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Curr. Oncol., Volume 29, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 15 articles

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Article
The “Sandwich” Schedule: A Well-Tolerated Adjuvant Treatment Both in Intermediate–High- and High-Risk Endometrial Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9224-9234; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120722 (registering DOI) - 26 Nov 2022
Viewed by 48
Abstract
(1) Background: In intermediate–high- and high-risk endometrial cancer (EC), radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) play a basic role. However, there is controversy regarding the optimal timing of their combination. The “sandwich” schedule involves adjuvant CT followed by RT and subsequent CT. The aim [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In intermediate–high- and high-risk endometrial cancer (EC), radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) play a basic role. However, there is controversy regarding the optimal timing of their combination. The “sandwich” schedule involves adjuvant CT followed by RT and subsequent CT. The aim of this study is to assess the tolerability and efficacy of the “sandwich” schedule. (2) Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in two gynecological oncology units in Torino, Italy, from 01/01/2003 until 31/12/2021. Intermediate–high- and high-risk patients with available clinical data were included. Compliance with treatment, CT and RT toxicities, disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. (3) Results: A total of 118 patients were selected: 27,1% FIGO I-II stages and 72.9% III-IV. Most of the patients (75.4%) received a carboplatin–paclitaxel combination, and as much as 94.9% of CT cycles were completed. Chemotherapy-related G3-4 toxicities were detected in 5.3% of the patients, almost half of which were hematological. Grade 2 gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities were reported in 8.4% and 4.2% of cases, respectively. With a median follow-up of 46 months, DFS was 77.6%, CSS was 70% and 5-year OS was 54%. (4) Conclusions: The “sandwich” schedule for CT and RT combination is an effective adjuvant treatment with low toxicity both in intermediate–high- and high-risk EC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecologic Oncology)
Article
Quantification of Women Who Could Benefit from Hormone Therapy after Endometrial Cancer Treatment: An Analysis of SEER Data
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9215-9223; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120721 (registering DOI) - 26 Nov 2022
Viewed by 50
Abstract
Our primary aim was to estimate the magnitude of stage I endometrial cancer (EC) survivors that could benefit from hormonal therapy (HT). Our secondary aims were to assess EC incidence in women below 50 and below 60 over the years, and analyze the [...] Read more.
Our primary aim was to estimate the magnitude of stage I endometrial cancer (EC) survivors that could benefit from hormonal therapy (HT). Our secondary aims were to assess EC incidence in women below 50 and below 60 over the years, and analyze the overall survival and any influencing factors. We analyzed the endometrioid EC data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program according to women’s age, tumor stage, and grade. We analyzed the proportions of EC survivors below 50 and below 60 years of age and stratified those age groups by race. For age distribution and survival analysis SEER, 18 registries’ research data (2000–2018) were analyzed. We analyzed the SEER 12 registries’ research data (1992–2019) for incidence time trends. Our investigation found a 14% and 40% cumulative prevalence of stage I EC that occurs in women below 50 or 60 years, respectively. EC’s prevalence has progressively risen in recent decades, but cancer-specific mortality remains low. The increasing number of women affected by EC in premenopause or early postmenopause face an 18 years-survival rate of 96.86% and 95.73%, respectively. A significant proportion of low-grade EC survivors can potentially benefit from HT treatment, and this requires awareness of other aspects of their health or quality of life, in addition to cancer treatments. Full article
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Article
Correlates of Cancer-Related Fatigue among Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Postoperative Adjuvant Therapy Based on the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9199-9214; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120720 (registering DOI) - 26 Nov 2022
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Background: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common and burdensome symptom in cancer patients that is influenced by multiple factors. Identifying factors associated with CRF may help in developing tailored interventions for fatigue management. This study aimed to examine the correlates of CRF among [...] Read more.
