulus compensated stress, the dislocation quantities and low-temperature superplastic deformation mechanisms of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at different temperatures within appropriate processing regime are elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Health Degradation Monitoring and Early Fault Diagnosis of a Rolling Bearing Based on CEEMDAN and Improved MMSE
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061009 - 14 Jun 2018
Cited by 23
Abstract
Rolling bearings play a crucial role in rotary machinery systems, and their operating state affects the entire mechanical system. In most cases, the fault of a rolling bearing can only be identified when it has developed to a certain degree. At that moment, [...] Read more.
Rolling bearings play a crucial role in rotary machinery systems, and their operating state affects the entire mechanical system. In most cases, the fault of a rolling bearing can only be identified when it has developed to a certain degree. At that moment, there is already not much time for maintenance, and could cause serious damage to the entire mechanical system. This paper proposes a novel approach to health degradation monitoring and early fault diagnosis of rolling bearings based on a complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) and improved multivariate multiscale sample entropy (MMSE). The smoothed coarse graining process was proposed to improve the conventional MMSE. Numerical simulation results indicate that CEEMDAN can alleviate the mode mixing problem and enable accurate intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), and improved MMSE can reflect intrinsic dynamic characteristics of the rolling bearing more accurately. During application studies, rolling bearing signals are decomposed by CEEMDAN to obtain IMFs. Then improved MMSE values of effective IMFs are computed to accomplish health degradation monitoring of rolling bearings, aiming at identifying the early weak fault phase. Afterwards, CEEMDAN is performed to extract the fault characteristic frequency during the early weak fault phase. The experimental results indicate the proposed method can obtain a better performance than other techniques in objective analysis, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method in practical application. The theoretical derivations, numerical simulations, and application studies all confirmed that the proposed health degradation monitoring and early fault diagnosis approach is promising in the field of prognostic and fault diagnosis of rolling bearings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Ballistic Performance of Nanostructured Metals Toughened by Elliptical Coarse-Grained Inclusions: A Finite Element Study with Failure Analysis
Materials 2018, 11(6), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060977 - 08 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Bimodal nanostructured (NS) metals, in which the nano-grains or ultrafine grains serve as matrix phase while the coarse grains serve as toughening phase, can synergize the overall strength and ductility to achieve excellent bullet-proof performance. Because of the extrusion process in the fabrication, [...] Read more.
Bimodal nanostructured (NS) metals, in which the nano-grains or ultrafine grains serve as matrix phase while the coarse grains serve as toughening phase, can synergize the overall strength and ductility to achieve excellent bullet-proof performance. Because of the extrusion process in the fabrication, the coarse-grained (CG) inclusions are elongated in the extrusion direction and elliptical CG inclusions with different aspect ratios form. The shape, distribution, and volume fraction of these elliptical CG inclusions can all have significant influence on the overall ballistic performance. In this study, the strain gradient plasticity model together with the Johnson–Cook failure criterion is employed to investigate the ballistic performance of the bimodal NS Cu with elliptical CG inclusions. Our results show that the ballistic performance can be improved by increasing the aspect ratio of the elliptical CG inclusions. Furthermore, the staggered distribution of the elliptical CG inclusions will decrease the overall ability of the material to resist failure, but it will improve its overall ability to resist deformation. The larger stagger degree of elliptical CG inclusions can weaken their shape effects on the limit displacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Flake Formation Behavior and Its Influence Factors in Cr5 Steel
Materials 2018, 11(5), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050690 - 27 Apr 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
A flake is a crack that is induced by trapped hydrogen within steel. To study its formation mechanism, previous studies mostly focused on the formation process and magnitude of hydrogen pressure in hydrogen traps such as cavities and cracks. However, according to recent [...] Read more.
