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Curr. Oncol., Volume 29, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 76 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): To date, few studies have explored the use of extreme hypofractionation for salvage radiotherapy in patients with biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy, showing encouraging outcomes in terms of both efficacy and toxicity. In the POPART trial, we showed that SBRT in these patients was very well tolerated at least at early time points, indicating that highly focused radiation in few fractions to the prostate bed with robust conformality and modulation, abrupt dose fall-off and image guidance can be safely extended to the postoperative setting, thus broadening the attractiveness of extreme hypofractionation and enhancing its already unmatched cost-effectiveness profile. View this paper
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48 pages, 9656 KiB  
Conference Report
Abstracts of the Cell Therapy Transplant Canada 2022 Annual Conference
by Stephanie A. Maier, Tobias Berg, Susan Berrigan, Jonathan Bramson, Chris Bredeson, Guy Cantin, Andrew Daly, Gwynivere A. Davies, Mahmoud Elsawy, Alejandro Garcia-Horton, Wilson Lam, Alix Lapworth, Kylie Lepic, Luciana Melo Garcia, Kirk R. Schultz, Ram Vasudevan Nampoothiri, Darrell White and Jean-Sébastien Delisle
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9970-10017; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120783 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3260
Abstract
On behalf of Cell Therapy Transplant Canada (CTTC), we are pleased to present the Abstracts of the CTTC 2022 Annual Conference. The conference was held in-person 15–18 June 2022, in Niagara Falls, Ontario. Poster authors presented their work during a lively and engaging [...] Read more.
On behalf of Cell Therapy Transplant Canada (CTTC), we are pleased to present the Abstracts of the CTTC 2022 Annual Conference. The conference was held in-person 15–18 June 2022, in Niagara Falls, Ontario. Poster authors presented their work during a lively and engaging welcome reception on Thursday, 16 June, and oral abstract authors were featured during the oral abstract session in the afternoon on Friday, 17 June 2022. Thirty-three (33) abstracts were selected for presentation as posters and six (6) as oral presentations. The top abstracts in each of four (4) categories, (1) Basic/Translational sciences, (2) Clinical Trials/Observations, (3) Laboratory/Quality, and (4) Pharmacy/Nursing/Other Transplant Support, received awards for both the oral and poster presentations. All of these were marked as “Award Recipient” with the relevant category. We congratulate all the presenters on their research and contribution to the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Therapy)
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14 pages, 288 KiB  
Review
Smoking Cessation after Cancer Diagnosis and Enhanced Therapy Response: Mechanisms and Significance
by Srikumar Chellappan
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9956-9969; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120782 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3185
Abstract
The adverse effects of smoking on human health have been recognized for several decades, especially in the context of cancer. The ability of tobacco smoke components, including tobacco-specific carcinogens and additive compounds such as nicotine, to initiate or promote tumor growth have been [...] Read more.
The adverse effects of smoking on human health have been recognized for several decades, especially in the context of cancer. The ability of tobacco smoke components, including tobacco-specific carcinogens and additive compounds such as nicotine, to initiate or promote tumor growth have been described in hundreds of studies. These investigations have revealed the tumor-promoting activities of nicotine and other tobacco smoke components and have also recognized the ability of these agents to suppress the efficacy of cancer therapy; it is now clear that smoking can reduce the efficacy of most of the widely used therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Several studies examined if continued smoking after cancer diagnosis affected therapy response; it was found that while never smokers or non-smokers had the best response to therapy, those who quit smoking at the time of diagnosis had higher overall survival and reduced side-effects than those who continued to smoke. These studies also revealed the multiple mechanisms via which smoking enhances the growth and survival of tumors while suppressing therapy-induced cell death. In conclusion, smoking cessation during the course of cancer therapy markedly increases the chances of survival and the quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Cessation after a Cancer Diagnosis)
28 pages, 2534 KiB  
Article
Determining the Research Priorities for Adult Primary Brain Tumours in Australia and New Zealand: A Delphi Study with Consumers, Health Professionals, and Researchers
by Georgia K. B. Halkett, Lauren J. Breen, Melissa Berg, Rebecca Sampson, Hao-Wen Sim, Hui K. Gan, Benjamin Y. Kong, Anna K. Nowak, Bryan W. Day, Rosemary Harrup, Melissa James, Frank Saran, Brett Mcfarlane, Chris Tse and Eng-Siew Koh
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9928-9955; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120781 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2416
Abstract
The aim of this project was to determine research priorities, barriers, and enablers for adult primary brain tumour research in Australia and New Zealand. Consumers, health professionals, and researchers were invited to participate in a two-phase modified Delphi study. Phase 1 comprised an [...] Read more.
The aim of this project was to determine research priorities, barriers, and enablers for adult primary brain tumour research in Australia and New Zealand. Consumers, health professionals, and researchers were invited to participate in a two-phase modified Delphi study. Phase 1 comprised an initial online survey (n = 91) and then focus groups (n = 29) which identified 60 key research topics, 26 barriers, and 32 enablers. Phase 2 comprised two online surveys to (1) reduce the list to 37 research priorities which achieved consensus (>75% 2-point agreement) and had high mean importance ratings (n = 116 participants) and (2) determine the most important priorities, barriers, and enablers (n = 90 participants). The top ten ranked research priorities for the overall sample and sub-groups (consumers, health professionals, and researchers) were identified. Priorities focused on: tumour biology, pre-clinical research, clinical and translational research, and supportive care. Variations were seen between sub-groups. The top ten barriers to conducting brain tumour research related to funding and resources, accessibility and awareness of research, collaboration, and process. The top ten research enablers were funding and resources, collaboration, and workforce. The broad list of research priorities identified by this Delphi study, together with how consumers, health professionals, and researchers prioritised items differently, and provides an evidence-based research agenda for brain tumour research that is needed across a wide range of areas. Full article
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12 pages, 1334 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Patients’ and Physicians’ Knowledge and Expectations Regarding Precision Oncology Tests
by Navdeep Dehar, Tasnima Abedin, Patricia Tang, Gwyn Bebb and Winson Y. Cheung
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9916-9927; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120780 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1726
Abstract
(1) Background: As genomic testing is becoming a part of the mainstream oncology practice, it is vital to ensure that our patients fully understand the implications of these tests. This study aimed to compare the attitudes and expectations of cancer patients with those [...] Read more.
