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Curr. Oncol., Volume 30, Issue 1 (January 2023) – 98 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): To reduce local recurrence and improve overall survival, current guidelines for patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma recommend the complete resection of all macro and microscopic disease. Recent evidence suggests that en bloc compartmental resection of the sarcoma and adjacent organs is associated with reduced local recurrence. However, this approach must be balanced with the potential for added morbidity. This review outlines factors associated with perioperative complications following surgery for retroperitoneal sarcoma and discusses validated approaches to improve surgical outcomes. View this paper
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Commentary
Immune Checkpoint Glycoproteins Have Polymorphism: Are Monoclonal Antibodies Too Specific?
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1267-1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010098 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Since the 2018 Nobel prize in medicine was granted to the discovery of immune escape by cancer cells, billions of dollars have been spent on a new form of cancer immunotherapy called immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI). In this treatment modality, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) [...] Read more.
Since the 2018 Nobel prize in medicine was granted to the discovery of immune escape by cancer cells, billions of dollars have been spent on a new form of cancer immunotherapy called immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI). In this treatment modality, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are used to block cell-surface glycoproteins responsible for cancer immune escape. However, only a subset of patients benefit from this treatment. In this commentary, we focus on the polymorphism in the target molecules of these mAbs, namely PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA4; we explain that using a single mAb from one clone is unlikely to succeed in treating all humans because humans have a genotype and phenotype polymorphism in these molecules. Monoclonal antibodies are highly specific and are capable of recognizing only one epitope (“monospecific”), which makes them ideal for use in laboratory animals because these animals are generationally inbred and genetically identical (isogenic). In humans, however, the encoding genes for PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA4 have variations (alleles), and the final protein products have phenotype polymorphism. This means that small differences exist in these proteins among individual humans, rendering one mAb too specific to cover all patients. Our suggestion for the next step in advancing this oncotherapy is to focus on methods to tailor the mAb treatment individually for each patient or replace a single clone of mAb with less specific alternatives, e.g., a “cocktail of mAbs”, oligoclonal antibodies or recombinant polyclonal antibodies. Fortunately, there are ongoing clinical trials on oligoclonal antibodies at the moment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Bladder Cancer Landscape)
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Article
The Experience of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Menopausal Symptoms, Sleep Disturbance, and Body Image among Patients with Breast Cancer—A Qualitative Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1255-1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010097 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Background and Aim: The objective was to decrease patient menopausal symptoms, sleep disturbance, and body image using a nonpharmacological therapy for cultivating key healthy lifestyle habits in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: The participants were 26 women with breast cancer who [...] Read more.
Background and Aim: The objective was to decrease patient menopausal symptoms, sleep disturbance, and body image using a nonpharmacological therapy for cultivating key healthy lifestyle habits in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: The participants were 26 women with breast cancer who had recently received structured mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training in a clinical trial. Focus groups and interviews were conducted, during which the participants were asked semistructured, open-ended questions regarding the experiences of MBSR. Results: The participants indicated that MBSR helped them to alleviate hot flashes and night sweats, and improve sleep quality and be more at ease with the external aspect of their body. On the other hand, during MBSR intervention in a group manner, the participants felt more psychological support and an outlet for sharing negative emotional experiences. Conclusion: This study identified the short-term benefits associated with group-based MBSR for women with breast cancer. In addition, our research identified the difficulties of intervention measures and coping methods. The study described the benefits of MBSR for patients with breast cancer. The findings of this study will help nursing staff identify the main coping menopausal symptoms and control negative mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Breast Cancer)
Systematic Review
Efficacy of Transarterial Chemoembolization Combined with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1243-1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010096 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Background: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may enhance the efficacy of treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT); however, it remains unclear. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of TACE combined with TKIs. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may enhance the efficacy of treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT); however, it remains unclear. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of TACE combined with TKIs. Methods: A thorough literature search was performed on major databases since their inception until October 2022. Based on the eligibility criteria, eight studies (2103 patients) were included. Results: Meta-analysis showed that TACE+sorafenib/apatinib had a better tumor response (objective response rate (ORR): RR = 4.85, 95% CI 2.68–8.75, disease control rate (DCR): RR = 3.23, 95% CI 1.88–5.56), and prolonged OS (HR = 0.50, 95%CI 0.42–0.60, p < 0.00001) than TACE alone. TACE+lenvatinib was stronger than TACE+sorafenib in ORR (60.7% vs. 38.9%) and TTP (HR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.43–0.86), whereas it was similar in DCR (96.4% vs. 96.3%) and OS (HR = 0.70 95% CI 0.46–1.05). Conclusions: TACE plus sorafenib or apatinib was superior to TACE alone for hepatocellular carcinoma with PVTT; no significant advantage was found between TACE+lenvatinib and TACE+sorafenib, although TACE+lenvatinib performed better in terms of ORR and TTP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Oncology)
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Article
Assurance of Timely Access to Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment by a Regional Breast Health Clinic Serving Both Urban and Rural-Remote Communities
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1232-1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010095 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 591
Abstract
In response to breast cancer diagnostic regional wait times exceeding both national and provincial standards and to symptomatic patient referrals for diagnostic mammography taking longer than abnormal screening mammography referrals, the Rae Fawcett Breast Health Clinic (RFBHC) was opened in 2017 in a [...] Read more.