Background: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common and burdensome symptom in cancer patients that is influenced by multiple factors. Identifying factors associated with CRF may help in developing tailored interventions for fatigue management. This study aimed to examine the correlates of CRF among colorectal cancer patients undergoing postoperative adjuvant therapy based on the theory of unpleasant symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented, and finally, a sample of 363 participants from one tertiary general hospital and one tertiary cancer hospital was purposively recruited. Data were collected using the general information questionnaire, cancer fatigue scale, the distress disclosure index, Herth hope index, and perceived social support scale. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to determine the correlates of CRF. Results: The mean score of CRF among colorectal cancer patients was 21.61 (SD = 6.16, 95% CI 20.98–22.25), and the fatigue degree rating was “moderate”. The multiple linear regression model revealed that 49.1% of the variance in CRF was explained by hope, sleep disorder, internal family support, self-disclosure, pain, and time since operation. Conclusions: Our study identified several significant, modifiable factors (self-disclosure, hope, internal family support, pain, and sleep disorder) associated with CRF. Understanding these correlates and developing targeted psychosocial interventions may be associated with the improvement of CRF in patients with colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychosocial Oncology)
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Article
“It Will Lead You to Make Better Decisions about Your Health”—A Focus Group and Survey Study on Women’s Attitudes towards Risk-Based Breast Cancer Screening and Personalised Risk Assessments
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9181-9198; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120719 (registering DOI) - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 121
Abstract
Singapore launched a population-based organised mammography screening (MAM) programme in 2002. However, uptake is low. A better understanding of breast cancer (BC) risk factors has generated interest in shifting from a one-size-fits-all to a risk-based screening approach. However, public acceptability of the change [...] Read more.
Singapore launched a population-based organised mammography screening (MAM) programme in 2002. However, uptake is low. A better understanding of breast cancer (BC) risk factors has generated interest in shifting from a one-size-fits-all to a risk-based screening approach. However, public acceptability of the change is lacking. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with 54 women (median age 37.5 years) with no BC history. Eight online sessions were transcribed, coded, and thematically analysed. Additionally, we surveyed 993 participants in a risk-based MAM study on how they felt in anticipation of receiving their risk profiles. Attitudes towards MAM (e.g., fear, low perceived risk) have remained unchanged for ~25 years. However, FGD participants reported that they would be more likely to attend routine mammography after having their BC risks assessed, despite uncertainty and concerns about risk-based screening. This insight was reinforced by the survey participants reporting more positive than negative feelings before receiving their risk reports. There is enthusiasm in knowing personal disease risk but concerns about the level of support for individuals learning they are at higher risk for breast cancer. Our results support the empowering of Singaporean women with personal health information to improve MAM uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection New Insights into Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment)
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Systematic Review
Optimal Choice as First-Line Therapy for Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9172-9180; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120718 - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 233
Abstract
To identify the advantageous therapy as the first-line treatment for patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Randomized controlled trials were searched for on Medline, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library between January 2001 and December 2021. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) [...] Read more.
To identify the advantageous therapy as the first-line treatment for patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Randomized controlled trials were searched for on Medline, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library between January 2001 and December 2021. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) and secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs). A Bayesian framework was applied to facilitate indirect comparisons, of which the outcomes were presented using cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) values, synthesized hazard ratio, risk ratio, and 95% credible interval. A total of 3140 patients were identified. Pooled results of PFS revealed that chemotherapy plus AKT inhibitors (AKTi) was likely the most effective therapy among enrolled therapies (SUCRA = 91.6%), of which the result remained consistent in comparative analysis for OS. In addition, no significant difference was detected between PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in patients, whereas the PD-1 inhibitors (PD-1i) regimen was advantageous over PD-L1 inhibitor (PD-L1i) therapy for PD-L1 positive TNBC. Concerning TRAEs, an apparent heterogeneity associated with safety profiles were denoted among enrolled agents. Chemotherapy plus AKTi was the most effective therapy with comparable safety profiles. Chemotherapy plus the anti-PD-1 regimen was advantageous over the combination therapy based on the PD-L1 blockade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapy in Breast Cancer)
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Article
Quality of End-of-Life Care in Gastrointestinal Cancers: A 13-Year Population-Based Retrospective Analysis in Ontario, Canada
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9163-9171; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120717 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 199
Abstract
Population-based quality indicators of either aggressive or supportive care at end of life (EOL), especially when specific to a cancer type, help to inform quality improvement efforts. This is a population-based, retrospective cohort study of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer decedents in Ontario from 1 [...] Read more.