(1) Background: As genomic testing is becoming a part of the mainstream oncology practice, it is vital to ensure that our patients fully understand the implications of these tests. This study aimed to compare the attitudes and expectations of cancer patients with those of their physicians regarding the role of biomarker testing in clinical decision making. (2) Methods: Two separate, complimentary, self-administered questionnaires for patients with cancer and their physicians, respectively, were collected in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Out of 117, 113 completed patient surveys were included in the statistical analysis, constituting a 96.4% response rate. These surveys were subsequently matched with those of their corresponding oncologists to determine the concordance rates. (3) Results: Overall, patients demonstrated a good understanding of general cancer biology (80.0%) and diagnostic processes (90.0%) associated with precision oncology. Most patients wanted their tumours to be tested to guide treatment, and the oncologists broadly shared these views (concordance 65.1%). However, there were discrepancies between the knowledge and expectations regarding the applications of test results on actual diagnosis and prognosis between patients and their oncologists (concordance 26.1% and 36.0%, respectively). While only 28.0% of patients thought they had enough knowledge to make informed decisions, the majority (68.0%) said they needed more information. (4) Conclusion: Our study shows that patients and cancer physicians do not always agree with the roles and applications of genomic tests, which could lead to misplaced expectations and poor health outcomes. More research is needed to devise strategies to improve education and communication to align these expectations and improve the quality of clinical decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Oncology)
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20 pages, 26710 KiB  
Article
Zinc Finger Proteins in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas: ZNF540 May Serve as a Biomarker
by Joanna Sobocińska, Joanna Nowakowska, Sara Molenda, Anna Olechnowicz, Kacper Guglas, Joanna Kozłowska-Masłoń, Urszula Kazimierczak, Marta Machnik, Urszula Oleksiewicz, Anna Teresiak, Katarzyna Lamperska and Tomasz Kolenda
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9896-9915; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120779 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the ten most common cancers. Most cancer cases originate from alcohol and tobacco consumption. However, studies have demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly HPV-16, may also significantly influence disease [...] Read more.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the ten most common cancers. Most cancer cases originate from alcohol and tobacco consumption. However, studies have demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly HPV-16, may also significantly influence disease progression. The KRAB-ZNF family of genes is involved in epigenetic suppression, and its involvement in carcinogenesis is the subject of extensive studies. The available literature data demonstrate that they may play different roles, both as tumor suppressors and oncogenes. In this study, six ZNF genes, ZFP28, ZNF132, ZNF418, ZNF426, ZNF540, and ZNF880, were tested using several in silico approaches based on the TCGA and GEO datasets. Our analyses indicate that the expression of the analyzed ZNFs was significantly downregulated in tumor tissues and depended on tumor localization. The expression levels of ZNFs differed between HPV-positive vs. HPV-negative patients depending on the clinical-pathological parameters. More specifically, the patients with higher levels of ZNF418 and ZNF540 showed better survival rates than those with a lower expression. In addition, the level of ZNF540 expression in HPV-positive (HPV(+)) patients was higher than in HPV-negative (HPV(−)) patients (p < 0.0001) and was associated with better overall survival (OS). In conclusion, we demonstrate that ZNF540 expression highly correlates with HPV infection, which renders ZNF540 a potential biomarker for HNSCC prognosis and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck)
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5 pages, 186 KiB  
Commentary
Access to Neoadjuvant Pertuzumab for HER2 Positive Breast Cancer in Canada: A Dilemma Increasingly Difficult to Explain
by Daniel Rayson, Sonal Gandhi, Anil A. Joy, Christine Brezden-Masley, Karen A. Gelmon, Sandeep Sehdev, David Cescon and Stephen Chia
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9891-9895; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120778 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2286
Abstract
The addition of pertuzumab to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy for women with early-stage, high-risk, HER2+ breast cancer has been observed to lead to higher pathologic complete response rates (pCR), and improved event-free survival compared to trastuzumab and chemotherapy alone. Based on available data, [...] Read more.
The addition of pertuzumab to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy for women with early-stage, high-risk, HER2+ breast cancer has been observed to lead to higher pathologic complete response rates (pCR), and improved event-free survival compared to trastuzumab and chemotherapy alone. Based on available data, neoadjuvant pertuzumab is recommended by ESMO, ASCO, and NICE as well as by a Canadian Consensus Guideline Group. We discuss the implications for Canadian patients with HER2+ early breast cancer due to a second and final negative funding decision by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) related to neoadjuvant pertuzumab. This decision will have adverse impacts for up to 1 in 6 women receiving neoadjuvant therapy for high-risk HER2+ breast cancer, due to suboptimal pCR rates and higher risks of invasive breast cancer recurrent events, resulting in the need for more toxic adjuvant therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Breast Cancer)
7 pages, 2673 KiB  
Communication
Thin Cartilage Cap May Be Related to the Spontaneous Regression in Pediatric Patients with Osteochondroma
by Ryohei Adachi, Tomoki Nakamura, Kunihiro Asanuma, Tomohito Hagi, Teruya Uchiyama and Akihiro Sudo
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9884-9890; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120777 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1786
Abstract
Background: The spontaneous regression of osteochondromas is rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Furthermore, the precise mechanism underlying spontaneous regression is unknown. This study aimed to examine the radiological findings of osteochondromas that had spontaneous regression and to identify potential [...] Read more.
Background: The spontaneous regression of osteochondromas is rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Furthermore, the precise mechanism underlying spontaneous regression is unknown. This study aimed to examine the radiological findings of osteochondromas that had spontaneous regression and to identify potential indicators of this uncommon phenomenon in skeletally immature patients with osteochondromas. Methods: We included 28 patients (15 males and 13 females) who met the eligibility criteria between 2002 and 2019. The mean age at initial diagnosis was 9.7 years old (2–16 years). The mean follow-up period was 6.4 years (3–16 years). Results: Of the 28 patients, 10 (35.7%) had osteochondroma resolution. The osteochondroma resolved in one patient and regressed in nine. Tumor shrinkage is related to the thickness of the cartilage cap. The thickness of the cartilage cap did not correlate with age. Conclusions: Tumor shrinkage is associated with a thinner cartilage cap on magnetic resonance imaging. The thickness of the cartilage cap may be an important predictor of spontaneous regression in pediatric patients with osteochondroma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors: Clinical Features, Imaging and Treatment)
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9 pages, 1030 KiB  
Article
Resilience as a Factor Influencing Psychological Distress Experience in Patients with Neuro-Oncological Disease
by Jan Ilgen, Mirjam Renovanz, Andreas Stengel, Stephan Zipfel and Norbert Schäffeler
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9875-9883; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120776 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1926
Abstract
Cancer causes psychological distress. Approximately one-third of all patients with cancer suffer from distress requiring psycho-oncological treatment. Examining factors contributing to their distress can inform approaches to counteracting them. Among such factors, resilience is considered to be a psychological adaptive capacity resulting from [...] Read more.