In response to breast cancer diagnostic regional wait times exceeding both national and provincial standards and to symptomatic patient referrals for diagnostic mammography taking longer than abnormal screening mammography referrals, the Rae Fawcett Breast Health Clinic (RFBHC) was opened in 2017 in a mid-sized Canadian hospital serving both urban and rural-remote communities. We investigated whether the RFBHC improved wait times to breast cancer diagnosis, improved compliance with national and provincial breast cancer standards, and decreased the wait time disparity associated with referral source. Statistical analyses of wait time differences were conducted between patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer prior to and after the RFBHC establishment. Study group compliance with national and provincial standards and wait time differences by referral source were also analysed. A survey was administered to assess overall patient experience with the RFBHC and clinic wait times. RFBHC patients had a shorter mean wait to breast cancer diagnosis (24.4 vs. 45.7 days, p ≤ 0.001) and a shorter mean wait to initial breast cancer treatment (49.1 vs. 78.9 days, p ≤ 0.001) than pre-RFBHC patients. After the RFBHC establishment, patients who attended the RFBHC had a shorter mean wait time to breast cancer diagnosis (24.4 vs. 36.9 days, p = 0.005) and to initial treatment (49.1 vs. 73.1 days, p ≤ 0.001) than patients who did not attend the clinic. Compliance with national and provincial breast cancer standards improved after the RFBHC establishment and the wait time disparity between screening mammography referrals and symptomatic patient referrals decreased. Survey results indicate that the RFBHC is meeting patient expectations. We concluded that the establishment of a breast health clinic in a Canadian center serving urban and rural-remote communities improved breast diagnostic services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Breast Cancer)
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Article
Obesity and Breast Cancer: Interaction or Interference with the Response to Therapy?
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1220-1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010094 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Background: Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are widely used for treating hormone-sensitive breast cancer (BC). Obesity, however, due to aromatase-mediated androgen conversion into estradiol in the peripheral adipose tissue, might impair AI inhibitory capacity. We aimed at identifying a cut-off of body mass index (BMI) [...] Read more.
Background: Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are widely used for treating hormone-sensitive breast cancer (BC). Obesity, however, due to aromatase-mediated androgen conversion into estradiol in the peripheral adipose tissue, might impair AI inhibitory capacity. We aimed at identifying a cut-off of body mass index (BMI) with significant prognostic impact, in a cohort of stage I-II BC patients on systemic adjuvant therapy with AI. Methods: we retrospectively evaluated routinely collected baseline parameters. The optimal BMI cut-off affecting disease-free survival (DFS) in AI-treated BC patients was identified through maximally selected rank statistics; non-linear association between BMI and DFS in the AI cohort was assessed by hazard-ratio-smoothed curve analysis using BMI as continuous variable. The impact of the BMI cut-off on survival outcomes was estimated through Kaplan–Meier plots, with log-rank test and hazard ratio estimation comparing patient subgroups. Results: A total of 319 BC patients under adjuvant endocrine therapy and/or adjuvant chemotherapy were included. Curve-fitting analysis showed that for a BMI cut-off >29 in AI-treated BC patients (n = 172), DFS was increasingly deteriorating and that the impact of BMI on 2-year DFS identified a cut-off specific only for the cohort of postmenopausal BC patients under adjuvant therapy with AI. Conclusion: in radically resected hormone-sensitive BC patients undergoing neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and treated with AI, obesity represents a risk factor for recurrence, with a significantly reduced 2-year DFS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Anti-cancer Drugs)
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Article
Understanding the Challenges of HPV-Based Cervical Screening: Development and Validation of HPV Testing and Self-Sampling Attitudes and Beliefs Scales
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1206-1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010093 - 15 Jan 2023
Viewed by 745
Abstract
The disrupted introduction of the HPV-based cervical screening program in several jurisdictions has demonstrated that the attitudes and beliefs of screening-eligible persons are critically implicated in the success of program implementation (including the use of self-sampling). As no up-to-date and validated measures exist [...] Read more.
The disrupted introduction of the HPV-based cervical screening program in several jurisdictions has demonstrated that the attitudes and beliefs of screening-eligible persons are critically implicated in the success of program implementation (including the use of self-sampling). As no up-to-date and validated measures exist measuring attitudes and beliefs towards HPV testing and self-sampling, this study aimed to develop and validate two scales measuring these factors. In October-November 2021, cervical screening-eligible Canadians participated in a web-based survey. In total, 44 items related to HPV testing and 13 items related to HPV self-sampling attitudes and beliefs were included in the survey. For both scales, the optimal number of factors was identified using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and parallel analysis. Item Response Theory (IRT) was applied within each factor to select items. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to assess model fit. After data cleaning, 1027 responses were analyzed. The HPV Testing Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (HTABS) had four factors, and twenty-two items were retained after item reduction. The HPV Self-sampling Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (HSABS) had two factors and seven items were retained. CFA showed a good model fit for both final scales. The developed scales will be a valuable resource to examine attitudes and beliefs in anticipation of, and to evaluate, HPV test-based cervical screening. Full article
Article
Purely Off-Clamp Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy Stands the Test of Time: 15 Years Functional and Oncologic Outcomes from a Single Center Experience
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1196-1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010092 - 15 Jan 2023
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Background: Nephron-sparing surgery represents the gold standard treatment for organ-confined renal tumors. We present 15-years of outcomes after off-clamp laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (ocLPN). Methods: a retrospective analysis was performed on patients who underwent ocLPN between May 2001 and December 2005. Baseline demographic, clinical, [...] Read more.
