Special Issue "Seaweeds Secondary Metabolites: Successes in and/or Probable Therapeutic Applications"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Diana Cláudia Pinto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: In the organic chemistry field: synthesis and characterization of new bioactive compounds; sustainable chemistry; biotransformations. In the natural products field: isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites, assessment of their activities, chemical transformation, and total synthesis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Seaweeds are recognized as highly nutritious, and their use in gastronomy is increasing. In fact, their health benefits and their potential to prevent several diseases are also established. Their anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive activities can be mentioned as examples.

Yet, the relationship between those health effects and the secondary metabolites produced has been explored less. Seaweeds grow in environmental conditions, which in some cases are extreme, making them a source of distinctive bioactive natural products. Moreover, examples of lead compounds developed from their unique natural compounds can be found in literature.

This is a good reason to devote a Special Issue of Marine Drugs to the bioactive compounds from seaweeds, and in this Special Issue we would like to revisit and/or update the information on the well-documented bioactive compounds isolated from seaweeds.

As Guest Editor, I invite scientists to submit their latest research findings and review articles in this area, and in doing so contribute to this Special Issue of Marine Drugs with interesting papers showing significant advances in this field.

Prof. Dr. Diana C. G. A. Pinto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Supplementation with the Red Seaweed Porphyra umbilicalis Protects against DNA Damage and Pre-Malignant Dysplastic Skin Lesions in HPV-Transgenic Mice
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110615 - 29 Oct 2019
Abstract
Some diet profiles are associated with the risk of developing cancer; however, some nutrients show protective effects. Porphyra umbilicalis is widely consumed, having a balanced nutritional profile; however, its potential for cancer chemoprevention still needs comprehensive studies. In this study, we incorporated P. [...] Read more.
Some diet profiles are associated with the risk of developing cancer; however, some nutrients show protective effects. Porphyra umbilicalis is widely consumed, having a balanced nutritional profile; however, its potential for cancer chemoprevention still needs comprehensive studies. In this study, we incorporated P. umbilicalis into the diet of mice transgenic for the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), which spontaneously develop pre-malignant and malignant lesions, and determined whether this seaweed was able to block lesion development. Forty-four 20-week-old HPV+/− and HPV−/− mice were fed either a base diet or a diet supplemented with 10% seaweed. At the end of the study, skin samples were examined to classify HPV16-induced lesions. The liver was also screened for potential toxic effects of the seaweed. Blood was used to study toxicological parameters and to perform comet and micronucleus genotoxicity tests. P. umbilicalis significantly reduced the incidence of pre-malignant dysplastic lesions, completely abrogating them in the chest skin. These results suggest that P. umbilicalis dietary supplementation has the potential to block the development of pre-malignant skin lesions and indicate its antigenotoxic activity against HPV-induced DNA damage. Further studies are needed to establish the seaweed as a functional food and clarify the mechanisms whereby this seaweed blocks multistep carcinogenesis induced by HPV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pyrogallol-Phloroglucinol-6,6-Bieckol from Ecklonia cava Attenuates Tubular Epithelial Cell (TCMK-1) Death in Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110602 - 24 Oct 2019
Abstract
The hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury causes serious complications after the blood supply to the kidney is stopped during surgery. The main mechanism of I/R injury is the release of high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) from injured tubular epithelial cells (TEC, TCMK-1 cell), which triggers [...] Read more.
The hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury causes serious complications after the blood supply to the kidney is stopped during surgery. The main mechanism of I/R injury is the release of high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) from injured tubular epithelial cells (TEC, TCMK-1 cell), which triggers TLR4 or RAGE signaling, leading to cell death. We evaluated whether the extracts of Ecklonia cava (E. cava) would attenuate TEC death induced by H/R injury. We also evaluated which phlorotannin—dieckol (DK), phlorofucofuroeckol A (PFFA), pyrogallol phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol (PPB), or 2,7-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol (PHB)—would have the most potent effect in the context of H/R injury. We used for pre-hypoxia treatment, in which the phlorotannins from E. cava extracts were added before the onset of hypoxia, and a post- hypoxia treatment, in which the phlorotannins were added before the start of reperfusion. PPB most effectively reduced HMGB1 release and the expression of TLR4 and RAGE induced by H/R injury in both pre- and post-hypoxia treatment. PPB also most effectively inhibited the expression of NF-kB and release of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in both models. PPB most effectively inhibited cell death and expression of cell death signaling molecules such as Erk/pErk, JNK/pJNK, and p38/pp38. These results suggest that PPB blocks the HGMB1–TLR4/RAGE signaling pathway and decreases TEC death induced by H/R and that PPB can be a novel target for renal H/R injury therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Phlorofucofuroeckol-A as a Dual Inhibitor of Amyloid-β25-35 Self-Aggregation and Insulin Glycation: Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanism of Action
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110600 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Both amyloid-β (Aβ) and insulin are amyloidogenic peptides, and they play a critical role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and type-2 diabetes (T2D). Misfolded or aggregated Aβ and glycated insulin are commonly found in AD and T2D patients, respectively, and exhibit neurotoxicity and oxidative [...] Read more.