A flake is a crack that is induced by trapped hydrogen within steel. To study its formation mechanism, previous studies mostly focused on the formation process and magnitude of hydrogen pressure in hydrogen traps such as cavities and cracks. However, according to recent studies, the hydrogen leads to the decline of the mechanical properties of steel, which is known as hydrogen embrittlement, is another reason for flake formation. In addition, the phenomenon of stress induced hydrogen uphill diffusion should not be neglected. All of the three behaviors are at work simultaneously. In order to further explore the formation mechanism of flakes in steel, the process of flake initiation and growth were studied with the following three coupling factors: trap hydrogen pressure, hydrogen embrittlement, and stress induced hydrogen re-distribution. The analysis model was established using the finite element method, and a crack whose radius is 0.5 mm was set in its center. The cohesive method and Bilinear Traction Separate Law (BTSL) were used to address the coupling effect. The results show that trap hydrogen pressure is the main driving force for flake formation. After the high hydrogen pressure was generated around the trap, a stress field formed. In addition, the trap is the center of stress concentration. Then, hydrogen is concentrated in a distribution around this trap, and most of the steel mechanical properties are reduced. The trap size is a key factor for defining the critical hydrogen content for flake formation and propagation. However, when the trap size exceeds the specified value, the critical hydrogen content does not change any more. As for the crack whose radius is 0.5 mm, the critical hydrogen content of Cr5VMo steel is 2.2 ppm, which is much closer to the maximum safe hydrogen concentration of 2.0 ppm used in China. The work presented in this article increases our understanding of flake formation and propagation mechanisms in steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 10CrNi3MoV High Strength Steel and Its Undermatched Welds
Materials 2018, 11(5), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050661 - 24 Apr 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The use of high strength steel allows the design of lighter, more slender and simpler structures due to high strength and favorable ductility. Nevertheless, the increase of yield strength does not guarantee the corresponding improvement of fatigue resistance, which becomes a major concern [...] Read more.
The use of high strength steel allows the design of lighter, more slender and simpler structures due to high strength and favorable ductility. Nevertheless, the increase of yield strength does not guarantee the corresponding improvement of fatigue resistance, which becomes a major concern for engineering structure design, especially for the welded joints. The paper presents a comparison of the low cycle fatigue behaviors between 10CrNi3MoV high strength steel and its undermatched weldments. Uniaxial tension tests, Push-pull, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted on base metal and weldments in the strain range of 0.2–1.2%. The monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves, stress-life, strain-life and energy-life in terms of these materials were analyzed for fatigue assessment of materials discrepancy. The stress-life results of base metal and undermatched weld metal exhibit cyclic softening behaviors. Furthermore, the shapes of 10CrNi3MoV steel hysteresis loops show a satisfactory Masing-type behavior, while the weld metal shows a non-Masing type behavior. Strain, plastic and total strain energy density amplitudes against the number of reversals to failure results demonstrate that the undermatched weld metal presents a higher resistance to fatigue crack initiation than 10CrNi3MoV high strength steel. Finally, fatigue fracture surfaces of specimens were compared by scanning electron microscopy to identify the differences of crack initiation and the propagation between them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Fretting Wear Damage Mechanism of Uranium under Various Atmosphere and Vacuum Conditions
Materials 2018, 11(4), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040607 - 16 Apr 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
A fretting wear experiment with uranium has been performed on a linear reciprocating tribometer with ball-on-disk contact. This study focused on the fretting behavior of the uranium under different atmospheres (Ar, Air (21% O2 + 78% N2), and O2 [...] Read more.
A fretting wear experiment with uranium has been performed on a linear reciprocating tribometer with ball-on-disk contact. This study focused on the fretting behavior of the uranium under different atmospheres (Ar, Air (21% O2 + 78% N2), and O2) and vacuum conditions (1.05 and 1 × 10−4 Pa). Evolution of friction was assessed by coefficient of friction (COF) and friction-dissipated energy. The oxide of the wear surface was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. The result shows that fretting wear behavior presents strong atmosphere and vacuum condition dependence. With increasing oxygen content, the COF decreases due to abrasive wear and formation of oxide film. The COF in the oxygen condition is at least 0.335, and it has a maximum wear volume of about 1.48 × 107 μm3. However, the COF in a high vacuum condition is maximum about 1.104, and the wear volume is 1.64 × 106 μm3. The COF in the low vacuum condition is very different: it firstly increased and then decreased rapidly to a steady value. It is caused by slight abrasive wear and the formation of tribofilm after thousands of cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Effect of Surface Mechanical Treatments on the Microstructure-Property-Performance of Engineering Alloys
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162503 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Fatigue is a dominant failure mechanism of several engineering components. One technique for increasing the fatigue life is by inducing surface residual stress to inhibit crack initiation. In this review, a microstructural study under various bulk (such as severe plastic deformation) and surface [...] Read more.
Fatigue is a dominant failure mechanism of several engineering components. One technique for increasing the fatigue life is by inducing surface residual stress to inhibit crack initiation. In this review, a microstructural study under various bulk (such as severe plastic deformation) and surface mechanical treatments is detailed. The effect of individual microstructural feature, residual stress, and strain hardening on mechanical properties and fatigue crack mechanisms are discussed in detail with a focus on nickel-based superalloys. Attention is given to the gradient microstructure and interface boundary behavior for the mechanical performance. It is recommended that hybrid processes, such as shot peening (SP) followed by deep cold rolling (DCR), could enhance fatigue life. The technical and scientific understanding of microstructural features delineated here could be useful for developing materials for fatigue performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)
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