Background: Nephron-sparing surgery represents the gold standard treatment for organ-confined renal tumors. We present 15-years of outcomes after off-clamp laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (ocLPN). Methods: a retrospective analysis was performed on patients who underwent ocLPN between May 2001 and December 2005. Baseline demographic, clinical, pathologic, surgical, functional and survival data were collected. The Kaplan–Meier method evaluated group-specific oncologic outcomes at 5, 10 and 15 years and the log rank test assessed differences between groups. The same analysis investigated the probabilities of developing a significant renal function impairment (sRFI) and achieving ROMeS. Cox analyses identified predictors of this latter tricomposite outcome. Results: We included 63 patients whose median tumor size was 3 cm (IQR:2–4). At 15 years, the chances of developing local recurrence, metachronous renal cancers or distant metastases were 2 ± 2%, 23 ± 6% and 17 ± 5%, respectively. Consequently, disease-free, cancer-specific and overall-survival probabilities were 68 ± 6%, 90 ± 4% and 72 ± 6%. MCRSS and UCISS well predicted oncologic outcomes. Overall, nine (14%) patients experienced an sRFI and 33 (52%) achieved ROMeS. Age (HR: 1.046; p = 0.033) and malignant histology (low-risk cancers HR: 3.233, p = 0.048) (intermediate/high risk cancers HR: 5.721, p = 0.023) were independent predictors of ROMeS non-achievement. Conclusions: At 15 years from ocLPN, most of patients will experience both excellent functional and oncologic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radical Surgery Advances in Oncology)
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Review
Research in Perioperative Care of the Cancer Patient: Opportunities and Challenges
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1186-1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010091 - 15 Jan 2023
Viewed by 766
Abstract
The theory that the perioperative period is critical for oncological outcomes has been a matter of extensive preclinical and clinical research. Basic science research strongly supports the notion that surgical stress, anesthetics, and analgesics influence the mechanisms of cancer progression. Hence, it is [...] Read more.
The theory that the perioperative period is critical for oncological outcomes has been a matter of extensive preclinical and clinical research. Basic science research strongly supports the notion that surgical stress, anesthetics, and analgesics influence the mechanisms of cancer progression. Hence, it is hypothesized that perioperative interventions that impact mechanisms or predictors of tumor progression can also affect patients’ survival. As a result of that hypothesis, clinical researchers have conducted many retrospective studies. However, much fewer randomized controlled trials have been performed to investigate whether surgery itself (minimally invasive versus open procedures), anesthetics (volatile anesthetics versus propofol-based anesthesia), analgesics (opioids versus opioid-free anesthesia), and blood transfusions (transfusions versus no transfusions) modify the survival of patients with cancer. Unfortunately, randomized controlled trials have failed to translate the preclinical results into clinical outcomes. In this review, I will highlight the challenges of translating basic science to clinical outcomes. We will also point out opportunities for future research. Full article
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Article
Stage I Clear Cell and Serous Uterine Carcinoma: What Is the Right Adjuvant Therapy?
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1174-1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010090 - 14 Jan 2023
Viewed by 578
Abstract
This single-center study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the survival outcomes of patients with FIGO stage I clear cell and serous uterine carcinoma according to the type of adjuvant treatment received. The data were collected between 2003 and 2020 and only patients with stage [...] Read more.
This single-center study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the survival outcomes of patients with FIGO stage I clear cell and serous uterine carcinoma according to the type of adjuvant treatment received. The data were collected between 2003 and 2020 and only patients with stage I clear cell or serous uterine carcinoma treated with primary surgery were included. These were classified into three groups: No treatment or brachytherapy only (G1), radiotherapy +/− brachytherapy (G2), chemotherapy +/− radiotherapy +/− brachytherapy (G3). In total, we included 52 patients: 18 patients in G1, 16 in G2, and 18 in G3. Patients in the G3 group presented with poorer prognostic factors: 83.3% had serous histology, 27.8% LVSI, and 27.8% were FIGO stage IB. Patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy showed an improved 5-year overall survival (OS) (p = 0.02) and a trend towards an enhanced 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.056). In contrast, OS (p = 0.97) and PFS (p = 0.84) in the chemotherapy group with poorer prognostic factors, were similar with increased toxicity (83.3%). Radiotherapy is associated with improved 5-year OS and tends to improve 5-year PFS in women with stage I clear cell and serous uterine carcinoma. Additional chemotherapy should be cautiously considered in serous carcinoma cases presenting poor histological prognostic factors. Full article
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Article
Diagnostic Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging with Background Body Signal Suppression (DWIBS) for the Pre-Therapeutic Loco-Regional Staging of Cervical Cancer: A Feasibility and Interobserver Reliability Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1164-1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010089 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 541
Abstract
(1) Background: cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths and the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for loco-regional staging of cervical cancer in the primary diagnostic workup beginning [...] Read more.
(1) Background: cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths and the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for loco-regional staging of cervical cancer in the primary diagnostic workup beginning with at least stage IB. (2) Methods: we retrospectively analyzed 16 patients with histopathological proven cervical cancer (FIGO IB1–IVA) for the diagnostic accuracy of standard MRI and standard MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) for the correct pre-therapeutic assessment of the definite FIGO category. (3) Results: In 7 out of 32 readings (22%), DWIBS improved diagnostic accuracy. With DWIBS, four (13%) additional readings were assigned the correct major (I–IV) FIGO stages pre-therapeutically. Interobserver reliability of DWIBS was weakest for parametrial infiltration (k = 0.43; CI-95% 0.00–1.00) and perfect for tumor size <2 cm, infiltration of the vaginal lower third, infiltration of adjacent organs and loco-regional nodal metastases (k = 1.000; CI-95% 1.00–1.00). (4) Conclusions: the pre-therapeutic staging of cervical cancer has a high diagnostic accuracy and interobserver reliability when using standard MRI but can be further optimized with the addition of DWIBS sequences when reporting is performed by an experienced radiologist. Full article
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Review
Different Re-Irradiation Techniques after Breast-Conserving Surgery for Recurrent or New Primary Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1151-1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010088 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Breast re-irradiation (reRT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) using external beam radiation is an increasingly used salvage approach for women presenting with recurrent or new primary breast cancer. However, radiation technique, dose and fractionation as well as eligibility criteria differ between studies. There is [...] Read more.
