Topic Editors

Dr. Hamid Khayyam
Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia
Dr. Ali Madani
Machine learning, Cyclica Inc. Company, Toronto, Canada
Dr. Rahele Kafieh
Biosciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Dr. Ali Hekmatnia
Center of Radiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

Abstract submission deadline
20 October 2022
Manuscript submission deadline
20 December 2022
Viewed by
13194

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), around 10 million people died from cancer globally in 2020. Early detection of cancer is of utmost importance for the effective treatment and prevention of the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body (Metastasis). Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been revolutionizing discovery, diagnosis, and treatment designs. It can aid not only in cancer detection but also in cancer therapy design, identification of new therapeutic targets with accelerating drug discovery, and in improving cancer surveillance when analyzing patient and cancer statistics. AI-guided cancer care could also be effective in clinical screening and management with better health outcomes. The Machine Learning (ML) algorithms developed based on biological and computer sciences can significantly help scientists in facilitating discovery process of biological systems behind cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis. They can be also used by physicians and surgeons in the effective diagnosis and treatment design for different types of cancer and for biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries in carrying out more efficient drug discovery.

Dr. Hamid Khayyam
Dr. Ali Madani
Dr. Rahele Kafieh
Dr. Ali Hekmatnia
Topic Editors

Keywords

  •  artificial intelligence
  •  machine learning
  •  bioinformatics
  •  modeling complex biological systems
  •  computational cancer biology
  •  computational drug discovery
  •  radiology
  •  radiation therapy (oncology)
  •  cancer diagnosis and cancer therapy

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
AI
ai
- - 2020 14.8 Days 1000 CHF Submit
Cancers
cancers
6.575 5.8 2009 17.4 Days 2400 CHF Submit
Current Oncology
curroncol
3.109 3.5 1994 20.5 Days 1800 CHF Submit
Diagnostics
diagnostics
3.992 2.4 2011 17.5 Days 1800 CHF Submit
Onco
onco
- - 2021 15.0 days * 1000 CHF Submit

* Median value for all MDPI journals in the second half of 2021.

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Article
Machine Learning Based on MRI DWI Radiomics Features for Prognostic Prediction in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3201; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133201 - 30 Jun 2022
Abstract
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the predictive efficacy of radiomics analyses based on readout-segmented echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (RESOLVE-DWI) for prognosis evaluation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in order to provide further information for clinical decision making and intervention. Methods: A total of 154 patients [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the predictive efficacy of radiomics analyses based on readout-segmented echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (RESOLVE-DWI) for prognosis evaluation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in order to provide further information for clinical decision making and intervention. Methods: A total of 154 patients with untreated NPC confirmed by pathological examination were enrolled, and the pretreatment magnetic resonance image (MRI)—including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (CE-T1WI)—was collected. The Random Forest (RF) algorithm selected radiomics features and established the machine-learning models. Five models, namely model 1 (DWI + ADC), model 2 (T2WI + CE-T1WI), model 3 (DWI + ADC + T2WI), model 4 (DWI + ADC + CE-T1WI), and model 5 (DWI + ADC + T2WI + CE-T1WI), were constructed. The average area under the curve (AUC) of the validation set was determined in order to compare the predictive efficacy for prognosis evaluation. Results: After adjusting the parameters, the RF machine learning models based on extracted imaging features from different sequence combinations were obtained. The invalidation sets of model 1 (DWI + ADC) yielded the highest average AUC of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.79–0.81). The average AUCs of the model 2, 3, 4, and 5 invalidation sets were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.71–0.74), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.64–0.68), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.73–0.75), and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74–0.76), respectively. Conclusion: A radiomics model derived from the MRI DWI of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was generated in order to evaluate the risk of recurrence and metastasis. The model based on MRI DWI can provide an alternative approach for survival estimation, and can reveal more information for clinical decision-making and intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Review
Virtual Reality Rehabilitation Systems for Cancer Survivors: A Narrative Review of the Literature
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3163; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133163 - 28 Jun 2022
Abstract
Rehabilitation plays a crucial role in cancer care, as the functioning of cancer survivors is frequently compromised by impairments that can result from the disease itself but also from the long-term sequelae of the treatment. Nevertheless, the current literature shows that only a [...] Read more.