Cancer causes psychological distress. Approximately one-third of all patients with cancer suffer from distress requiring psycho-oncological treatment. Examining factors contributing to their distress can inform approaches to counteracting them. Among such factors, resilience is considered to be a psychological adaptive capacity resulting from complex genetic, epigenetic, psychological, and environmental influences. For that reason, we investigated resilience as a factor of psychological distress experience among patients with neuro-oncological disease. To assess distress among patients with neuro-oncological diseases, we performed electronic psycho-oncological screening in the Department of Neurosurgery at Tübingen University Hospital (n = 100) following tumor surgery (T0) using the Resilience Scale 13, the Hornheider Screening Instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-2, and the Distress Thermometer, all administered on tablets. Follow-up was done 6 months after (T1). The distress of patients with neuro-oncological disease decreased significantly after 6 months (p < 0.01). Most patients (87%) showed moderate to high resilience. Although significant correlations with distress are measurable at the T0 time point (ρ = −0.318 **, p < 0.01), no significant correlations were observed at T1. Thus, resilience seems to significantly impact distress in the acute phase of the neuro-oncological disease. For clinical practice, our findings suggest that resilience-focused screening can provide useful information about patients at risk of experiencing distress. Full article
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8 pages, 550 KiB  
Article
Preoperative C-Reactive Protein-to-Albumin Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula following Pancreatoduodenectomy: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study
by Naotake Funamizu, Takeshi Utsunomiya, Masahiko Honjo, Chihiro Ito, Mikiya Shine, Mio Uraoka, Tomoyuki Nagaoka, Kei Tamura, Katsunori Sakamoto, Kohei Ogawa and Yasutsugu Takada
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9867-9874; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120775 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is a potentially lethal complication, and it is clinically important to determine its risk preoperatively. Although C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR) is reported to be a prognostic marker for postoperative complications in several cancers, no evidence is [...] Read more.
Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is a potentially lethal complication, and it is clinically important to determine its risk preoperatively. Although C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR) is reported to be a prognostic marker for postoperative complications in several cancers, no evidence is currently available regarding the association between preoperative CAR and POPF following PD for periampullary tumors. This study examined whether preoperative CAR could predict POPF following PD. Clinical data were retrospectively retrieved from Ehime University Hospital. The optimal cut-off value for CAR was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. This study enrolled 203 consecutive patients undergoing PD for periampullary tumors. The CAR value was significantly higher in the POPF group than in the non-POPF group (p < 0.001). According to the ROC curve analysis, the optimal cut-off value for CAR was 0.09. Patients with CAR ≥ 0.09 had higher incidence rates of POPF than their counterparts. CAR ≥ 0.09 was a risk factor for POPF in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio 34.5, 95% confidence interval 11.75–101.38, p < 0.001). This is the first report demonstrating an association between CAR and POPF following PD. Preoperative CAR is an independent predictive marker for POPF following PD. Full article
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12 pages, 5042 KiB  
Article
Application of Intravoxel Incoherent Motion in the Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Transarterial Chemoembolization
by Xiaofei Yue, Yuting Lu, Qiqi Jiang, Xiangjun Dong, Xuefeng Kan, Jiawei Wu, Xiangchuang Kong, Ping Han, Jie Yu and Qian Li
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9855-9866; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120774 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1837
Abstract
(1) Background: To assess the efficacy of the quantitative parameters of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). (2) Methods: Fifty HCC patients after TACE were included and underwent MRI. All of the patients were [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To assess the efficacy of the quantitative parameters of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). (2) Methods: Fifty HCC patients after TACE were included and underwent MRI. All of the patients were scanned with the IVIM-DWI sequence and underwent TACE retreatment within 1 week. Referring to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and MR enhanced images, two readers measured the f, D, and D* values of the tumor active area (TAA), tumor necrotic area (TNA), and adjacent normal hepatic parenchyma (ANHP). Then, the distinctions of the TAA, TNA, and ANHP were compared and we analyzed the differential diagnosis of the parameters in three tissues. (3) Results: For values of f and D, there were significant differences between any of the TAA, TNA, and ANHP (p < 0.05). The values of f and D were the best indicators for identifying the TAA and TNA, with AUC values of 0.959 and 0.955, respectively. The values of f and D performed well for distinguishing TAA from ANHP, with AUC values of 0.835 and 0.753, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Quantitative IVIM-DWI was effective for evaluating tumor viability in HCC patients treated with TACE and may be helpful for non-invasive monitoring of the tumor viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastrointestinal Cancer Imaging)
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22 pages, 4357 KiB  
Review
Complement and Fungal Dysbiosis as Prognostic Markers and Potential Targets in PDAC Treatment
by Cornelia Speth, Ruben Bellotti, Georg Schäfer, Günter Rambach, Bernhard Texler, Gudrun C. Thurner, Dietmar Öfner, Cornelia Lass-Flörl and Manuel Maglione
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9833-9854; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120773 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still hampered by a dismal prognosis. A better understanding of the tumor microenvironment within the pancreas and of the factors affecting its composition is of utmost importance for developing new diagnostic and treatment tools. In this context, the [...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still hampered by a dismal prognosis. A better understanding of the tumor microenvironment within the pancreas and of the factors affecting its composition is of utmost importance for developing new diagnostic and treatment tools. In this context, the complement system plays a prominent role. Not only has it been shown to shape a T cell-mediated immune response, but it also directly affects proliferation and apoptosis of the tumor cells, influencing angiogenesis, metastatic spread and therapeutic resistance. This makes complement proteins appealing not only as early biomarkers of PDAC development, but also as therapeutic targets. Fungal dysbiosis is currently the new kid on the block in tumorigenesis with cancer-associated mycobiomes extracted from several cancer types. For PDAC, colonization with the yeast Malassezia seems to promote cancer progression, already in precursor lesions. One responsible mechanism appears to be complement activation via the lectin pathway. In the present article, we review the role of the complement system in tumorigenesis, presenting observations that propose it as the missing link between fungal dysbiosis and PDAC development. We also present the results of a small pilot study supporting the crucial interplay between the complement system and Malassezia colonization in PDAC pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer)
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7 pages, 443 KiB  
Communication
Survey of Anaphylaxis during Rasburicase Re-Administration in Patients with Hematological Malignancies Using a Japanese Claims Database
by Shunsuke Kobayashi, Takeo Yasu and Manabu Akazawa
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9826-9832; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120772 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
Management of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) associated with cancer chemotherapy for malignant tumors is important because of its potentially fatal course. The use of rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase, is recommended for TLS; however, because rasburicase is an enzymatic drug, one should be [...] Read more.