Breast re-irradiation (reRT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) using external beam radiation is an increasingly used salvage approach for women presenting with recurrent or new primary breast cancer. However, radiation technique, dose and fractionation as well as eligibility criteria differ between studies. There is also limited data on efficacy and safety of external beam hypofractionation and accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) regimens. This paper reviews existing retrospective and prospective data for breast reRT after BCS, APBI reRT outcomes and delivery at our institution and the need for a randomized controlled trial using shorter courses of radiation to better define patient selection for different reRT fractionation regimens. Full article
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Case Report
Fatal Progression of Mutated TP53-Associated Clonal Hematopoiesis following Anti-CD19 CAR-T Cell Therapy
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1146-1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010087 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 818
Abstract
We present the case of a 64-year-old man diagnosed with large B-cell lymphoma who relapsed twice after standard-of-care therapy. Due to persisting cytopenia, Next generation sequencing analysis was performed, revealing a small TP53-mutated clone. As a third-line therapy, the patient was treated [...] Read more.
We present the case of a 64-year-old man diagnosed with large B-cell lymphoma who relapsed twice after standard-of-care therapy. Due to persisting cytopenia, Next generation sequencing analysis was performed, revealing a small TP53-mutated clone. As a third-line therapy, the patient was treated with CAR-T cells, which resulted in complete remission. However, this treatment also led to the expansion of the TP53-mutated clone and therapy-related myelodysplasia with a complex aberrant karyotype. This case may serve as a paradigmatic example of clonal hematopoietic progression in a patient undergoing CAR-T cell therapy, especially in the context of a TP53-mutated clone. Full article
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Article
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Hp and New Gastric Cancer Screening Scoring System for Screening and Prevention of Gastric Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1132-1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010086 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Gastric cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal cancers. Early diagnosis can improve the 5-year survival rate. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and a new gastric cancer screening scoring system (NGCS) in areas with a high [...] Read more.
Gastric cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal cancers. Early diagnosis can improve the 5-year survival rate. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and a new gastric cancer screening scoring system (NGCS) in areas with a high incidence of gastric cancer. A decision-analytic Markov model was constructed based on the theory and method of cost-effectiveness analysis, which included three decisions: no screening, Hp screening, and NGCS screening. The uncertainty of each parameter in the model was determined using a one-way sensitivity analysis and probability sensitivity analysis. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis revealed that the application of the NGCS had the highest cost-effectiveness, while the one-way sensitivity analysis revealed that the probability of intestinal metaplasia progression to dysplasia had the most significant effect on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The probability sensitivity analysis concluded that the result of the NGCS having the highest cost-effectiveness was stable. Although the application of the NGCS will require upfront screening costs, it can significantly improve the detection rate of early gastric cancer and save the consequent long-term healthcare costs. It is practicable and can be popularized in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers)
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Article
Association between Inflammatory Markers and Local Recurrence in Patients with Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A Preliminary Result
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1116-1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010085 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) has a high local recurrence rate of approximately 20%. Systemic inflammatory markers, such as neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), hemoglobin (Hb), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), [...] Read more.
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) has a high local recurrence rate of approximately 20%. Systemic inflammatory markers, such as neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), hemoglobin (Hb), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), have been reported as prognostic markers in patients with malignant tumors. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between these markers and the local recurrence rate of GCTB. In total, 103 patients with GCTB who underwent surgery at the authors’ institutions between 1993 and 2021 were included. Thirty patients experienced local recurrence. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that tumor site, preoperative and postoperative denosumab treatment, and surgery were significantly associated with local recurrence-free survival. LDH was associated with local recurrence-free survival on univariate analysis only. NLR, mGPS, PNI, LMR, and PLR score did not correlate with the local recurrence rate. In conclusion, NLR, mGPS, PNI, LMR, PLR score, Hb, ALP, and LDH levels are not correlated with the local recurrence rate of GCTB. However, due to the small number of patients included in this study, this result should be re-evaluated in a multicenter study with a larger sample size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors: Clinical Features, Imaging and Treatment)
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Article
A Planned Multidisciplinary Surgical Approach to Treat Primary Pelvic Malignancies
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1106-1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010084 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 508
Abstract
The pelvic anatomy poses great challenges to orthopedic surgeons. Sarcomas are often large in size and typically enclosed in the narrow confines of the pelvis with the close proximity of vital structures. The aim of this study is to report a systematic planned [...] Read more.
The pelvic anatomy poses great challenges to orthopedic surgeons. Sarcomas are often large in size and typically enclosed in the narrow confines of the pelvis with the close proximity of vital structures. The aim of this study is to report a systematic planned multidisciplinary surgical approach to treat pelvic sarcomas. Seventeen patients affected by bone and soft tissue sarcomas of the pelvis, treated using a planned multidisciplinary surgical approach, combining the expertise of orthopedic oncology and other surgeons (colleagues from urology, vascular surgery, abdominal surgery, gynecology and plastic surgery), were included. Seven patients were treated with hindquarter amputation; 10 patients underwent excision of the tumor. Reconstruction of bone defects was conducted in six patients with a custom-made 3D-printed pelvic prosthesis. Thirteen patients experienced at least one complication. Well-organized multidisciplinary collaborations between each subspecialty are the cornerstone for the management of patients affected by pelvic sarcomas, which should be conducted in specialized centers. A multidisciplinary surgical approach is of paramount importance in order to obtain the best successful surgical results and adequate margins for achieving acceptable outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors: Clinical Features, Imaging and Treatment)
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Review
Current Update on PET/MRI in Gynecological Malignancies—A Review of the Literature
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1077-1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010083 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Early detection of gynecological malignancies is vital for patient management and prolonging the patient’s survival. Molecular imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography, has been increasingly utilized in gynecological malignancies. PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the assessment of gynecological malignancies by combining [...] Read more.
Early detection of gynecological malignancies is vital for patient management and prolonging the patient’s survival. Molecular imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography, has been increasingly utilized in gynecological malignancies. PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the assessment of gynecological malignancies by combining the metabolic information of PET with the anatomical and functional information from MRI. This article will review the updated applications of PET/MRI in gynecological malignancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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Article
“Urethral-Sparing” Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: Critical Appraisal of the Safety of the Technique Based on the Histologic Characteristics of the Prostatic Urethra
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1065-1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010082 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Background: The prostatic urethra (PU) is conventionally resected during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP). Recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of the extended PU preservation (EPUP). Aims: To describe the histologic features of the PU. Methods: The PU was evaluated using cystoprostatectomy and RALP specimens. [...] Read more.