Population-based quality indicators of either aggressive or supportive care at end of life (EOL), especially when specific to a cancer type, help to inform quality improvement efforts. This is a population-based, retrospective cohort study of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer decedents in Ontario from 1 January 2006–31 December 2018, using administrative data. Quality indices included hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) use, intensive care unit admissions, receipt of chemotherapy, physician house call, and palliative home care in the last 14–30 days of life. Previously defined aggregate measures of both aggressive and supportive care at end of life were also used. In our population of 69,983 patients who died of a GI malignancy during the study period, the odds of experiencing aggressive care at EOL remained stable, while the odds of experiencing supportive care at EOL increased. Most of our population received palliative care in the last year of life (n = 65,076, 93.0%) and a palliative care home care service in the last 30 days of life (n = 45,327, 70.0%). A significant number of patients also experienced death in an acute care hospital bed (n = 28,721, 41.0%) or had a new hospitalisation in the last 30 days of life (n = 33,283, 51.4%). The majority of patients received palliative care in the last year of life, and a majority received a palliative care home service within the last 30 days of life. The odds of receiving supportive care at EOL have increased over time. Differences in care exist according to income, age, and rurality. Full article
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Article
Characteristics of Interval Colorectal Cancer: A Canadian Retrospective Population-Level Analysis from Newfoundland and Labrador
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9150-9162; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120716 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 217
Abstract
Interval colorectal cancers (I-CRCs) arise during the interval time period between scheduled colonoscopies. Predicting which patients are at risk of I-CRCs remains an elusive undertaking, but evidence would suggest that most I-CRCs arise from lesions missed on index endoscopy. The procedural factors that [...] Read more.
Interval colorectal cancers (I-CRCs) arise during the interval time period between scheduled colonoscopies. Predicting which patients are at risk of I-CRCs remains an elusive undertaking, but evidence would suggest that most I-CRCs arise from lesions missed on index endoscopy. The procedural factors that lead to missed lesions are numerous and lack consensus in the literature. In Canada, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador has the highest incidence of CRCs. In this study our aim was to examine I-CRCs (3–60 months after last colonoscopy) in NL through a population-level analysis covering 67% of the province from 2001–2018. We estimated the I-CRC rate to be up to 9.3%. Median age of I-CRC diagnosis was 67.1 years with an interval time of 2.9 years. About 57% of these tumors occurred proximal to the splenic flexure, with 53% presenting as local disease. No temporal differences were observed in interval time or tumor distribution. On univariate and multivariable logistical regression, risk of right-sided I-CRC did not correlate to the index colonoscopy indication, bowel preparation quality, size of largest polyp removed, colonoscopy completion rate, or stage at presentation. Improvements in synoptic reporting utilization and national registries are needed to identity risk factors and reduce I-CRC frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Article
A Novel, Simple, and Low-Cost Approach for Machine Learning Screening of Kidney Cancer: An Eight-Indicator Blood Test Panel with Predictive Value for Early Diagnosis
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9135-9149; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120715 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 222
Abstract
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for more than 90% of all renal cancers. The five-year survival rate of early-stage (TNM 1) ccRCC reaches 96%, while the advanced-stage (TNM 4) is only 23%. Therefore, early screening of patients with renal cancer is [...] Read more.
