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Special Issue "Advanced Materials for Oral and Dentofacial Surgery"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Gaetano Isola

Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: periodontitis; oral surgery; oral pathology; oral health-systemic health; bone biology
Guest Editor
Dr. Vincenzo Grassia

Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, Second University of Naples, Via Luigi de Crecchio 6, 80138 Naples, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Dental Biomaterials, Orthodontics, aligners, local delivery agents, microscopy analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Material sciences is a major field of research in the current era of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. New developments in this field define the new frontier in many medical disciplines. Biomaterials play a significant role in the expansion of regenerative treatments of the maxilla, allowing a more sophisticated oral rehabilitation of edentulous patients. Periodontology, oral surgery, esthetic and implant dentistry are significant beneficiaries of the recent promising developments. These interconnected clinical domains are themselves major sources of research in implantable materials, particularly for bone materials and surgical adjuvants.

During the last decades, a plethora of different types of bone graft, adjuvants, bone substitutes, growth and differentiation factors, enamel matrix proteins, and various combinations thereof have been employed to achieve bone and periodontal regeneration. Despite positive observations in animal models and successful outcomes reported for many of the available regenerative techniques and materials in patients, robust information on the degree to which the reported clinical improvements reflect true bone and periodontal regeneration does not exist.

Thus, the aim of this Special Issue is to update and summarize the available evidence of the beneficial effects of biomaterials on periodontal wound healing and regeneration in bone reconstruction and in the treatment of defects and atrophies.

We especially welcome interventional studies aiming at improving the knowledge of the effectiveness of biomaterials and adjuvants in dentistry. Review studies including those that use conceptual frameworks for any of the aforementioned topics will also be welcomed.

It is my pleasure to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue.

Prof. Gaetano Isola
Dr. Vincenzo Grassia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomaterials
  • Periodontal regeneration
  • Bone regeneration
  • Adjuvants
  • Periodontal disease
  • Peri-implant disease
  • Growth factors
  • Oral surgery
  • Periodontal surgery