Rehabilitation plays a crucial role in cancer care, as the functioning of cancer survivors is frequently compromised by impairments that can result from the disease itself but also from the long-term sequelae of the treatment. Nevertheless, the current literature shows that only a minority of patients receive physical and/or cognitive rehabilitation. This lack of rehabilitative care is a consequence of many factors, one of which includes the transportation issues linked to disability that limit the patient’s access to rehabilitation facilities. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has further shown the benefits of improving telemedicine and home-based rehabilitative interventions to facilitate the delivery of rehabilitation programs when attendance at healthcare facilities is an obstacle. In recent years, researchers have been investigating the benefits of the application of virtual reality to rehabilitation. Virtual reality is shown to improve adherence and training intensity through gamification, allow the replication of real-life scenarios, and stimulate patients in a multimodal manner. In our present work, we offer an overview of the present literature on virtual reality-implemented cancer rehabilitation. The existence of wide margins for technological development allows us to expect further improvements, but more randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the hypothesis that VRR may improve adherence rates and facilitate telerehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Review
Machine Learning Tools for Image-Based Glioma Grading and the Quality of Their Reporting: Challenges and Opportunities
Cancers 2022, 14(11), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14112623 - 25 May 2022
Abstract
Technological innovation has enabled the development of machine learning (ML) tools that aim to improve the practice of radiologists. In the last decade, ML applications to neuro-oncology have expanded significantly, with the pre-operative prediction of glioma grade using medical imaging as a specific [...] Read more.
Technological innovation has enabled the development of machine learning (ML) tools that aim to improve the practice of radiologists. In the last decade, ML applications to neuro-oncology have expanded significantly, with the pre-operative prediction of glioma grade using medical imaging as a specific area of interest. We introduce the subject of ML models for glioma grade prediction by remarking upon the models reported in the literature as well as by describing their characteristic developmental workflow and widely used classifier algorithms. The challenges facing these models—including data sources, external validation, and glioma grade classification methods —are highlighted. We also discuss the quality of how these models are reported, explore the present and future of reporting guidelines and risk of bias tools, and provide suggestions for the reporting of prospective works. Finally, this review offers insights into next steps that the field of ML glioma grade prediction can take to facilitate clinical implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Deep Learning Using CT Images to Grade Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Development and Validation of a Prediction Model
Cancers 2022, 14(11), 2574; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14112574 - 24 May 2022
Abstract
This retrospective study aimed to develop and validate deep-learning-based models for grading clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. A cohort enrolling 706 patients (n = 706) with pathologically verified ccRCC was used in this study. A temporal split was applied to [...] Read more.
This retrospective study aimed to develop and validate deep-learning-based models for grading clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. A cohort enrolling 706 patients (n = 706) with pathologically verified ccRCC was used in this study. A temporal split was applied to verify our models: the first 83.9% of the cases (years 2010–2017) for development and the last 16.1% (year 2018–2019) for validation (development cohort: n = 592; validation cohort: n = 114). Here, we demonstrated a deep learning(DL) framework initialized by a self-supervised pre-training method, developed with the addition of mixed loss strategy and sample reweighting to identify patients with high grade for ccRCC. Four types of DL networks were developed separately and further combined with different weights for better prediction. The single DL model achieved up to an area under curve (AUC) of 0.864 in the validation cohort, while the ensembled model yielded the best predictive performance with an AUC of 0.882. These findings confirms that our DL approach performs either favorably or comparably in terms of grade assessment of ccRCC with biopsies whilst enjoying the non-invasive and labor-saving property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Synaptophysin, CD117, and GATA3 as a Diagnostic Immunohistochemical Panel for Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Urinary Tract
Cancers 2022, 14(10), 2495; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14102495 - 19 May 2022
Abstract
Although SCNEC is based on its characteristic histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is commonly employed to confirm neuroendocrine differentiation (NED). The challenge here is that SCNEC may yield negative results for traditional neuroendocrine markers. To establish an IHC panel for NED, 17 neuronal, basal, and [...] Read more.