Both amyloid-β (Aβ) and insulin are amyloidogenic peptides, and they play a critical role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and type-2 diabetes (T2D). Misfolded or aggregated Aβ and glycated insulin are commonly found in AD and T2D patients, respectively, and exhibit neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. The present study examined the anti-Aβ25-35 aggregation and anti-insulin glycation activities of five phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia stolonifera. Thioflavin-T assay results suggest that eckol, dioxinodehydroeckol, dieckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol-A (PFFA) significantly inhibit Aβ25-35 self-assembly. Molecular docking and dynamic simulation analyses confirmed that these phlorotannins have a strong potential to interact with Aβ25-35 peptides and interrupt their self-assembly and conformational transformation, thereby inhibiting Aβ25-35 aggregation. In addition, PFFA dose-dependently inhibited d-ribose and d-glucose induced non-enzymatic insulin glycation. To understand the molecular mechanism for insulin glycation and its inhibition, we predicted the binding site of PFFA in insulin via computational analysis. Interestingly, PFFA strongly interacted with the Phe1 in insulin chain-B, and this interaction could block d-glucose access to the glycation site of insulin. Taken together, our novel findings suggest that phlorofucofuroeckol-A could be a new scaffold for AD treatment by inhibiting the formation of β-sheet rich structures in Aβ25-35 and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in insulin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Padina pavonica Extract Promotes In Vitro Differentiation and Functionality of Human Primary Osteoblasts
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(8), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17080473 - 15 Aug 2019
Abstract
Marine algae have gained much importance in the development of nutraceutical products due to their high content of bioactive compounds. In this work, we investigated the activity of Padina pavonica with the aim to demonstrate the pro-osteogenic ability of its extract on human [...] Read more.
Marine algae have gained much importance in the development of nutraceutical products due to their high content of bioactive compounds. In this work, we investigated the activity of Padina pavonica with the aim to demonstrate the pro-osteogenic ability of its extract on human primary osteoblast (HOb). Our data indicated that the acetonic extract of P. pavonica (EPP) is a safe product as it did not show any effect on osteoblast viability. At the same time, EPP showed to possess a beneficial effect on HOb functionality, triggering their differentiation and mineralization abilities. In particular EPP enhanced the expression of the earlier differentiation stage markers: a 5.4-fold increase in collagen type I alpha 1 chain (COL1A1), and a 2.3-fold increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), as well as those involved in the late differentiation stage: a 3.7-fold increase in osteocalcin (BGLAP) expression and a 2.8-fold in osteoprotegerin (TNFRSF11B). These findings were corroborated by the enhancement in ALPL enzymatic activity (1.7-fold increase) and by the reduction of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio (0.6-fold decrease). Moreover, EPP demonstrated the capacity to enhance the bone nodules formation by 3.2-fold in 4 weeks treated HOb. Therefore, EPP showed a significant capability of promoting osteoblast phenotype. Given its positive effect on bone homeostasis, EPP could be used as a useful nutraceutical product that, in addition to a healthy lifestyle and diet, can be able to contrast and prevent bone diseases, especially those connected with ageing, such as osteoporosis (OP). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Tyrosinase Inhibitor from the Red Alga Symphyocladia latiuscula (Harvey) Yamada (Rhodomelaceae)
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050295 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A marine red alga, Symphyocladia latiuscula (Harvey) Yamada (Rhodomelaceae), is a rich source of bromophenols with a wide array of biological activities. This study investigates the anti-tyrosinase activity of the alga. Moderate activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of S. latiuscula, [...] Read more.