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for more than 90% of all renal cancers. The five-year survival rate of early-stage (TNM 1) ccRCC reaches 96%, while the advanced-stage (TNM 4) is only 23%. Therefore, early screening of patients with renal cancer is essential for the treatment of renal cancer and the long-term survival of patients. In this study, blood samples of patients were collected and a pre-defined set of blood indicators were measured. A random forest (RF) model was established to predict based on each indicator in the blood, and was trained with all relevant indicators for comprehensive predictions. In our study, we found that there was a high statistical significance (p < 0.001) for all indicators of healthy individuals and early cancer patients, except for uric acid (UA). At the same time, ccRCC also presented great differences in most blood indicators between males and females. In addition, patients with ccRCC had a higher probability of developing a low ratio of albumin (ALB) to globulin (GLB) (AGR < 1.2). Eight key indicators were used to classify and predict renal cell carcinoma. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of the eight-indicator model was as high as 0.932, the sensitivity was 88.2%, and the specificity was 86.3%, which are acceptable in many applications, thus realising early screening for renal cancer by blood indicators in a simple blood-draw physical examination. Furthermore, the composite indicator prediction method described in our study can be applied to other clinical conditions or diseases, where multiple blood indicators may be key to enhancing the diagnostic potential of screening strategies. Full article
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Article
Retrospective Review of Outcomes in Non-Invasive Mucinous Appendiceal Neoplasms with and without Peritoneal Spread: A Cohort Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9125-9134; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120714 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 184
Abstract
Patients treated surgically for local non-invasive mucinous appendiceal neoplasm (NI-MAN) may recur with the development of peritoneal dissemination (PD). The risk of recurrence and predictive factors are not well studied. Patients with NI-MAN, with or without peritoneal dissemination at presentation, were included. Patients [...] Read more.
Patients treated surgically for local non-invasive mucinous appendiceal neoplasm (NI-MAN) may recur with the development of peritoneal dissemination (PD). The risk of recurrence and predictive factors are not well studied. Patients with NI-MAN, with or without peritoneal dissemination at presentation, were included. Patients with limited disease underwent surgical resection only. Patients with peritoneal dissemination underwent cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with or without hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Patients without PD (nPD) were compared to those who presented with PD. Thirty-nine patients were included, 25 in nPD and 14 in PD. LAMN was diagnosed in 96% and 93% of patients in nPD and PD, respectively. Acellular mucin on the peritoneal surface was seen in 16% of nPD patients vs. 50% of PD patients (p = 0.019). Two (8%) patients in the nPD group who had LAMN without wall rupture recurred, at 57 and 68 months, with a PCI of 9 and 22. The recurrence rate in the PD group was 36%. All recurred patients underwent CRS+HIPEC. A peritoneal recurrence is possible in NI-MANs confined to the appendix even with an intact wall at initial diagnosis. The peritoneal disease may occur with significant delay, which is longer than a conventional follow-up. Full article
Review
Advancing Tobacco Cessation in LMICs
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9117-9124; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120713 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 173
Abstract
Tobacco kills more than 8 million people worldwide every year. Over 80% of the world’s 1.3 billion tobacco users live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the future burden is projected to grow. At the same time, progress in tobacco control has [...] Read more.