Background: The prostatic urethra (PU) is conventionally resected during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP). Recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of the extended PU preservation (EPUP). Aims: To describe the histologic features of the PU. Methods: The PU was evaluated using cystoprostatectomy and RALP specimens. Cases of PU infiltration by prostate cancer or distortion by benign hyperplastic nodules were excluded. The thickness of the chorion and distance between the urothelium and prostate glands were measured. Prostate-specific antigen expression in the PU epithelium was evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: Six specimens of PU were examined. Histologically, the following layers of the PU were observed: (1) urothelium with basal membrane, (2) chorion, and (3) prostatic peri-urethral fibromuscular tissue. The chorion measures between 0.2 and 0.4 mm. There is not a distinct urethral muscle layer, but rather muscular fibers that originate near the prostatic stroma and are distributed around the PU. This muscular tissue appears to be mainly represented in the basal and apical urethra, but not in the middle urethra. The mean distance between the chorion and prostatic glands is 1.74 mm, with significant differences between base of the prostate, middle urethral portion, and apex (2.5 vs. 1.49 vs. 1.23 mm, respectively). PSA-expressing cells are abundant in the PU epithelium, coexisting with urothelial cells. Conclusions: The exiguity of thickness of the PU chorion, short distance from glandular tissue, and coexistence of PSA-expressing cells in the epithelium raise important concerns about the oncologic safety of EPUP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radical Surgery Advances in Oncology)
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Article
Analysis of Survival in Complete Pathological Response after Long-Course Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Advanced Rectal Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1054-1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010081 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy prior to surgery is the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. This consists in the patient’s complete pathological response being achieved with no residual tumor presence in the resected specimen, which results in survival improvement. Methods: This retrospective study [...] Read more.
Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy prior to surgery is the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. This consists in the patient’s complete pathological response being achieved with no residual tumor presence in the resected specimen, which results in survival improvement. Methods: This retrospective study aimed to examine the rate of complete pathological response in patients with advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant long-course chemoradiotherapy and to examine the survival differences between the different tumor regression grade (TRG) scores. Results: A total of 154 patients were operated prior to long-course chemoradiotherapy with a total of 50 Gy plus FOLFOX protocol. Complete pathologic response was achieved in 29 (18.8%) patients. There was no statistical difference for the different pathologic responses according to gender, type of surgery, and number of harvested lymph nodes. Mean survival for all the groups was 37.2 months. Survival within a different TRG score exhibited statistical significance (p = 0.006). Overall, the survival rate during the follow-up period was of 81.8%. Conclusions: The complete pathological response rate in this study was of 18.8%. High tumor regression grade scores (TRG0 and TRG1) had a survival rate of over 90% during follow-up. Multivariate analysis identified perineural invasion and tumor regression grade as independent factors that affect survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Article
Novel Approach to Improving Specialist Access in Underserved Populations with Suspicious Oral Lesions
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1046-1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010080 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Late detection and specialist referral result in poor oral cancer outcomes globally. High-risk LRMU populations usually do not have access to oral medicine specialists, a specialty of dentistry, whose expertise includes the identification, treatment, and management of oral cancers. To overcome this access [...] Read more.
Late detection and specialist referral result in poor oral cancer outcomes globally. High-risk LRMU populations usually do not have access to oral medicine specialists, a specialty of dentistry, whose expertise includes the identification, treatment, and management of oral cancers. To overcome this access barrier, there is an urgent need for novel, low-cost tele-health approaches to expand specialist access to low-resource, remote and underserved individuals. The goal of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of remote versus in-person specialist visits using a novel, low-cost telehealth platform consisting of a smartphone-based, remote intraoral camera and custom software application. A total of 189 subjects with suspicious oral lesions requiring biopsy (per the standard of care) were recruited and consented. Each subject was examined, and risk factors were recorded twice: once by an on-site specialist, and again by an offsite specialist. A novel, low-cost, smartphone-based intraoral camera paired with a custom software application were utilized to perform synchronous remote video/still imaging and risk factor assessment by the off-site specialist. Biopsies were performed at a later date following specialist recommendations. The study’s results indicated that on-site specialist diagnosis showed high sensitivity (94%) and moderate specificity (72%) when compared to histological diagnosis, which did not significantly differ from the accuracy of remote specialist telediagnosis (sensitivity: 95%; specificity: 84%). These preliminary findings suggest that remote specialist visits utilizing a novel, low-cost, smartphone-based telehealth tool may improve specialist access for low-resource, remote and underserved individuals with suspicious oral lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Head and Neck Oncology)
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Article
Hemoglobin and Neutrophil Count as Prognostic Factors in Cholangiocarcinoma Patients in 2nd Line Treatment Setting: Results from a Small Monocentric Retrospective Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1032-1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010079 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Background: Unresectable cholangiocarcinoma prognosis can be extremely variable due to different symptoms and sites of disease involvement at diagnosis and unpredictable chemotherapy response rates. Most patients will usually receive 1st line palliative chemotherapy with platinum compounds and Gemcitabine or Gemcitabine alone. Only a [...] Read more.