A marine red alga, Symphyocladia latiuscula (Harvey) Yamada (Rhodomelaceae), is a rich source of bromophenols with a wide array of biological activities. This study investigates the anti-tyrosinase activity of the alga. Moderate activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of S. latiuscula, and subsequent column chromatography identified three bromophenols: 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl alcohol (1), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether (2), and bis-(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether) (3). Bromophenols 1 and 3 exhibited potent competitive tyrosinase inhibitory activity against l-tyrosine substrates, with IC50 values of 10.78 ± 0.19 and 2.92 ± 0.04 μM, respectively. Against substrate l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), compounds 1 and 3 demonstrated moderate activity, while 2 showed no observable effect. The experimental data were verified by a molecular docking study that found catalytic hydrogen and halogen interactions were responsible for the activity. In addition, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects in melanin and intracellular tyrosinase levels in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced B16F10 melanoma cells. Compounds 3 and 1 were the most effective tyrosinase inhibitors. In addition, increasing the bromine group number increased the mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Fucoidans from Five Different Brown Algae on Oxidative Stress and VEGF Interference in Ocular Cells
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050258 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Background: Fucoidans are interesting for potential usage in ophthalmology, and especially age-related macular degeneration. However, fucoidans from different species may vary in their effects. Here, we compare fucoidans from five algal species in terms of oxidative stress protection and vascular endothelial growth factor [...] Read more.
Background: Fucoidans are interesting for potential usage in ophthalmology, and especially age-related macular degeneration. However, fucoidans from different species may vary in their effects. Here, we compare fucoidans from five algal species in terms of oxidative stress protection and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) interference in ocular cells. Methods: Brown algae (Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens, Fucus serratus, Laminaria digitata, Saccharina latissima) were harvested and fucoidans isolated by hot-water extraction. Fucoidans were tested in several concentrations (1, 10, 50, and 100 µg/mL). Effects were measured on a uveal melanoma cell line (OMM-1) (oxidative stress), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line ARPE19 (oxidative stress and VEGF), and primary RPE cells (VEGF). Oxidative stress was induced by H2O2 or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP). Cell viability was investigated with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT or MTS) assay, and VEGF secretion with ELISA. Affinity to VEGF was determined by a competitive binding assay. Results: All fucoidans protected OMM-1 from oxidative stress. However, in ARPE19, only fucoidan from Saccharina latissima was protective. The affinity to VEGF of all fucoidans was stronger than that of heparin, and all reduced VEGF secretion in ARPE19. In primary RPE, only the fucoidan from Saccharina latissima was effective. Conclusion: Among the fucoidans from five different species, Saccharina latissima displayed the most promising results concerning oxidative stress protection and reduction of VEGF secretion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation and Purification of a Neuroprotective Phlorotannin from the Marine Algae Ecklonia maxima by Size Exclusion and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040212 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Phlorotannins are polyphenolic metabolites of marine brown algae that have been shown to possess health-beneficial biological activities. An efficient approach using a combination of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and size exclusion chromatography with a Sephadex LH-20 has been successfully developed for the isolation [...] Read more.
Phlorotannins are polyphenolic metabolites of marine brown algae that have been shown to possess health-beneficial biological activities. An efficient approach using a combination of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and size exclusion chromatography with a Sephadex LH-20 has been successfully developed for the isolation and purification of a neuroprotective phlorotannin, eckmaxol, from leaves of the marine brown algae, Ecklonia maxima. The phlorotannin of interest, eckmaxol, was isolated with purity >95% by HSCCC using an optimized solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (2:8:3:7, v/v/v/v) after Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion chromatography. This compound was successfully purified in the quantity of 5.2 mg from 0.3 kg of the E. maxima crude organic extract. The structure of eckmaxol was identified and assigned by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The purification method developed for eckmaxol will facilitate the further investigation and development of this neuroprotective agent as a drug lead or pharmacological probe. Furthermore, it is suggested that the combination of HSCCC and size exclusion chromatography could be more widely applied for the isolation and purification of phlorotannins from marine algae. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antitumoral Effect of Laurinterol on 3D Culture of Breast Cancer Explants
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040201 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Macroalgae represent an important source of bioactive compounds with a wide range of biotechnological applications. Overall, the discovery of effective cytotoxic compounds with pharmaceutical potential is a significant challenge, mostly because they are scarce in nature or their total synthesis is not efficient, [...] Read more.