Although SCNEC is based on its characteristic histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is commonly employed to confirm neuroendocrine differentiation (NED). The challenge here is that SCNEC may yield negative results for traditional neuroendocrine markers. To establish an IHC panel for NED, 17 neuronal, basal, and luminal markers were examined on a tissue microarray construct generated from 47 cases of 34 patients with SCNEC as a discovery cohort. A decision tree algorithm was employed to analyze the extent and intensity of immunoreactivity and to develop a diagnostic model. An external cohort of eight cases and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to validate the model. Among the 17 markers, the decision tree diagnostic model selected 3 markers to classify NED with 98.4% accuracy in classification. The extent of synaptophysin (>5%) was selected as the initial parameter, the extent of CD117 (>20%) as the second, and then the intensity of GATA3 (≤1.5, negative or weak immunoreactivity) as the third for NED. The importance of each variable was 0.758, 0.213, and 0.029, respectively. The model was validated by the TEM and using the external cohort. The decision tree model using synaptophysin, CD117, and GATA3 may help confirm NED of traditional marker-negative SCNEC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Communication
Method for the Intraoperative Detection of IDH Mutation in Gliomas with Differential Mobility Spectrometry
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3252-3258; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050265 - 04 May 2022
Abstract
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status is an important factor for surgical decision-making: patients with IDH-mutated tumors are more likely to have a good long-term prognosis, and thus favor aggressive resection with more survival benefit to gain. Patients with IDH wild-type tumors have generally [...] Read more.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status is an important factor for surgical decision-making: patients with IDH-mutated tumors are more likely to have a good long-term prognosis, and thus favor aggressive resection with more survival benefit to gain. Patients with IDH wild-type tumors have generally poorer prognosis and, therefore, conservative resection to avoid neurological deficit is favored. Current histopathological analysis with frozen sections is unable to identify IDH mutation status intraoperatively, and more advanced methods are therefore needed. We examined a novel method suitable for intraoperative IDH mutation identification that is based on the differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) analysis of the tumor. We prospectively obtained tumor samples from 22 patients, including 11 IDH-mutated and 11 IDH wild-type tumors. The tumors were cut in 88 smaller specimens that were analyzed with DMS. With a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithm, the DMS was able to classify tumor samples with 86% classification accuracy, 86% sensitivity, and 85% specificity. Our results show that DMS is able to differentiate IDH-mutated and IDH wild-type tumors with good accuracy in a setting suitable for intraoperative use, which makes it a promising novel solution for neurosurgical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Development of an Image Analysis-Based Prognosis Score Using Google’s Teachable Machine in Melanoma
Cancers 2022, 14(9), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092243 - 29 Apr 2022
Abstract
Background: The increasing number of melanoma patients makes it necessary to establish new strategies for prognosis assessment to ensure follow-up care. Deep-learning-based image analysis of primary melanoma could be a future component of risk stratification. Objectives: To develop a risk score for overall [...] Read more.
Background: The increasing number of melanoma patients makes it necessary to establish new strategies for prognosis assessment to ensure follow-up care. Deep-learning-based image analysis of primary melanoma could be a future component of risk stratification. Objectives: To develop a risk score for overall survival based on image analysis through artificial intelligence (AI) and validate it in a test cohort. Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections of 831 melanomas, diagnosed from 2012–2015 were photographed and used to perform deep-learning-based group classification. For this purpose, the freely available software of Google’s teachable machine was used. Five hundred patient sections were used as the training cohort, and 331 sections served as the test cohort. Results: Using Google’s Teachable Machine, a prognosis score for overall survival could be developed that achieved a statistically significant prognosis estimate with an AUC of 0.694 in a ROC analysis based solely on image sections of approximately 250 × 250 µm. The prognosis group “low-risk” (n = 230) showed an overall survival rate of 93%, whereas the prognosis group “high-risk” (n = 101) showed an overall survival rate of 77.2%. Conclusions: The study supports the possibility of using deep learning-based classification systems for risk stratification in melanoma. The AI assessment used in this study provides a significant risk estimate in melanoma, but it does not considerably improve the existing risk classification based on the TNM classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Predictive Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT Using Machine Learning for Pathological Response to Neoadjuvant Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Cancers 2022, 14(8), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14081987 - 14 Apr 2022
Abstract
We investigated predictions from 18F-FDG PET/CT using machine learning (ML) to assess the neoadjuvant CCRT response of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and compared them with predictions from conventional PET parameters and from physicians. A retrospective study was [...] Read more.