Tobacco kills more than 8 million people worldwide every year. Over 80% of the world’s 1.3 billion tobacco users live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the future burden is projected to grow. At the same time, progress in tobacco control has not advanced as far as in many LMICs. In particular, the implementation of tobacco-cessation programs and interventions remains limited. The bulk of the evidence for tobacco-cessation interventions comes from high-income countries and may not reflect the context in LMICs, particularly as resources and training for tobacco cessation are limited. This paper summarizes the current evidence for tobacco-cessation interventions in LMICs and highlights some key challenges and research gaps. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for locally relevant research and implementation science to support tailored cessation interventions and strategies for LMICs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Cessation after a Cancer Diagnosis)
Review
Highly Differentiated Follicular Carcinoma of Ovarian Origin: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9105-9116; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120712 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 201
Abstract
(1) Background: Highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin (HDFCO) is an extremely uncommon neoplasm, associated with struma ovarii. There are scarce cases reported in the literature and, subsequently, no reliable conclusions on its pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis can be drawn. The goal [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin (HDFCO) is an extremely uncommon neoplasm, associated with struma ovarii. There are scarce cases reported in the literature and, subsequently, no reliable conclusions on its pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis can be drawn. The goal of this study is to enrich the literature on the topic by adding our own experience with a case, and simultaneously accumulate all cases published up to date. (2) Methods: The present review was performed in accordance with the guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). PubMed (1966–2022), Scopus (2004–2022), and Clinicaltrials.gov databases were screened for relevant articles published up to July 2022. (3) Results: Twenty patients with HDFCO were identified. The included patients were aged 47.15 years (range 24–74). The predominant origin was ovarian (60%) and extraperitoneal spread was confirmed in 15% of the cases. Surgical treatment varied from conservative to radical (35.3% vs. 41.2%, respectively) and the administration of supplementary therapy and thyroidectomy was not universal. Combined thyroidectomy/radioactive iodine therapy was applied in just 62.5% of the reported cases. There was one patient who demonstrated disease recurrence and lives with the disease. No disease related morbidity was reported. (4) Conclusions: HDFCO represents a low-grade malignant tumor, whose rarity does not allow for reliable conclusions. Standard treatment including complete surgical excision and supplementary treatment seems to offer a favorable prognosis in selected cases. Full article
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Article
Stratification of Length of Stay Prediction following Surgical Cytoreduction in Advanced High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Patients Using Artificial Intelligence; the Leeds L-AI-OS Score
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9088-9104; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120711 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 264
Abstract
(1) Background: Length of stay (LOS) has been suggested as a marker of the effectiveness of short-term care. Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies could help monitor hospital stays. We developed an AI-based novel predictive LOS score for advanced-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Length of stay (LOS) has been suggested as a marker of the effectiveness of short-term care. Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies could help monitor hospital stays. We developed an AI-based novel predictive LOS score for advanced-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients following cytoreductive surgery and refined factors significantly affecting LOS. (2) Methods: Machine learning and deep learning methods using artificial neural networks (ANN) were used together with conventional logistic regression to predict continuous and binary LOS outcomes for HGSOC patients. The models were evaluated in a post-hoc internal validation set and a Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of sophisticated LOS predictions. (3) Results: For binary LOS predictions at differential time points, the accuracy ranged between 70–98%. Feature selection identified surgical complexity, pre-surgery albumin, blood loss, operative time, bowel resection with stoma formation, and severe postoperative complications (CD3–5) as independent LOS predictors. For the GUI numerical LOS score, the ANN model was a good estimator for the standard deviation of the LOS distribution by ± two days. (4) Conclusions: We demonstrated the development and application of both quantitative and qualitative AI models to predict LOS in advanced-stage EOC patients following their cytoreduction. Accurate identification of potentially modifiable factors delaying hospital discharge can further inform services performing root cause analysis of LOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecologic Oncology)
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Article
The Clinicopathological Significance of BiP/GRP-78 in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Public Datasets and Immunohistochemical Detection
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9066-9087; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120710 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 312
Abstract
The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP (also known as GRP-78 or HSPA5) maintains protein folding to allow cell proliferation and survival and has been implicated in carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and therapy resistance. BiP’s association with clinical factors and prognostic potential in breast cancer remains [...] Read more.