Management of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) associated with cancer chemotherapy for malignant tumors is important because of its potentially fatal course. The use of rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase, is recommended for TLS; however, because rasburicase is an enzymatic drug, one should be cautious of anaphylaxis during administration. Using claims data in Japan, we investigated the rate of rasburicase re-administration and the occurrence of anaphylaxis during re-administration in patients with hematopoietic malignancies in a multicenter setting. Re-administration of rasburicase was defined as administration after an interval of 21 days from the first dose. Of 373 patients, 18 were re-administered rasburicase (re-administration rate: 4.8%). No patient developed anaphylaxis. The median number of days from the first to the last dose of rasburicase was 256.5 days (interquartile range: 138.8–455.8 days). The median daily dose was 7.5 mg (4.5–11.3 mg), and the median total dose was 33.8 mg (19.1–64.1 mg). This claims database analysis revealed that the re-administration rate of rasburicase was low in Japanese patients with hematopoietic malignancies, suggesting that rasburicase was being used appropriately, and that associated anaphylaxis was not observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Haematological Neoplasms: Diagnosis and Management)
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13 pages, 277 KiB  
Review
Immunotherapy Use Prior to Liver Transplant in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by Stephanie M. Woo, Alexandra V. Kimchy, Lynette M. Sequeira, Charles S. Dorris, Aiwu R. He and Amol S. Rangnekar
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9813-9825; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120771 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2695
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and its incidence has increased rapidly in the United States over the past two decades. Liver transplant is considered curative, but is not always possible, and pre-transplant immunotherapy is of great [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and its incidence has increased rapidly in the United States over the past two decades. Liver transplant is considered curative, but is not always possible, and pre-transplant immunotherapy is of great interest as a modality for downstaging the tumor burden. We present a review of the literature on pre-liver transplant immunotherapy use in patients with HCC. Our literature search queried publications in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and Web of Science, and ultimately identified 24 original research publications to be included for analysis. We found that the role of PD-1 and PD-L1 in risk stratification for rejection is of special interest to researchers, and ongoing randomized clinical trials PLENTY and Dulect 2020-1 will provide insight into the role of PD-1 and PD-L1 in liver transplant management in the future. This literature search and the resulting review represents the most thorough collection, analysis, and presentation of the literature on the subject to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights of Liver Cancer and Its Treatment)
12 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
A Survey-Based Study on Physical Activity Promotion for Individuals with a Current or Past Diagnosis of Cancer in Canada
by Jenna Smith-Turchyn, Catherine M. Sabiston, Elizabeth Ball and Som D. Mukherjee
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9801-9812; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120770 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
Purpose: To determine the prevalence and content of discussions regarding physical activity (PA) promotion between individuals with a current or past diagnosis of cancer and their oncology care team. Methods: Design and Procedure: A cross-sectional survey on PA discussion between individuals with a [...] Read more.
Purpose: To determine the prevalence and content of discussions regarding physical activity (PA) promotion between individuals with a current or past diagnosis of cancer and their oncology care team. Methods: Design and Procedure: A cross-sectional survey on PA discussion between individuals with a current or past diagnosis of cancer and their oncology care team was conducted at a single timepoint. Participants: Eligible participants were adults with a current or past diagnosis of cancer at any time point in their cancer treatment who had a pre-scheduled appointment with their oncology care team. Results: A total of 100 participants completed the survey. PA-related discussions happened in 41% of the patient-provider interactions and 66% of respondents reported PA discussions at some point during care. No significant association occurred between cancer type, stage, or treatment status and PA discussions at any timepoint (all p’s > 0.05). Most respondents were satisfied with the education provided on PA (54%); however, only 37% were sufficiently active. Those receiving education from their medical oncologist were more likely to be ‘sufficiently active’ (p = 0.020) according to the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Conclusions: Most respondents discuss PA with an oncology care provider at some point during their cancer treatment; however, few are sufficiently active. Future research is needed to determine strategies to facilitate PA promotion and close the gap between discussions and actual physical activity behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Palliative and Supportive Care)
13 pages, 1033 KiB  
Systematic Review
Reconstruction after Talar Tumor Resection: A Systematic Review
by Shinji Tsukamoto, Andreas F. Mavrogenis, Kanya Honoki, Akira Kido, Yuu Tanaka, Hiromasa Fujii, Yoshinori Takakura, Yasuhito Tanaka and Costantino Errani
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9788-9800; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120769 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
This systematic review investigated the functional outcomes and complications of reconstruction methods after talar tumor resection. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases identified 156 studies, of which 20 (23 patients) were ultimately included. The [...] Read more.
This systematic review investigated the functional outcomes and complications of reconstruction methods after talar tumor resection. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases identified 156 studies, of which 20 (23 patients) were ultimately included. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scores in the groups reconstructed using tibiocalcaneal fusion (n = 17), frozen autograft (n = 1), and talar prosthesis (n = 5) were 77.6 (range 66–90), 70, and 90 (range 87–93), respectively. Regarding complications, sensory deficits were observed in one patient (6%) and venous thrombosis in two patients (12%) in the tibiocalcaneal fusion group, while osteoarthritis was observed in one patient (100%) in the frozen autograft group. No complications were observed in the talar prosthesis group. Reconstruction with talar prosthesis seems preferable to conventional tibiocalcaneal fusion after talar tumor resection because it offers better function and fewer complications. However, as this systematic review included only retrospective studies with a small number of patients, its results require re-evaluation in future randomized controlled trials with larger numbers of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What’s New in Musculoskeletal Oncology?)
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21 pages, 338 KiB  
Review
Preoperative Radio(Chemo)Therapy in Breast Cancer: Time to Switch the Perspective?
by Angel Montero and Raquel Ciérvide
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9767-9787; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120768 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3422
Abstract
Aim: Radiation therapy represents, together with surgery and systemic treatment, the triad on which the current management of patients with breast cancer is based, achieving high control and survival rates. In recent years we have witnessed a (r)evolution in the conception of breast [...] Read more.
Aim: Radiation therapy represents, together with surgery and systemic treatment, the triad on which the current management of patients with breast cancer is based, achieving high control and survival rates. In recent years we have witnessed a (r)evolution in the conception of breast cancer treatment. The classic scheme of surgery followed by systemic treatment and radiotherapy is being subverted and it is becoming more and more frequent to propose the primary administration of systemic treatment before surgery, seeking to maximize its effect and favoring not only the performance of more conservative surgeries but also, in selected cases, increasing the rates of disease-free survival and overall survival. Radiotherapy is also evolving toward a change in perspective: considering preoperative primary administration of radiotherapy may be useful in selected groups. Advances in radiobiological knowledge, together with technological improvements that are constantly being incorporated into clinical practice, support the administration of increasingly reliable, precise, and effective radiotherapy, as well as its safe combination with antitumor drugs or immunotherapy in the primary preoperative context. In this paper, we present a narrative review of the usefulness of preoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer patients and the possibilities for its combination with other therapies. Full article
7 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Impact of Blood Loss on Renal Function and Interaction with Ischemia Duration after Nephron-Sparing Surgery
by Stephan Buse, René Mager, Elio Mazzone, Alexandre Mottrie, Sebastian Frees and Axel Haferkamp
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9760-9766; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120767 - 10 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Objectives: Nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) exposes the kidney to ischemia–reperfusion injury. Blood loss and hypotension are also associated with kidney injury. We aimed to test the hypothesis that, during NSS, both ischemia duration and blood loss significantly affect postoperative renal function and that their [...] Read more.