We investigated predictions from 18F-FDG PET/CT using machine learning (ML) to assess the neoadjuvant CCRT response of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and compared them with predictions from conventional PET parameters and from physicians. A retrospective study was conducted of 430 patients. They underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT before initial treatment and after neoadjuvant CCRT followed by curative surgery. We analyzed texture features from segmented tumors and reviewed the pathologic response. The ML model employed a random forest and was used to classify the binary outcome of the pathological complete response (pCR). The predictive accuracy of the ML model for the pCR was 93.4%. The accuracy of predicting pCR using the conventional PET parameters was up to 70.9%, and the accuracy of the physicians’ assessment was 80.5%. The accuracy of the prediction from the ML model was significantly higher than those derived from conventional PET parameters and provided by physicians (p < 0.05). The ML model is useful for predicting pCR after neoadjuvant CCRT, which showed a higher predictive accuracy than those achieved from conventional PET parameters and from physicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Gut Microbial Shifts Indicate Melanoma Presence and Bacterial Interactions in a Murine Model
Diagnostics 2022, 12(4), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12040958 - 12 Apr 2022
Abstract
Through a multitude of studies, the gut microbiota has been recognized as a significant influencer of both homeostasis and pathophysiology. Certain microbial taxa can even affect treatments such as cancer immunotherapies, including the immune checkpoint blockade. These taxa can impact such processes both [...] Read more.
Through a multitude of studies, the gut microbiota has been recognized as a significant influencer of both homeostasis and pathophysiology. Certain microbial taxa can even affect treatments such as cancer immunotherapies, including the immune checkpoint blockade. These taxa can impact such processes both individually as well as collectively through mechanisms from quorum sensing to metabolite production. Due to this overarching presence of the gut microbiota in many physiological processes distal to the GI tract, we hypothesized that mice bearing tumors at extraintestinal sites would display a distinct intestinal microbial signature from non-tumor-bearing mice, and that such a signature would involve taxa that collectively shift with tumor presence. Microbial OTUs were determined from 16S rRNA genes isolated from the fecal samples of C57BL/6 mice challenged with either B16-F10 melanoma cells or PBS control and analyzed using QIIME. Relative proportions of bacteria were determined for each mouse and, using machine-learning approaches, significantly altered taxa and co-occurrence patterns between tumor- and non-tumor-bearing mice were found. Mice with a tumor had elevated proportions of Ruminococcaceae, Peptococcaceae.g_rc4.4, and Christensenellaceae, as well as significant information gains and ReliefF weights for Bacteroidales.f__S24.7, Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiales, and Erysipelotrichaceae. Bacteroidales.f__S24.7, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiales were also implicated through shifting co-occurrences and PCA values. Using these seven taxa as a melanoma signature, a neural network reached an 80% tumor detection accuracy in a 10-fold stratified random sampling validation. These results indicated gut microbial proportions as a biosensor for tumor detection, and that shifting co-occurrences could be used to reveal relevant taxa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
System for the Recognizing of Pigmented Skin Lesions with Fusion and Analysis of Heterogeneous Data Based on a Multimodal Neural Network
Cancers 2022, 14(7), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14071819 - 03 Apr 2022
Abstract
Today, skin cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in the human body. Diagnosis of pigmented lesions is challenging even for experienced dermatologists due to the wide range of morphological manifestations. Artificial intelligence technologies are capable of equaling and even surpassing [...] Read more.
Today, skin cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in the human body. Diagnosis of pigmented lesions is challenging even for experienced dermatologists due to the wide range of morphological manifestations. Artificial intelligence technologies are capable of equaling and even surpassing the capabilities of a dermatologist in terms of efficiency. The main problem of implementing intellectual analysis systems is low accuracy. One of the possible ways to increase this indicator is using stages of preliminary processing of visual data and the use of heterogeneous data. The article proposes a multimodal neural network system for identifying pigmented skin lesions with a preliminary identification, and removing hair from dermatoscopic images. The novelty of the proposed system lies in the joint use of the stage of preliminary cleaning of hair structures and a multimodal neural network system for the analysis of heterogeneous data. The accuracy of pigmented skin lesions recognition in 10 diagnostically significant categories in the proposed system was 83.6%. The use of the proposed system by dermatologists as an auxiliary diagnostic method will minimize the impact of the human factor, assist in making medical decisions, and expand the possibilities of early detection of skin cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Cost-Effectiveness of Artificial Intelligence Support in Computed Tomography-Based Lung Cancer Screening
Cancers 2022, 14(7), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14071729 - 29 Mar 2022
Abstract
Background: Lung cancer screening is already implemented in the USA and strongly recommended by European Radiological and Thoracic societies as well. Upon implementation, the total number of thoracic computed tomographies (CT) is likely to rise significantly. As shown in previous studies, modern artificial [...] Read more.