Background: Unresectable cholangiocarcinoma prognosis can be extremely variable due to different symptoms and sites of disease involvement at diagnosis and unpredictable chemotherapy response rates. Most patients will usually receive 1st line palliative chemotherapy with platinum compounds and Gemcitabine or Gemcitabine alone. Only a few patients maintain adequate performance status after first-line treatment failure: second-line treatment with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI chemotherapy has been used in this setting with modest overall survival improvement. There is a lack of data concerning whether laboratory findings might help clinicians in identifying those patients with the highest likelihood of benefiting from 2nd line treatment. The aim of this analysis is to assess the prognostic role of a series of easily available laboratory tests in patients with bile duct cancer who received 2nd line chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients with unresectable bile duct cancer treated in 2nd-line setting with platinum-based chemotherapy doublet or FOLFIRI were enrolled. The primary objective of the analysis was to assess overall survival (OS) differences among patients based on the results of lab tests. Serum hemoglobin, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, platelet absolute count, creatinine, total bilirubin, albumin, LDH, circulating CEA and CA19.9 values were collected at the start of 2nd line treatment. Cut-off values for all lab tests were set by ROC curve analysis. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method and differences in survival among stratification factors were assessed by Log-rank test. Cox-proportional-hazard regression was used for multivariate analysis. Level of statistical significance p was set at 0.05 for all tests. Correction for false discovery error rate was performed by Holm’s stepdown procedure. Results: A total of 46 patients were eligible. Median overall survival of the entire cohort was 8.98 months (95%CI: 6.68–13.93) while mean OS was 17.10 months (standard error: 3.16). Using 6.2 months OS landmark as classification variable for ROC curve analysis, only serum hemoglobin (cut-off: >10 g/dL), albumin (cut-off: >3.5 mg/dL), CA19.9 (cut-off: ≤668 UI/mL), monocyte (cut-off: ≤510/mmc) and neutrophil count (cut-off: ≤5140/mmc) were significantly associated with the chosen end-point. Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent statistically significant impact on overall survival only for hemoglobin (Exp(b): 0.12, p = 0.0023) and neutrophil count (Exp(b): 0.30, p = 0.0039). Based on these results, using both hemoglobin and neutrophil count, three prognostic groups were defined: patients with both favorable factors had 12.63 months median OS vs. 6.75 months of patients with only one favorable factor vs. 1.31 months of those with neither. The difference between these three groups of patients was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Discussion: Second-line palliative chemotherapy can be a potentially useful option for a few patients with unresectable/metastatic bile duct cancer. Even though assessment of patients’ prognosis might be difficult due to the complex behavior of this disease, a series of easily available laboratory tests might be used for these means: serum hemoglobin and neutrophil count we0re able to define subsets of patients with entirely different prognoses. It is hoped that this score will be prospectively validated in a larger group of patients in order to improve treatment decisions in patients with unresectable bile duct cancer candidate to receive palliative 2nd line chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Article
Management of Parapharyngeal Space Tumors: Clinical Experience with a Large Sample and Review of the Literature
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1020-1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010078 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 722
Abstract
Parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors are rare, and they account for 0.5–1.5% of all head and neck tumors. This study summarized the findings of large-sample clinical studies of PPS tumors and reported the clinical work-up and management of 177 cases of PPS tumors at [...] Read more.
Parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors are rare, and they account for 0.5–1.5% of all head and neck tumors. This study summarized the findings of large-sample clinical studies of PPS tumors and reported the clinical work-up and management of 177 cases of PPS tumors at our center. This retrospective study included patients treated for PPS tumors between 2005 and 2020 at our center. The basic characteristics, symptoms, surgical approach, complications, and recurrence rates were analyzed. A total of 99 male and 78 female patients, with a mean age of 48.3 ± 15.1 years, were enrolled in this study. The most common symptoms were external or intraoral masses (114 patients, 64%). Surgical management leveraging, a cervical approach, was used for 131 cases (74%). The tumors were benign for 92% (160 cases), with pleomorphic adenoma being the most common (88 cases, 50%). Surgical complications were reported for 31 cases (18%); facial and vocal cord paralyses were the most common. Three cases of recurrence were observed during the follow-up. PPS tumors are rare and present with atypical clinical manifestations. The current study, which involved cases in a large single center, demonstrates the importance of surgical interventions for PPS tumors. The use of endoscopic techniques has further expanded the scope of traditional surgical approaches and demonstrated its advantages in selected cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck)
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Article
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Number of Cancer Patients and Radiotherapy Procedures in the Warmia and Masuria Voivodeship
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1010-1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010077 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
(1) Background: It was suspected that the COVID-19 pandemic would negatively affect health care, including cancer treatment. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of radiotherapy procedures and patients treated with radical and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: It was suspected that the COVID-19 pandemic would negatively affect health care, including cancer treatment. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of radiotherapy procedures and patients treated with radical and palliative radiotherapy in Poland. (2) Methods: The study was carried out in Warmia and Masuria voivodeship. The number of procedures and treated patients one year before and in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic were compared. (3) Results: In the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of radiotherapy procedures and cancer patients treated with radiotherapy in Warmia and Masuria voivodeship in Poland was stable compared to the period before the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has not affected the ratio of palliative to radical procedures. The percentage of ambulatory and hostel procedures significantly increased with the reduction of inpatient care in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. (4) Conclusion: No significant decrease in patients treated with radiotherapy during the first year of the pandemic in Warmia and Masuria voivodeship in Poland could indicate the rapid adaptation of radiotherapy centers to the pandemic situation. Future studies should be carried out to monitor the situation because the adverse effects of the pandemic may be delayed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Oncology)
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Article
Effect of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy on Quality of Life after Chemoradiation for Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Cross-Sectional Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 1000-1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010076 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 634
Abstract
(1) Background: Prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) maintained nutritional status and improved survival of patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). However, the role of PEG in patients’ quality of life (QoL) is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the effect of PEG [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) maintained nutritional status and improved survival of patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). However, the role of PEG in patients’ quality of life (QoL) is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the effect of PEG on the QoL of patients with LA-NPC without progression. (2) Methods: Patients with LA-NPC between 1 June 2010 and 30 June 2014 in Fujian Cancer Hospital were divided into PEG and non-PEG groups. The QoL Questionnaire core 30 (QLQ-C30), incidence of adverse effects, weight, and xerostomia recovery were compared between the two groups of patients without progression as of 30 June 2020. (3) Results: No statistically significant difference in the scores of each QLQ-C30 scale between the two groups (p > 0.05). The incidence of xerostomia was higher in the PEG group than in the non-PEG group (p = 0.044), but the association was not seen after adjusting for gender, age, T, and N stage (OR: 0.902, 95%CI: 0.485–1.680). No significant difference in the incidence of other adverse effects as well as in weight and dry mouth recovery (p > 0.05). (4) Conclusion: PEG seems not to have a detrimental effect on long-term Qol, including the self-reported swallowing function of NPC patients without progressive disease. Full article
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Article
tRNA-Derived RNA Fragments Are Novel Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Tumor Subtypes in Prostate Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 981-999; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010075 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 654
Abstract
Background: tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are a novel class of small ncRNA that are derived from precursor or mature tRNAs. Recently, the general relevance of their roles and clinical values in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and recurrence have been increasingly highlighted. However, there has been [...] Read more.