Objectives: Nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) exposes the kidney to ischemia–reperfusion injury. Blood loss and hypotension are also associated with kidney injury. We aimed to test the hypothesis that, during NSS, both ischemia duration and blood loss significantly affect postoperative renal function and that their effects interact. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing NSS were enrolled. The primary endpoint was renal function expressed as the absolute delta between preoperative and postoperative peak creatinine. We developed a generalized linear model with the ischemia duration and absolute hemoglobin difference as independent variables, their interaction term, and the RENAL score. The model was than expanded to include a history of hypertension (as a proxy for hypotension susceptibility) and related interaction terms. Further, we described the perioperative and mid-term oncological outcomes. Results: A total of 478 patients underwent NSS, and 209 (43.7%) required ischemia for a mean of 10.9 min (SD 8). Both the ischemia duration (partial eta 0.842, p = 0.006) and hemoglobin difference (partial eta 0.933, p = 0.029) significantly affected postoperative renal function, albeit without evidence of a significant interaction (p = 0.525). The RENAL score also significantly influenced postoperative renal function (p = 0.023). After the addition of a previous history of hypertension, the effects persisted, with a significant interaction between blood loss and a history of hypertension (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Ischemia duration and blood loss had a similar impact on postoperative renal function, albeit without potentiating each other. While the surgical technique and ischemia minimization remain crucial to postoperative kidney function, increased awareness of conscious hemodynamic management appears warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgical Oncology)
7 pages, 2236 KiB  
Case Report
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Developing in a Patient with 46, XY Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis (Swyer Syndrome) with Malignant Gonadal Germ Cell Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review
by Xinyue Zhang, Ying Zhang, Jinhui Wang, Jie Yang, Shuangni Yu, Min Yin, Sijian Li and Jiaxin Yang
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9753-9759; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120766 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
A female phenotype with strip-like gonads, 46, XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (PGD) has a high tendency to develop into gonadal germ cell tumors. We described one patient with 46, XY PGD, who had a gonadal mixed germ cell tumor (GCT) and acute lymphoblastic [...] Read more.
A female phenotype with strip-like gonads, 46, XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (PGD) has a high tendency to develop into gonadal germ cell tumors. We described one patient with 46, XY PGD, who had a gonadal mixed germ cell tumor (GCT) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This is a unique case because two malignancies developed and relapsed in one person with chromosome abnormality, and the patient is the youngest reported so far. There is an association between her GCT and ALL, as the two malignancies may share a common clonal origin and the NRAS mutation likely plays a role in tumor genesis. We organized MDT to formulate a suitable plan of treatment. We completed the surgery and full cycles of chemotherapy for GCT and controlled ALL by chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. However, unfortunately, the young life finally ended following a rare transplant rejection. We concluded that ALL likely shares common clonal origin with GCT and that gene mutations may play a role in neoplasia, which requires further exploration. In the face of such complex conditions, we need to balance the treatment of both diseases to prolong survival and improve the patients’ quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecologic Oncology)
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9 pages, 1364 KiB  
Article
Real World Patient Eligibility for Second Line Lurbinectedin Based Treatment in Small Cell Lung Cancer: Understanding Epidemiology and Estimating Health Care Utilization
by Rebekah Rittberg, Bonnie Leung, Zamzam Al-Hashami and Cheryl Ho
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9744-9752; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120765 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
Background: In the ATLANTIS study, second-line lurbinectedin/doxorubicin did not improve overall survival (OS), however patients with a chemotherapy-free interval (CTFI) of ≥180 days had an improved progression free survival (PFS). The objective of this retrospective study was to identify the proportion of real-world [...] Read more.
Background: In the ATLANTIS study, second-line lurbinectedin/doxorubicin did not improve overall survival (OS), however patients with a chemotherapy-free interval (CTFI) of ≥180 days had an improved progression free survival (PFS). The objective of this retrospective study was to identify the proportion of real-world small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients who are suitable for lurbinectedin-based therapy based on these criteria. Methods: A retrospective study of all SCLC referred to BC Cancer between 2012 and 2017 was conducted. Patient demographics, staging, treatment, and survival data were collected retrospectively. Baseline characteristics were compared using descriptive statistics. OS was calculated using Kaplan–Meier curves. Statistically significant p-value was <0.05. Results: A total of 1048 patients were identified. Baseline characteristics: median age 68 years, 47% male, 61% current smoking status, 68% extensive disease. Best supportive care was received by 22%. First-line systemic therapy was platinum doublet for 71% of the population. Second-line systemic therapy was delivered to 22%. Of the 219 patients who received second-line systemic therapy after platinum doublet, 183 patients had a CTFI of ≥90 days and 107 patients had a CTFI of ≥180 days. Patients originally treated as limited stage disease, received platinum doublet as second line, received thoracic radiation (RT) or prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) were more likely to have a CTFI of ≥90 and ≥180 days. Conclusion: In our real-world SCLC population, only 21% of the SCLC population received second-line therapy after platinum doublet with 17% achieving CTFI of ≥90 days and 10% CTFI of ≥180 days. Based on this retrospective review, only a small fraction of platinum-treated patients would be preferentially offered lurbinectedin in the second-line setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Anti-Cancer Drugs)
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11 pages, 267 KiB  
Review
Salvage Retzius-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy: A Review of Complications, Functional Outcomes, and Oncologic Outcomes
by J. Bradley Mason, Liam Hatch, Christopher Dall and Keith J. Kowalczyk
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9733-9743; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120764 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
(Background) Radiation failure for localized prostate cancer is seen in 20–60% of patients who do not undergo extirpative surgery. Though potentially curative, salvage prostatectomy (SS) has not been frequently performed historically due to high rates of complications and postoperative incontinence. With the advent [...] Read more.
(Background) Radiation failure for localized prostate cancer is seen in 20–60% of patients who do not undergo extirpative surgery. Though potentially curative, salvage prostatectomy (SS) has not been frequently performed historically due to high rates of complications and postoperative incontinence. With the advent of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, these rates appear to be improved. Retzius-sparing approaches have additionally been shown to improve continence outcomes in the index setting, and may further improve continence outcomes in salvage cases while maintaining oncologic integrity. (Methods) We performed a literature review and qualitative analysis of published papers on salvage Retzius-sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (SRS). Three studies met criteria and were included in analysis. (Results) There were more patients with Gleason Grade Group 1 disease after initial treatment in the SRS group vs. SS (22% vs. 8%). Patients most frequently underwent external beam radiation therapy in both groups (52% vs. 49%). 30-day complication rates were 10% and 26% for SRS and SS, respectively. Continence outcomes were significantly improved in SRS with 59% of continence (based on study criteria) compared to 38% in SS. Time to continence was similarly improved for SRS. Positive surgical margins and biochemical recurrence were not significantly different between SRS and SS in any study. (Conclusions) SRS is a safe and feasible option for salvage treatment of localized prostate cancer and may improve postoperative continence outcomes. Positive surgical margin and biochemical recurrence rates are similar to those reported in SS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surgery for Prostate Cancer: Recent Advances and Future Directions)
11 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Fatigue, Emotional Distress, and Illness Uncertainty in Patients with Metastatic Cancer: Results from the Prospective NEOETIC_SEOM Study
by Adan Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Veronica Velasco-Durantez, Carla Martin-Abreu, Patricia Cruz-Castellanos, Raquel Hernandez, Mireia Gil-Raga, Esmeralda Garcia-Torralba, Teresa Garcia-Garcia, Paula Jimenez-Fonseca and Caterina Calderon
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9722-9732; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120763 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2491
Abstract
A cancer diagnosis can have a substantial impact on a patient’s mental health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of fatigue, emotional distress, and uncertainty and examine the predictive value they have on the quality [...] Read more.