Background: Lung cancer screening is already implemented in the USA and strongly recommended by European Radiological and Thoracic societies as well. Upon implementation, the total number of thoracic computed tomographies (CT) is likely to rise significantly. As shown in previous studies, modern artificial intelligence-based algorithms are on-par or even exceed radiologist’s performance in lung nodule detection and classification. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an AI-based system in the context of baseline lung cancer screening. Methods: In this retrospective study, a decision model based on Markov simulation was developed to estimate the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and lifetime costs of the diagnostic modalities. Literature research was performed to determine model input parameters. Model uncertainty and possible costs of the AI-system were assessed using deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results: In the base case scenario CT + AI resulted in a negative incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as compared to CT only, showing lower costs and higher effectiveness. Threshold analysis showed that the ICER remained negative up to a threshold of USD 68 for the AI support. The willingness-to-pay of USD 100,000 was crossed at a value of USD 1240. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed model robustness for varying input parameters. Conclusion: Based on our results, the use of an AI-based system in the initial low-dose CT scan of lung cancer screening is a feasible diagnostic strategy from a cost-effectiveness perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Discovery of Pre-Treatment FDG PET/CT-Derived Radiomics-Based Models for Predicting Outcome in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
Cancers 2022, 14(7), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14071711 - 28 Mar 2022
Abstract
Background: Approximately 30% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) will have recurrence. The aim of this study was to develop a radiomic based model derived from baseline PET/CT to predict 2-year event free survival (2-EFS). Methods: Patients with DLBCL treated with [...] Read more.
Background: Approximately 30% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) will have recurrence. The aim of this study was to develop a radiomic based model derived from baseline PET/CT to predict 2-year event free survival (2-EFS). Methods: Patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy undergoing pre-treatment PET/CT between January 2008 and January 2018 were included. The dataset was split into training and internal unseen test sets (ratio 80:20). A logistic regression model using metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and six different machine learning classifiers created from clinical and radiomic features derived from the baseline PET/CT were trained and tuned using four-fold cross validation. The model with the highest mean validation receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve area under the curve (AUC) was tested on the unseen test set. Results: 229 DLBCL patients met the inclusion criteria with 62 (27%) having 2-EFS events. The training cohort had 183 patients with 46 patients in the unseen test cohort. The model with the highest mean validation AUC combined clinical and radiomic features in a ridge regression model with a mean validation AUC of 0.75 ± 0.06 and a test AUC of 0.73. Conclusions: Radiomics based models demonstrate promise in predicting outcomes in DLBCL patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Review
Current Value of Biparametric Prostate MRI with Machine-Learning or Deep-Learning in the Detection, Grading, and Characterization of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review
Diagnostics 2022, 12(4), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12040799 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Prostate cancer detection with magnetic resonance imaging is based on a standardized MRI-protocol according to the PI-RADS guidelines including morphologic imaging, diffusion weighted imaging, and perfusion. To facilitate data acquisition and analysis the contrast-enhanced perfusion is often omitted resulting in a biparametric prostate [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer detection with magnetic resonance imaging is based on a standardized MRI-protocol according to the PI-RADS guidelines including morphologic imaging, diffusion weighted imaging, and perfusion. To facilitate data acquisition and analysis the contrast-enhanced perfusion is often omitted resulting in a biparametric prostate MRI protocol. The intention of this review is to analyze the current value of biparametric prostate MRI in combination with methods of machine-learning and deep learning in the detection, grading, and characterization of prostate cancer; if available a direct comparison with human radiologist performance was performed. PubMed was systematically queried and 29 appropriate studies were identified and retrieved. The data show that detection of clinically significant prostate cancer and differentiation of prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue using machine-learning and deep learning is feasible with promising results. Some techniques of machine-learning and deep-learning currently seem to be equally good as human radiologists in terms of classification of single lesion according to the PIRADS score. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Review
Advancements in Oncology with Artificial Intelligence—A Review Article
Cancers 2022, 14(5), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051349 - 06 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Well-trained machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) systems can provide clinicians with therapeutic assistance, potentially increasing efficiency and improving efficacy. ML has demonstrated high accuracy in oncology-related diagnostic imaging, including screening mammography interpretation, colon polyp detection, glioma classification, and grading. By utilizing [...] Read more.