Background: tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are a novel class of small ncRNA that are derived from precursor or mature tRNAs. Recently, the general relevance of their roles and clinical values in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and recurrence have been increasingly highlighted. However, there has been no specific systematic study to elucidate any potential clinical significance for these tRFs in prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD), one of the most common and malignant cancers that threatens male health worldwide. Here, we investigate the clinical value of 5′-tRFs in PRAD. Methods: Small RNA sequencing data were analyzed to discover new 5′-tRFs biomarkers for PRAD. Machine learning algorithms were used to identify 5′-tRF classifiers to distinguish PRAD tumors from normal tissues. LASSO and Cox regression analyses were used to construct 5′-tRF prognostic predictive models. NMF and consensus clustering analyses were performed on 5′-tRF profiles to identify molecular subtypes of PRAD. Results: The overall levels of 5′-tRFs were significantly upregulated in the PRAD tumor samples compared to their adjacent normal samples. tRF classifiers composed of 13 5′-tRFs achieved AUC values as high as 0.963, showing high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing PRAD tumors from normal samples. Multiple 5′-tRFs were identified as being associated with the PRAD prognosis. The tRF score, defined by a set of eight 5′-tRFs, was highly predictive of survival in PRAD patients. The combination of tRF and Gleason scores showed a significantly better performance than the Gleason score alone, suggesting that 5′-tRFs can offer PRAD patients additional and improved prognostic information. Four molecular subtypes of the PRAD tumor were identified based on their 5′-tRF expression profiles. Genetically, these 5′-tRFs PRAD tumor subtypes exhibited distinct genomic landscapes in tumor cells. Clinically, they showed marked differences in survival and clinicopathological features. Conclusions: 5′-tRFs are potential clinical biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, and classification of tumor subtypes on a molecular level. These can help clinicians formulate personalized treatment plans for PRAD patients and may have similar potential applications for other disease types. Full article
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Review
Interventions for the Prevention of Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Cancer Treatment: Evidence from Randomised Controlled Trials
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 967-980; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010074 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 792
Abstract
Oral mucositis is a common and most debilitating complication associated with cancer therapy. Despite the significant clinical and economic impact of this condition, there is little to offer to patients with oral mucositis, and the medications used in its management are generally only [...] Read more.
Oral mucositis is a common and most debilitating complication associated with cancer therapy. Despite the significant clinical and economic impact of this condition, there is little to offer to patients with oral mucositis, and the medications used in its management are generally only palliative. Given that mucositis is ultimately a predictable and, therefore, potentially preventable condition, in this study we appraised the scientific literature to evaluate effective methods of prevention that have been tested in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Published high-level evidence shows that multiple preventative methods are potentially effective in the prevention of oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both. Anti-inflammatory medications (including benzydamine), growth factors and cytokines (including palifermin), cryotherapy, laser-and-light therapy, herbal medicines and supplements, and mucoprotective agents (including oral pilocarpine) showed some degree of efficacy in preventing/reducing the severity of mucositis with most anticancer treatments. Allopurinol was potentially effective in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis; antimicrobial mouthwash and erythropoietin mouthwash were associated with a lower risk of development of severe oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy. The results of our review may assist in highlighting the efficacy and testing the effectiveness of low-cost, safe preventative measures for oral mucositis in cancer patients. Full article
Article
Extramammary Paget’s Disease of the Vulva and Concomitant Premalignant/Malignant Vulvar Lesions: A Potential Challenge in Diagnosis and Treatment
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 959-966; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010073 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 807
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of concomitant vulvar cancers or premalignant lesions in women surgically treated for extramammary Paget’s disease of the vulva (EMPDV) through a multicenter case series. The medical records of all women diagnosed with [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of concomitant vulvar cancers or premalignant lesions in women surgically treated for extramammary Paget’s disease of the vulva (EMPDV) through a multicenter case series. The medical records of all women diagnosed with and treated for EMPDV from January 2010 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Women with EMPDV and synchronous vulvar cancer, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and/or lichen sclerosus (LS) at the histology report were included in the study. A total of 69 women eligible for the present study were considered. Concomitant vulvar lesions occurred in 22 cases (31.9%). A total of 11 cases of synchronous VIN (50%) and 14 cases (63.6%) of concomitant LS were observed. One patient (4.5%) had synchronous vulvar SCC (FIGO stage 1B). Women with EMPDV and concomitant premalignant/malignant vulvar lesions had a significantly higher rate of invasive EMPDV and wider lesions with an extravulvar involvement. The specific meaning of the association between EMPDV, VIN, SCC and LS remains unclear. The potential overlapping features between different vulvar lesions highlight the importance of dedicated gynecologists and pathologists in referral centers. Full article
Article
Effect of Different Durations of Adjuvant Capecitabine Monotherapy on the Outcome of High-Risk Stage II and Stage III Colorectal Cancer: A Retrospective Study Based on a CRC Database
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 949-958; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010072 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 848
Abstract