A cancer diagnosis can have a substantial impact on a patient’s mental health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of fatigue, emotional distress, and uncertainty and examine the predictive value they have on the quality of life of advanced cancer patients. A prospective, multicenter study was conducted between February 2020 and May 2021 of individuals diagnosed with an advanced, unresectable neoplasm prior to initiating systemic antineoplastic treatment. Participants completed questionnaires to quantify fatigue, emotional distress, disease uncertainty, and quality of life. A linear regression analysis was performed to study the predictive QoL variables. The study population comprised 508 patients, 53.7% of whom were male and had a mean age of 54.9 years. The most common cancers were digestive (40.6%), bronchopulmonary (29.1%), and breast (8.5%); the most frequent histology was adenocarcinoma (63%); and most were stage IV (79.7%). More than half (55.7%) suffered fatigue, and 47.7% exhibited emotional distress; both were more prevalent among women. Fatigue, emotional distress, and disease uncertainty all correlate with diminished quality of life. Similarly, ECOG performance status and the demographic variables of age, sex, and comorbidities impacted quality of life. This patient sample displayed a high prevalence of fatigue and emotional distress, together with illness uncertainty, which are clearly linked to waning quality of life. To decrease the experience of fatigue and improve mental health treatment in cancer patients, interventions based on a biopsychosocial model must be intensified. Full article
11 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Descriptive Epidemiology of Hospitalization of Patients with a Rare Tumor in an Italian Region
by Alessandra Rosa, Vincenzo Fontana, Rosa Angela Filiberti, Paolo Pronzato and Matilde Mannucci
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9711-9721; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120762 - 8 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Objectives: Rare tumors (RT) collectively account for one quarter of all malignancies in Italy. The low frequency and the large heterogeneity in natural history and outcome of individual diseases, together with a scarcity of epidemiological information make them a challenge for clinical practice, [...] Read more.
Objectives: Rare tumors (RT) collectively account for one quarter of all malignancies in Italy. The low frequency and the large heterogeneity in natural history and outcome of individual diseases, together with a scarcity of epidemiological information make them a challenge for clinical practice, as well as for public healthcare organizations. We conducted a retrospective study to quantify the burden of hospitalization in a real-word setting in patients diagnosed with these diseases in an Italian region. Methods: RT patients were tracked along all hospital stays from 2000 to 2019 using hospital discharge records. Frequency of hospitalizations, average time spent in hospital and median timespan between consecutive admissions were considered. Re-hospitalization rates were analyzed through a multivariable negative binomial regression analysis to adjust for confounding and allowing for over-dispersion in count data. Results: As a whole, 57,329 patients were identified at first stay for all studied tumors. A total of 183,959 admissions were retrieved, along a median of 3 hospitalizations per patient. Median timespan between hospitalizations shortened in the course of the study years (12.5 months in 2000–2004 to 5.4 months in 2015–2019). The overall re-hospitalization rate increased from 0.92 per patient/year (95% CI = 0.81–1.04) in 2000–2004 to 2.17 (95% CI = 1.90–2.47) in 2015–2019. Conclusions: Overall, the hospitalization rate of patients with a RT increased in the twenty years since the 2000 and particularly doubled starting from 2015. A higher burden of hospitalizations was found for tumors of the central nervous system, thoracic cavity, digestive tract and sarcomas. To the best of our knowledge this is the first paper related to access to Italian healthcare facilities of patients with these tumors. Full article
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16 pages, 3207 KiB  
Article
Biomarker Discordances and Alterations Observed in Breast Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Causes, Frequencies, and Clinical Significances
by Cengiz Yilmaz and Demet Kocatepe Cavdar
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9695-9710; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120761 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Purpose: Biomarker discordances and alterations can be encountered between tru-cut biopsy and residual tumor in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACTx). We aimed to investigate the effect of NACTx on major biomarker expression (ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67) and tumor grade, the frequency [...] Read more.
Purpose: Biomarker discordances and alterations can be encountered between tru-cut biopsy and residual tumor in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACTx). We aimed to investigate the effect of NACTx on major biomarker expression (ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67) and tumor grade, the frequency and causes of receptor discordances, and the clinical significance of changes in terms of adjuvant therapy need and chemosensitivity. Methods: In this retrospective study, ER, PR, HER2, and Ki-67 expression and tumor grades were compared between pre- and post-NACTx tumor samples using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The frequencies of receptor discordances and the need for new adjuvant therapy due to discordances were calculated. The effect of patient and tumor characteristics and NACTx regimens on discordances was investigated using multivariate analysis. Using histopathological examinations, residual tumors were divided into chemotherapy-responsive and chemotherapy-unresponsive tumors. Biomarker changes in both groups were analyzed for predictability of chemosensitivity. Results: Of the 169 patients who received NACTx, 102 patients having enough residual tumors in the surgical pathology specimen were enrolled in the study. Histopathologically, about 70% of tumors were partially responsive to NACTx and 30% were unresponsive (chemo-resistant). The concordance and discordance rates were 95.1% versus 4.9% for ER (p = 0.180), 97.1% versus 2.9% for PR (p = 0.083), and 89.2% versus 10.8% for HER2 (p = 0.763), respectively. In addition, 15% of hormone receptor (HR)-negative patients became HR(+) and 5.7% of HER2(−) patients became HER2(+) in the residual tumors, requiring adjuvant endocrine or anti-HER2 therapy. In particular, 18% of triple-negative patients became HR(+) and 12% became HER2(+). HER2 loss was detected in 40% of HER2(+) patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lower estrogen expression (p = 0.046), a smaller tumor size (p = 0.029), and anti-HER2 therapy (p < 0.001) have independent efficacy on ER discordance, PR discordance, and HER2 discordance, respectively. Ki-67 and PR expression significantly decreased in chemotherapy-responsive tumors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004), and the tumor grade increased in chemotherapy-unresponsive tumors (p = 0.034). Conclusions: Approximately 3–5% of HR discordance and about 10% of HER2 discordance can be observed in breast cancer after currently used NACTx regimens. Discordances are bi-directional (from positive to negative and vice versa), and their causes are multifactorial; they should be assessed accordingly. The NACTx effect alone cannot explain observed discordances but can cause biomarker alterations. The change in receptor status from positive to negative, especially HER2 loss, is mainly associated with the NACTx effect. However, the shift from negative to positive is thought to be primarily related to intratumoral heterogeneity. Receptor statuses becoming positive are of more clinical importance due to adjuvant therapy requirements. Biomarker alterations in PR, Ki-67, and tumor grade can provide predictive information about tumor chemosensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Breast Cancer)
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14 pages, 313 KiB  
Review
The Nephrotoxicity of Drugs Used in Causal Oncological Therapies
by Janusz Hałka, Sebastian Spaleniak, Grzegorz Kade, Stefan Antosiewicz and Dawid Sigorski
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9681-9694; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120760 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3323
Abstract
In recent years, a dynamic development of oncology has been observed, resulting from the increasingly frequent occurrence of neoplasms and therefore, increasing population of patients. The most effective form of therapy for cancer patients is complex multidisciplinary specialized disease management, including nephro-oncology care. [...] Read more.