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Low-Level Laser Therapy during Tooth Movement: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132187
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
The present study evaluated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) by means of a diode laser in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). After extraction of the first upper premolars for orthodontic purpose, 82 maxillary canines which needed distalization were analyzed in 41 [...] Read more.
The present study evaluated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) by means of a diode laser in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). After extraction of the first upper premolars for orthodontic purpose, 82 maxillary canines which needed distalization were analyzed in 41 enrolled patients (21 males, 20 females, mean age 13.4 ± 2.1 years). On all experimental sites, an orthodontic force of 50/N was applied by a nickel-titanium (NiTi) closed coil spring (G&H, Franklin, IN, USA) in order to obtain the space closure. Using a split mouth randomized design, the test side was treated using a diode laser (Wiser Laser Doctor Smile, Brendola, Italy) operating at 810 nm wavelength in continuous wave mode at both the buccal and palatal side on three points/side (distal, medial and mesial) (1 W output power, continuous wave of 66.7 J/cm2, energy density of 8 J) at baseline and at 3, 7, and 14 days and every 15 days until the space closed. On the control side, the opposite selected canine was treated only using orthodontic traction. The primary outcome chosen was the overall time needed to complete the levelling and closing space, measured on a study cast. The secondary outcome chosen was the evaluation of pain levels related to tooth traction, using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), recorded at 3, 7, and 14 days after treatments. The mean space closures of the maxillary canines were comparable between groups [Test, 4.56 mm (95% CI 3.9–4.8); Control, 4.49 mm (95% CI 3.8–4.7), p = 0.456]. The laser group yielded less mean time [84.35 ± 12.34 days (95% CI 79.3–86)] to accomplish space closure compared to the control group [97.49 ± 11.44 days (91.7–102.3)] (p < 0.001). The test side showed a significant reduction in the average range of dental pain at 3 [Test, 5.41 (95% CI 5.1–5.6); Control, 7.23 (95% CI 6.9–7.6), p < 0.001], 7 [Test, 4.12 (95% CI 3.8–4.7); Control, 5.79 (95% CI 5.4–5.8), p < 0.001], and at 14 days [Test, 2.31 (95% CI 1.8–2.3); Control, 3.84 (95% CI 3.3–4.2), p < 0.001] after treatment (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that the use of LLLT therapy was effective in accelerating tooth movement and reducing pain levels related to OTM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral and Dentofacial Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Predation Capability of Periodontopathogens Bacteria by Bdellovibrio Bacteriovorus HD100. An in Vitro Study
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122008
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
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Abstract
Treatment options against periodontitis attempt to completely remove oral microbiota even if several species in dental plaque demonstrate protective features. Predatory bacteria that selectively predate solely on Gram-negative bacteria might be a viable therapeutic alternative. Therefore, the aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
Treatment options against periodontitis attempt to completely remove oral microbiota even if several species in dental plaque demonstrate protective features. Predatory bacteria that selectively predate solely on Gram-negative bacteria might be a viable therapeutic alternative. Therefore, the aim of this study is to in vitro evaluate the susceptibility of some oral pathogens to predation by B. bacteriovorus HD100 in liquid suspension. Cultures of prey cell were prepared in brain heart infusion broth (BHI) broth incubating overnight at the appropriate conditions for each organism to reach log phase of growth. Predatory activity was assessed by measuring optical density at 600 nm after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann–Whitney U test and p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The study demonstrated that B. bacteriovorus is able to predate on aerobic species and on microaerophilic ones (p < 0.05) but also that its predatory capacity is strongly compromised by the conditions of anaerobiosis. B. bacteriovorus, in fact, was unable to predate the anaerobic species involved in the present study (F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis). The findings of the study suggest that B. bacteriovorus is able to tolerate microaerophilic conditions and that in anaerobiosis it cannot exert its predatory capacity. Such evidence could lead to its use as an agent to prevent recolonization of the periodontal pocket following therapy. Further studies are needed to investigate the activity of B. bacteriovorus against recently recognized periodontopathogens, alone or organized in biofilms of multi-species communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral and Dentofacial Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of the Chemical Composition and Microstructure Conformation Between Different Dental Implant Bone Drills
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111866
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 9 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: Hardness is considered an important parameter for evaluating the clinical performance of dental implant bone drills. It is connected to the chemical composition, microstructure conformation and manufacture of the surgical drills. Methods: Microstructure of five dental implant drills using scanning electronic microscopy [...] Read more.
Background: Hardness is considered an important parameter for evaluating the clinical performance of dental implant bone drills. It is connected to the chemical composition, microstructure conformation and manufacture of the surgical drills. Methods: Microstructure of five dental implant drills using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) integrated with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Vickers microhardness was measured using a CV 2000 microhardness tester with an indentation force of 500 g. Results: Composition of the implant drills was typical of martensitic stainless steel (MSS). The drills contained 13%–17% of Cr; Mo, Si and Mn were present as minor ligands. The examined bone drills showed different external surface conformation and hardness in relation to the different industrial production processes. A rougher external surface and a higher hardness value are characteristics of the surgical bone drills produced by hot forming; the implant drills produced by machining showed mailing lines on their external surface and a lower hardness. Conclusions: Different compositions and treatments were used by the manufacturers to improve the hardness of the external layer of the dental implant drills making them prone to a diverse heat generation during the implant site preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral and Dentofacial Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle
Micro-Scale Surface Patterning of Titanium Dental Implants by Anodization in the Presence of Modifying Salts
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111753
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
The bone-implant interface influences peri-implant bone healing and osseointegration. Among various nano-engineering techniques used for titanium surface modification, anodization is a simple, high-throughput and low-cost process, resulting in a nanoporous oxide coating which can promote osseointegration and impart antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. We [...] Read more.
The bone-implant interface influences peri-implant bone healing and osseointegration. Among various nano-engineering techniques used for titanium surface modification, anodization is a simple, high-throughput and low-cost process, resulting in a nanoporous oxide coating which can promote osseointegration and impart antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. We anodized rounded tip dental implants of commercial grade titanium in aqueous phosphoric acid modified with calcium and potassium acetate, and characterized the resulting surface morphology and composition with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. The appearance of nanopores on these implants confirmed successful nanoscale morphology modification. Additionally, the metal cations of the used salts were incorporated into the porous coating together with phosphate, which can be convenient for osseointegration. The proposed method for surface nanostructuring of titanium alloy could allow for fabrication of dental implants with improved biocompatibility in the next stage of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral and Dentofacial Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle
Advances in Antiplatelet Therapy for Dentofacial Surgery Patients: Focus on Past and Present Strategies
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091524
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Nowadays, patients involved in antiplatelet therapy required special attention during oral surgery procedures, due to the antiplatelet drugs assumption. The motivations of the assumption may be different and related to the patient’s different systemic condition. For this reason, accordingly to the current [...] Read more.
Background: Nowadays, patients involved in antiplatelet therapy required special attention during oral surgery procedures, due to the antiplatelet drugs assumption. The motivations of the assumption may be different and related to the patient’s different systemic condition. For this reason, accordingly to the current international guidelines, different protocols can be followed. The aim of this work is to analyze how the dentist’s approach to these patients has changed from the past to the present, evaluating the risk exposure for the patients. Methods: This review paper considered different published papers in literature through quoted scientific channels, going in search of “ancient” works in such a way as to highlight the differences in the protocols undertaken. The analyzed manuscripts are in the English language, taking into consideration reviews, case reports, and case series in such a way as to extrapolate a sufficient amount of data and for evaluating the past therapeutic approaches compared to those of today. Results: Colleagues in the past preferred to subject patients to substitution therapy with low molecular weight anticoagulants, by suspending antiplatelet agents to treatment patients, often for an arbitrary number of days. The new guidelines clarify everything, without highlighting an increased risk of bleeding during simple oral surgery in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy. Conclusion: Either patients take these medications for different reasons, because of cardiovascular pathologies, recent cardiovascular events, or even for simple prevention, although the latest research shows that there is no decrease of cardiovascular accidents in patients who carry out preventive therapy. Surely, it will be at the expense of the doctor to assess the patient’s situation and risk according to the guidelines. For simple oral surgery, it is not necessary to stop therapy with antiplatelet agents because the risk of bleeding has not increased, and is localized to a post-extraction alveolus or to an implant preparation, compared to patients who do not carry out this therapy. From an analysis of the results it emerges that the substitutive therapy should no longer be performed and that it is possible to perform oral surgery safely in patients who take antiplatelet drugs, after a thorough medical history. Furthermore, by suspending therapy, we expose our patients to more serious risks, concerning their main pathology, where present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral and Dentofacial Surgery)
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