(1) Background: The duration of adjuvant chemotherapy recommended by the NCCN guidelines is 6 months. However, patients are not compliant with intravenous chemotherapy for many reasons; therefore, one approach is to obtain a survival benefit by prolonging the duration of capecitabine monotherapy. (2) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The duration of adjuvant chemotherapy recommended by the NCCN guidelines is 6 months. However, patients are not compliant with intravenous chemotherapy for many reasons; therefore, one approach is to obtain a survival benefit by prolonging the duration of capecitabine monotherapy. (2) Methods: A total of 355 qualified colorectal cancer (CRC) patients from January 2010 to December 2020 at West China Hospital of Sichuan University were selected to receive capecitabine monotherapy for 6–9 months and >12 months. The main endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). (3) Results: Among stage III patients, in the >12 months (12M) and 6–9 months (6M) groups, the 5-year DFS rates were 80.7%% and 66.8%, respectively, and the 5-year OS rates were 94.7%% and 88.8%, respectively. Among high-risk stage II patients, in the >12 months (12M) and 6–9 months (6M) groups, the 5-year DFS rates were 81.5% and 78.6%, respectively, and the 5-year OS rates were 93.1% and 84.2%, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Twelve months of chemotherapy demonstrated superior OS and DFS to that of six months in the stage III group but showed no difference in the high-risk stage II group. The better OS and DFS observed in the 12-month treatment period could be of value in selected cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers)
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Article
Secular Trends of Liver Cancer Mortality and Years of Life Lost in Wuhan, China 2010–2019
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 938-948; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010071 - 09 Jan 2023
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Background: Liver cancer has caused a heavy burden worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the trends in the mortality and years of life lost (YLL) due to liver cancer and decompose the total deaths into three contributors: population growth, population aging, and mortality [...] Read more.
Background: Liver cancer has caused a heavy burden worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the trends in the mortality and years of life lost (YLL) due to liver cancer and decompose the total deaths into three contributors: population growth, population aging, and mortality change. Methods: Our study used data from the cause-of-death surveillance system in Wuhan. The mortality and YLL rates were standardized according to the sixth national population census in China. This study calculated the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) to estimate the trends in the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) and age-standardized YLL rate (ASYR). Meanwhile, a decomposition analysis was used to explore the effect of population growth, population aging, and age-specific mortality change on the change in liver cancer deaths. Results: The ASMR of liver cancer declined at an annual rate of 4.6% from 30.87 per 100,000 people in 2010 to 20.29 per 100,000 people in 2019, while the ASYR was at an annual rate of 5.6% from 969.35 per 100,000 people in 2010 to 581.82 per 100,000 people in 2019. Similar downward trends were seen in men and women. The decomposition analysis found that total deaths number changed by −12.42% from 2010 to 2019, of which population growth and population aging caused the total death numbers to increase by 9.75% and 21.15%, while the age-specific mortality change caused the total death numbers to decrease by 43.32%. Conclusion: Although the ASMR of liver cancer has declined in recent years in Wuhan, it still causes a heavy burden with the increasing population and rapid population aging and remains an essential public health issue. The government should take measures to reduce the burden of liver cancer, especially among men. Full article
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Review
Navigating the Current Landscape of Non-Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Review of the Literature
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 923-937; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010070 - 09 Jan 2023
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC) is an entity comprised of a heterogeneous constellation of RCC subtypes. Genomic profiling has broadened our understanding of molecular pathogenic mechanisms unique to individual nccRCC subtypes. To date, clinical trials evaluating the use of immunotherapies and targeted [...] Read more.
Non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC) is an entity comprised of a heterogeneous constellation of RCC subtypes. Genomic profiling has broadened our understanding of molecular pathogenic mechanisms unique to individual nccRCC subtypes. To date, clinical trials evaluating the use of immunotherapies and targeted therapies have predominantly been conducted in patients with clear cell histology. A comprehensive review of the literature has been undertaken in order to describe molecular pathogenic mechanisms pertaining to each nccRCC subtype, and concisely summarise findings from therapeutic trials conducted in the nccRCC space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Landscape of Systemic Therapies and Oncology Outcomes)
Article
Real-Life Effectivity of Dose Intensity Reduction of First-Line mFOLFIRI-Based Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancers: Sometimes Less Is More
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(1), 908-922; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30010069 - 09 Jan 2023
Viewed by 868
Abstract
Aim: The key purposes of the treatment of metastatic malignancies are to extend survival and maintain the quality of life. Recently it has been emphasized in the scientific literature that the maintenance of maximal dose intensity is not always beneficial. Method: We examined [...] Read more.
Aim: The key purposes of the treatment of metastatic malignancies are to extend survival and maintain the quality of life. Recently it has been emphasized in the scientific literature that the maintenance of maximal dose intensity is not always beneficial. Method: We examined the effectiveness of first-line mFOLFIRI-based treatments used in mCRC indication in 515 patients, treated between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2018 at the Department of Oncotherapy of the University of Pécs, on a basis of real-world retrospective data analysis. We studied the effect of decreased dose intensity treatment modifications on patient survival. Results: 45% of all patients achieved the optimal relative dose intensity (RDI) of 85%, and the median progression-free and overall survival (mPFS, mOS) were 199 and 578 days, compared to 322 and 743 days, (mPFS p < 0.0002, 1 y (year) PFS OR (odds ratio) 0.39 (95% CI: 0.26–0.56) and mOS p = 0.0781, 2 yrs OS OR 0.58 (95% CI: 0.39–0.85), respectively) in the group of patients not achieving the RDI of 85%. Conclusions: Decreased dose intensity did not reduce the effectiveness of treatment; in fact, there was a significant improvement in most of the analyzed parameters. The option of reduced dose intensity, which shows the same or even better results with less toxicity, should definitely be considered in the future palliative treatment of mCRC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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