In recent years, a dynamic development of oncology has been observed, resulting from the increasingly frequent occurrence of neoplasms and therefore, increasing population of patients. The most effective form of therapy for cancer patients is complex multidisciplinary specialized disease management, including nephro-oncology care. Different forms of renal function impairment are frequently diagnosed in cancer patients. They are caused by different co-morbidities existing before starting the oncologic treatment as well as the direct undesirable effects of this therapy which may cause temporary or irreversible damage of the urinary system—especially kidneys. According to different therapeutic programs, in such cases the degree of renal damage is often crucial for the possibility of further anti-cancer treatment. Medical personnel responsible for delivering care to oncology patients should be properly educated on current methods of prevention and treatment of renal complications resulting from anti-cancer therapy. The development of oncologic medicines design, including especially immuno-oncological agents, obliges us to learn new patomechanisms determining potential adverse effects, including renal complications. This publication is focused on the most important undesirable nephrotoxic effects of the frequently used anti-cancer drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Anti-Cancer Drugs)
10 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
Association of Sun Safety Behaviors and Barriers with Sunburn History in College Students in a Region with High UV Exposure
by Dylan T. Miller, Zoe Baccam and Robin B. Harris
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9671-9680; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120759 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1726
Abstract
Over five million cases of skin cancer are diagnosed each year in the United States with melanoma the third most common cancer in young adults. While publications have shown that sunburns increase the risk of developing melanoma throughout the lifetime including in adolescence [...] Read more.
Over five million cases of skin cancer are diagnosed each year in the United States with melanoma the third most common cancer in young adults. While publications have shown that sunburns increase the risk of developing melanoma throughout the lifetime including in adolescence and adulthood showing the importance of altering sun exposing behaviors throughout the lifetime, use of sun protection in college students remails low. In Fall 2019, an online survey of undergraduate students living on campus at a large southwestern university was conducted to determine the frequency of recent sunburns as well as sun protective behaviors and perceived knowledge of and barriers to sun protection. Associations between knowledge, behaviors, and barriers with self-reported sunburn were evaluated using logistic regression. Over 46% of 458 students reported at least one sunburn in the past three months and 21% reported having multiple sunburns in that period. Furthermore, 53% reported that they intentionally tanned their skin outdoors occasionally or more frequently, while 6.4% reported using an indoor tanning bed occasionally or more. Adjusted for skin sensitivity, recent sunburn history was associated with higher tanning activity scores and with high agreement that tanning was attractive (p < 0.01). This information can inform a more targeted series of intervention programming on the university campus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Skin Cancer)
11 pages, 569 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Relevance of Type 2 Diabetes and Metformin Treatment in Head and Neck Melanoma: Results from a Population-Based Cohort Study
by Steffen Spoerl, Michael Gerken, Susanne Schimnitz, Juergen Taxis, René Fischer, Sophia R. Lindner, Tobias Ettl, Nils Ludwig, Silvia Spoerl, Torsten E. Reichert and Gerrit Spanier
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9660-9670; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120758 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Background: Type 2 Diabetes (DM2) and the consecutively daily use of antidiabetic medication are characterized by a frequent prevalence worldwide and were shown to impact the initiation and progression of malignant diseases. While these effects were observed in a variety of malignancies, comprehensive [...] Read more.
Background: Type 2 Diabetes (DM2) and the consecutively daily use of antidiabetic medication are characterized by a frequent prevalence worldwide and were shown to impact the initiation and progression of malignant diseases. While these effects were observed in a variety of malignancies, comprehensive data about the role of DM2 and antidiabetic drugs in the outcome of head and neck melanoma (HNM) patients are missing. Methods: This retrospective population-based cohort study included 382 HNM patients from Eastern Bavaria having received tumor resection to negative margins between 2010 and 2017. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was evaluated with regard to DM2 and routine metformin intake. Statistical analysis was performed by uni- and multivariate analyses. The median follow-up time was 5.6 years. Results: DM2 was diagnosed in 68 patients (17.8%), routine metformin intake was found in 39 cases (10.2%). The univariate survival analysis revealed impaired 5-year RFS in HNM patients with DM2 compared to non-diabetic controls (p = 0.016; 64.0% and 74.5%, respectively). The multivariate Cox regression substantiated this effect (HR = 1.980, 95% CI = 1.108–3.538, p = 0.021). In detail, the cumulative locoregional recurrence rate displayed the most far-reaching negative effect on the RFS of diabetic HNM patients (HR = 4.173, 95% CI = 1.628–10.697, p = 0.003). For metformin intake, a profound positive effect on the RFS in multivariate statistics was observed, both in the complete cohort (HR = 0.396, 95% CI = 0.177–0.884, p = 0.024) as well as in the cohort of diabetic HNM patients (HR = 0.352, 95% CI = 0.135–0.913, p = 0.032). Conclusions: This study emphasizes that DM2 is a relevant comorbid condition in HNM patients, impairing patient survival. Metformin intake was associated with a favorable outcome in HNM patients, providing possible therapeutic implications for future adjuvant treatment regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Skin Cancer)
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20 pages, 1114 KiB  
Article
Characterizing Regional Variability in Lung Cancer Outcomes across Ontario—A Population-Based Analysis
by Monica L. Mullin, Jonas Shellenberger, Marlo Whitehead, Michael Brundage, Elizabeth A. Eisenhauer, M. Diane Lougheed, Christopher M. Parker and Geneviève C. Digby
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9640-9659; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120757 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Background: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. In Ontario, Canada, there are significant survival differences for patients with newly diagnosed LC across the 14 provincial regions. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study using ICES databases from 01/2007–12/2017 [...] Read more.