Well-trained machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) systems can provide clinicians with therapeutic assistance, potentially increasing efficiency and improving efficacy. ML has demonstrated high accuracy in oncology-related diagnostic imaging, including screening mammography interpretation, colon polyp detection, glioma classification, and grading. By utilizing ML techniques, the manual steps of detecting and segmenting lesions are greatly reduced. ML-based tumor imaging analysis is independent of the experience level of evaluating physicians, and the results are expected to be more standardized and accurate. One of the biggest challenges is its generalizability worldwide. The current detection and screening methods for colon polyps and breast cancer have a vast amount of data, so they are ideal areas for studying the global standardization of artificial intelligence. Central nervous system cancers are rare and have poor prognoses based on current management standards. ML offers the prospect of unraveling undiscovered features from routinely acquired neuroimaging for improving treatment planning, prognostication, monitoring, and response assessment of CNS tumors such as gliomas. By studying AI in such rare cancer types, standard management methods may be improved by augmenting personalized/precision medicine. This review aims to provide clinicians and medical researchers with a basic understanding of how ML works and its role in oncology, especially in breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and primary and metastatic brain cancer. Understanding AI basics, current achievements, and future challenges are crucial in advancing the use of AI in oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Thermal Ablation of Liver Tumors Guided by Augmented Reality: An Initial Clinical Experience
Cancers 2022, 14(5), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051312 - 03 Mar 2022
Abstract
Background: Over the last two decades, augmented reality (AR) has been used as a visualization tool in many medical fields in order to increase precision, limit the radiation dose, and decrease the variability among operators. Here, we report the first in vivo study [...] Read more.
Background: Over the last two decades, augmented reality (AR) has been used as a visualization tool in many medical fields in order to increase precision, limit the radiation dose, and decrease the variability among operators. Here, we report the first in vivo study of a novel AR system for the guidance of percutaneous interventional oncology procedures. Methods: Eight patients with 15 liver tumors (0.7–3.0 cm, mean 1.56 + 0.55) underwent percutaneous thermal ablations using AR guidance (i.e., the Endosight system). Prior to the intervention, the patients were evaluated with US and CT. The targeted nodules were segmented and three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed from CT images, and the probe trajectory to the target was defined. The procedures were guided solely by AR, with the position of the probe tip was subsequently confirmed by conventional imaging. The primary endpoints were the targeting accuracy, the system setup time, and targeting time (i.e., from the target visualization to the correct needle insertion). The technical success was also evaluated and validated by co-registration software. Upon completion, the operators were assessed for cybersickness or other symptoms related to the use of AR. Results: Rapid system setup and procedural targeting times were noted (mean 14.3 min; 12.0–17.2 min; 4.3 min, 3.2–5.7 min, mean, respectively). The high targeting accuracy (3.4 mm; 2.6–4.2 mm, mean) was accompanied by technical success in all 15 lesions (i.e., the complete ablation of the tumor and 13/15 lesions with a >90% 5-mm periablational margin). No intra/periprocedural complications or operator cybersickness were observed. Conclusions: AR guidance is highly accurate, and allows for the confident performance of percutaneous thermal ablations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
3D Convolutional Neural Network-Based Denoising of Low-Count Whole-Body 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose and 89Zr-Rituximab PET Scans
Diagnostics 2022, 12(3), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12030596 - 25 Feb 2022
Abstract
Acquisition time and injected activity of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET should ideally be reduced. However, this decreases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which impairs the diagnostic value of these PET scans. In addition, 89Zr-antibody PET is known to have a low [...] Read more.