The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP (also known as GRP-78 or HSPA5) maintains protein folding to allow cell proliferation and survival and has been implicated in carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and therapy resistance. BiP’s association with clinical factors and prognostic potential in breast cancer remains unclear. In this work, three types of analysis were conducted to improve the knowledge of BiP’s clinicopathological potential: (1) analysis of publicly available RNA-seq and proteomics datasets stratified as high and low quartiles; (2) a systematic review and meta-analysis of immunohistochemical detection of BIP; (3) confirmation of findings by BiP immunohistochemical detection in two luminal-like breast cancer small cohorts of paired samples (pre- vs. post-endocrine therapy, and primary pre- vs. metastasis post-endocrine therapy). The TCGA PanCancer dataset and CPTAC showed groups with high BiP mRNA and protein associated with HER2, basal-like subtypes, and higher immune scores. The meta-analysis of BiP immunohistochemistry disclosed an association between higher BiP positivity and reduced relapse-free survival. BiP immunohistochemistry confirmed increased BiP expression in metastasis, an association of BiP positivity with HER2 expression, and nuclear BiP localization with higher a tumor stage and poor outcome. Therefore, three independent approaches showed that BiP protein is associated with worse outcomes and holds prognostic potential for breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Adaptation Mechanisms in Therapy-Resistant Breast Cancer)
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Systematic Review
Chemo-Immunotherapy in First Line Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (ES-SCLC): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9046-9065; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120709 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma with early metastatic potential. The standard-of-care treatment has not changed in years. Recent studies report improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with combined ICI and chemotherapy in ES-SCLC. We conducted a [...] Read more.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma with early metastatic potential. The standard-of-care treatment has not changed in years. Recent studies report improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with combined ICI and chemotherapy in ES-SCLC. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the magnitude of survival benefits. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane between 1 January 2010 and 15 July 2022 and conference proceedings from 2018 to 2022, for randomised controlled trials, evaluating chemo-ICI compared with platinum-doublet chemotherapy in untreated ES-SCLC. Outcomes assessed were PFS, OS, objective response rate (ORR), duration of response (DoR), toxicity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The search identified 8061 studies, with 8 (56 publications) included in the final analysis. PFS and OS were significantly improved for patients randomised to chemo-ICI (PFS hazard ratio (HR) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70–0.80) and (OS HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.73–0.85). Subgroup analysis demonstrated a differential effect between PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors. There was no difference in ORR and DoR. All-grade adverse events (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00–1.12) were similar. The addition of ICI to chemotherapy in untreated ES-SCLC results in a 22% risk reduction in death, and a 25% risk reduction in disease progression with a minimal increase in toxicity. These improvements are modest but represent progress beyond the standard of care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Anti-cancer Drugs)
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Article
A Prognostic Model Generated from an Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Ratio Reliably Predicts the Outcomes of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9031-9045; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120708 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 263
Abstract
This study aimed to develop an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratio-based prognostic model to predict the recurrence and disease-free survival (DFS) of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). A total of 188 patients with cT1-2 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled retrospectively. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratio-based prognostic model to predict the recurrence and disease-free survival (DFS) of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). A total of 188 patients with cT1-2 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled retrospectively. Clinical and laboratory data were extracted from medical records. The ADC values were measured at the regions of interest of the tumor and non-tumor tissues of the MRI images, and the ADC ratio was used for comparison between the patient with recurrence (n = 83 case, 44%) and patients without recurrence (n = 105 cases, 56%). Cox proportional hazards models were generated to analyze the risk factors of cancer recurrence. A nomogram was developed based on significant risk factors to predict 1-, 5- and 10-year DFS. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves of predictors in the multivariable Cox proportional hazards prognostic model were generated to predict the recurrence and DFS. The integrated areas under the ROC curve were calculated to evaluate discrimination of the models. The ADC ratio, tumor thickness and lymph node ratio were reliable predictors in the final prognostic model. The final model had a 71.1% sensitivity and an 81.0% specificity. ADC ratio was the strongest predictor of cancer recurrence in prognostic performance. Discrimination and calibration statistics were satisfactory with C-index above 0.7 for both model development and internal validation. The calibration curve showed that the 5- and 10-year DFS predicted by the nomogram agreed with actual observations. Full article
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