Background: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. In Ontario, Canada, there are significant survival differences for patients with newly diagnosed LC across the 14 provincial regions. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study using ICES databases from 01/2007–12/2017 identified patients with newly diagnosed LC through the Ontario Cancer Registry and those with LC as the cause of death. Descriptive data included patient, disease, and system characteristics. The primary outcome was 5-year survival by region. Results: 178,202 patient records were identified; 101,263 met inclusion criteria. LC incidence varied by region (5.6–14.6/10,000), as did histologic subtype (adenocarcinoma: 27.3–46.1%). Five-year cancer-specific survival was impacted by age, rurality, pathologic subtype, stage at diagnosis, and income quintile. Timely care was inversely related to survival (fastest quintile: HR 3.22, p < 0.0001). Adjusted 5-year cancer-specific survival varied across regions (24.1%, HR 1.12; 34.0%, HR 0.89, p < 0.001). Conclusions: When adjusting for confounders, differences in survival by health region persisted, suggesting a complex interplay between patient, disease, and system factors. A single approach to improving patient care is likely to be ineffective across different systems. Quality improvement initiatives to improve patient outcomes require different approaches amongst health regions to address local disparities in care. Full article
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10 pages, 4524 KiB  
Case Report
CDK4/6 Inhibitors as Upfront Treatment in a Patient with Breast Cancer Presenting with a Clinical Critic Situation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
by Giada Targato, Lucia Bortot, Arianna Dri, Marta Bonotto, Alessandro Marco Minisini, Gianpiero Fasola and Mauro Mansutti
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9630-9639; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120756 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
CDK4/6 inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment algorithm of luminal metastatic breast cancer, becoming the recommended first-line therapy in association with endocrine therapy. However, due to its theoretically greater and more rapid tumor shrinkage, the upfront use of chemotherapy is considered in some clinical [...] Read more.
CDK4/6 inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment algorithm of luminal metastatic breast cancer, becoming the recommended first-line therapy in association with endocrine therapy. However, due to its theoretically greater and more rapid tumor shrinkage, the upfront use of chemotherapy is considered in some clinical situations like visceral crisis. At the state of the art level, a paucity of data is available about the use of CDK4/6 inhibitors in patients presenting with visceral crisis or with life-threatening conditions since this population was historically excluded from clinical trials. In addition, data regarding direct comparison between combinations of chemotherapy and CDK4/6 inhibitors in terms of efficacy, rapidity of responses and long-term outcomes are lacking. We report the case of a 68-year-old woman with luminal metastatic breast cancer presenting at diagnosis with a critical and potentially life-threatening condition. The patient was treated with first-line Abemaciclib plus letrozole and achieved a rapid partial response with sudden clinical stabilization. Although the patient did not technically present with a visceral crisis, this case presentation also endorsed the upfront use of CDK4/6 inhibitor combinations in critical clinical situations in the absence of severe organ dysfunction and after multidisciplinary discussion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Breast Cancer)
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17 pages, 1712 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Postoperative Pathologic Risk Factors in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated with Radical Hysterectomy by Machine Learning
by Zhengjie Ou, Wei Mao, Lihua Tan, Yanli Yang, Shuanghuan Liu, Yanan Zhang, Bin Li and Dan Zhao
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9613-9629; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120755 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
Pretherapeutic serological parameters play a predictive role in pathologic risk factors (PRF), which correlate with treatment and prognosis in cervical cancer (CC). However, the method of pre-operative prediction to PRF is limited and the clinical availability of machine learning methods remains unknown in [...] Read more.
Pretherapeutic serological parameters play a predictive role in pathologic risk factors (PRF), which correlate with treatment and prognosis in cervical cancer (CC). However, the method of pre-operative prediction to PRF is limited and the clinical availability of machine learning methods remains unknown in CC. Overall, 1260 early-stage CC patients treated with radical hysterectomy (RH) were randomly split into training and test cohorts. Six machine learning classifiers, including Gradient Boosting Machine, Support Vector Machine with Gaussian kernel, Random Forest, Conditional Random Forest, Naive Bayes, and Elastic Net, were used to derive diagnostic information from nine clinical factors and 75 parameters readily available from pretreatment peripheral blood tests. The best results were obtained by RF in deep stromal infiltration prediction with an accuracy of 70.8% and AUC of 0.767. The highest accuracy and AUC for predicting lymphatic metastasis with Cforest were 64.3% and 0.620, respectively. The highest accuracy of prediction for lymphavascular space invasion with EN was 59.7% and the AUC was 0.628. Blood markers, including D-dimer and uric acid, were associated with PRF. Machine learning methods can provide critical diagnostic prediction on PRF in CC before surgical intervention. The use of predictive algorithms may facilitate individualized treatment options through diagnostic stratification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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20 pages, 781 KiB  
Systematic Review
Personality Traits and Coping Strategies Relevant to Posttraumatic Growth in Patients with Cancer and Survivors: A Systematic Literature Review
by Klara Knauer, Anne Bach, Norbert Schäffeler, Andreas Stengel and Johanna Graf
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(12), 9593-9612; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29120754 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2801
Abstract
The possibility of positive psychological changes after cancer, namely, posttraumatic growth, is a growing field of research. Identifying personality traits and coping strategies related to posttraumatic growth may help find vulnerable individuals as well as promote helpful coping strategies to help more patients [...] Read more.
The possibility of positive psychological changes after cancer, namely, posttraumatic growth, is a growing field of research. Identifying personality traits and coping strategies related to posttraumatic growth may help find vulnerable individuals as well as promote helpful coping strategies to help more patients make positive changes at an early stage. The aim of this systematic literature review is to provide an overview of the quantitative data on coping strategies and personality traits associated with posttraumatic growth in patients with cancer and cancer survivors as well as the methods used in included studies. A systematic literature search was conducted using five databases (PubMed, PubPsych, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and PSYNDEXplus). The 70 reports of included studies assessed posttraumatic growth using questionnaires in a sample of patients with cancer or survivors. In addition, associations with a personality trait or coping strategy had to be examined cross-sectionally or longitudinally. All 1698 articles were screened for titles and abstracts by two authors, after which disputed articles were reviewed by a third author. Afterwards, articles were screened for full texts. Most studies had a cross-sectional design and used a sample of patients with breast cancer. Coping strategies have been researched more than personality factors. The personality traits of resilience, hardiness, dispositional positive affectivity, and dispositional gratitude seem to be related to posttraumatic growth, while the Big Five personality traits (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism) have been less researched and/or seem to be unrelated. The use of social support, religious coping, positive reframing, and reflection during illness as coping strategies seems to be related to posttraumatic growth. The findings can be used for the development of interventions. Future studies should investigate associations longitudinally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychosocial Oncology)
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