Acquisition time and injected activity of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET should ideally be reduced. However, this decreases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which impairs the diagnostic value of these PET scans. In addition, 89Zr-antibody PET is known to have a low SNR. To improve the diagnostic value of these scans, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) denoising method is proposed. The aim of this study was therefore to develop CNNs to increase SNR for low-count 18F-FDG and 89Zr-antibody PET. Super-low-count, low-count and full-count 18F-FDG PET scans from 60 primary lung cancer patients and full-count 89Zr-rituximab PET scans from five patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma were acquired. CNNs were built to capture the features and to denoise the PET scans. Additionally, Gaussian smoothing (GS) and Bilateral filtering (BF) were evaluated. The performance of the denoising approaches was assessed based on the tumour recovery coefficient (TRC), coefficient of variance (COV; level of noise), and a qualitative assessment by two nuclear medicine physicians. The CNNs had a higher TRC and comparable or lower COV to GS and BF and was also the preferred method of the two observers for both 18F-FDG and 89Zr-rituximab PET. The CNNs improved the SNR of low-count 18F-FDG and 89Zr-rituximab PET, with almost similar or better clinical performance than the full-count PET, respectively. Additionally, the CNNs showed better performance than GS and BF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Evaluation of Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) in Screening Automated Breast Ultrasound Based on Characteristics of CAD Marks and False-Positive Marks
Diagnostics 2022, 12(3), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12030583 - 24 Feb 2022
Abstract
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of computer-aided detection (CAD) system in screening automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) and analyzed the characteristics of CAD marks and the causes of false-positive marks. A total of 846 women who underwent ABUS for screening from January 2017 [...] Read more.
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of computer-aided detection (CAD) system in screening automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) and analyzed the characteristics of CAD marks and the causes of false-positive marks. A total of 846 women who underwent ABUS for screening from January 2017 to December 2017 were included. Commercial CAD was used in all ABUS examinations, and its diagnostic performance and efficacy in shortening the reading time (RT) were evaluated. In addition, we analyzed the characteristics of CAD marks and the causes of false-positive marks. A total of 1032 CAD marks were displayed based on the patient and 534 CAD marks on the lesion. Five cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of CAD were 60.0%, 59.0%, 0.9%, and 99.6% for 846 patients. In the case of a negative study, it was less time-consuming and easier to make a decision. Among 530 false-positive marks, 459 were identified clearly for pseudo-lesions; the most common cause was marginal shadowing, followed by Cooper’s ligament shadowing, peri-areolar shadowing, rib, and skin lesions. Even though CAD does not improve the performance of ABUS and a large number of false-positive marks were detected, the addition of CAD reduces RT, especially in the case of negative screening ultrasound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Machine Learning Model to Stratify the Risk of Lymph Node Metastasis for Early Gastric Cancer: A Single-Center Cohort Study
Cancers 2022, 14(5), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051121 - 22 Feb 2022
Abstract
Stratification of the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with non-curative resection after endoscopic resection (ER) for early gastric cancer (EGC) is crucial in determining additional treatment strategies and preventing unnecessary surgery. Hence, we developed a machine learning (ML) model and [...] Read more.
Stratification of the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with non-curative resection after endoscopic resection (ER) for early gastric cancer (EGC) is crucial in determining additional treatment strategies and preventing unnecessary surgery. Hence, we developed a machine learning (ML) model and validated its performance for the stratification of LNM risk in patients with EGC. We enrolled patients who underwent primary surgery or additional surgery after ER for EGC between May 2005 and March 2021. Additionally, patients who underwent ER alone for EGC between May 2005 and March 2016 and were followed up for at least 5 years were included. The ML model was built based on a development set (70%) using logistic regression, random forest (RF), and support vector machine (SVM) analyses and assessed in a validation set (30%). In the validation set, LNM was found in 337 of 4428 patients (7.6%). Among the total patients, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) for predicting LNM risk was 0.86 in the logistic regression, 0.85 in RF, and 0.86 in SVM analyses; in patients with initial ER, AUROC for predicting LNM risk was 0.90 in the logistic regression, 0.88 in RF, and 0.89 in SVM analyses. The ML model could stratify the LNM risk into very low (<1%), low (<3%), intermediate (<7%), and high (≥7%) risk categories, which was comparable with actual LNM rates. We demonstrate that the ML model can be used to identify LNM risk. However, this tool requires further validation in EGC patients with non-curative resection after ER for actual application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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