Macroalgae represent an important source of bioactive compounds with a wide range of biotechnological applications. Overall, the discovery of effective cytotoxic compounds with pharmaceutical potential is a significant challenge, mostly because they are scarce in nature or their total synthesis is not efficient, while the bioprospecting models currently used do not predict clinical responses. Given this context, we used three-dimensional (3D) cultures of human breast cancer explants to evaluate the antitumoral effect of laurinterol, the major compound of an ethanolic extract of Laurencia johnstonii. To this end, we evaluated the metabolic and histopathological effects of the crude extract of L. johnstonii and laurinterol on Vero and MCF-7 cells, in addition to breast cancer explants. We observed a dose-dependent inhibition of the metabolic activity, as well as morphologic and nuclear changes characteristic of apoptosis. On the other hand, a reduced metabolic viability and marked necrosis areas were observed in breast cancer explants incubated with the crude extract, while explants treated with laurinterol exhibited a heterogeneous response which was associated with the individual response of each human tumor sample. This study supports the cytotoxic and antitumoral effects of laurinterol in in vitro cell cultures and in ex vivo organotypic cultures of human breast cancer explants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pro-Apoptotic Activity of French Polynesian Padina pavonica Extract on Human Osteosarcoma Cells
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120504 - 13 Dec 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Recently, seaweeds and their extracts have attracted great interest in the pharmaceutical industry as a source of bioactive compounds. Studies have demonstrated the cytotoxic activity of macroalgae towards different types of cancer cell models, and their consumption has been suggested as a chemo-preventive [...] Read more.
Recently, seaweeds and their extracts have attracted great interest in the pharmaceutical industry as a source of bioactive compounds. Studies have demonstrated the cytotoxic activity of macroalgae towards different types of cancer cell models, and their consumption has been suggested as a chemo-preventive agent against several cancers such as breast, cervix and colon cancers. Reports relevant to the chemical properties of brown algae Padina sp. are limited and those accompanied to a comprehensive evaluation of the biological activity on osteosarcoma (OS) are non existent. In this report, we explored the chemical composition of French Polynesian Padina pavonica extract (EPP) by spectrophotometric assays (total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin content, and antioxidant activity) and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and provided EPP lipid and sterols profiles. Several compounds with relevant biological activity were also identified that suggest interesting pharmacological and health-protecting effects for EPP. Moreover, we demonstrated that EPP presents good anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities against two OS cell lines, SaOS-2 and MNNG, with different cancer-related phenotypes. Finally, our data suggest that EPP might target different properties associated with cancer development and aggressiveness. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Seaweed Secondary Metabolites with Beneficial Health Effects: An Overview of Successes in In Vivo Studies and Clinical Trials
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18010008 - 20 Dec 2019
Abstract
Macroalgae are increasingly viewed as a source of secondary metabolites with great potential for the development of new drugs. In this development, in vitro studies are only the first step in a long process, while in vivo studies and clinical trials are the [...] Read more.
Macroalgae are increasingly viewed as a source of secondary metabolites with great potential for the development of new drugs. In this development, in vitro studies are only the first step in a long process, while in vivo studies and clinical trials are the most revealing stages of the true potential and limitations that a given metabolite may have as a new drug. This literature review aims to give a critical overview of the secondary metabolites that reveal the most interesting results in these two steps. Phlorotannins show great pharmaceutical potential in in vivo models and, among the several examples, the anti-dyslipidemia activity of dieckol must be highlighted because it was more effective than lovastatin in an in vivo model. The IRLIIVLMPILMA tridecapeptide that exhibits an in vivo level of activity similar to the hypotensive clinical drug captopril should still be stressed, as well as griffithsin which showed such stunning results over a variety of animal models and which will probably move onto clinical trials soon. Regarding clinical trials, studies with pure algal metabolites are scarce, limited to those carried out with kahalalide F and fucoxanthin. The majority of clinical trials currently aim to ascertain the effect of algae consumption, as extracts or fractions, on obesity and diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Potential Use of Seaweed Bioactive Compounds in Skincare—A Review
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(12), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17120688 - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Modern lifestyles have developed new attention on appearance and personal care which attract a huge number of consumers towards cosmetic products. The demand for a skincare product with natural ingredients is rapidly increasing. Seaweeds are major resources for in-demand active compounds with a [...] Read more.
Modern lifestyles have developed new attention on appearance and personal care which attract a huge number of consumers towards cosmetic products. The demand for a skincare product with natural ingredients is rapidly increasing. Seaweeds are major resources for in-demand active compounds with a wide variety of applications. The use of seaweed-derived ingredients in cosmetic products has increased in recent years as many scientific studies have proved the potential skincare properties of seaweed bioactive compounds. This review emphasizes possible skincare properties of seaweed bioactive compounds. The review outlines the mechanism involved in skin problems including hyperpigmentation, premature skin aging, and acne in the first part while the second part focuses on the promising application of seaweeds in skin protection by highlighting the bioactive compound responsible for their bioactivity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Macroalgae as a Valuable Source of Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110609 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurological condition that affects mostly aged individuals. Evidence suggests that pathological mechanisms involved in the development of AD are associated with cholinergic deficit, glutamate excitotoxicity, beta-amyloid aggregation, tau phosphorylation, neuro-inflammation, and oxidative damage to neurons. Currently there is [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurological condition that affects mostly aged individuals. Evidence suggests that pathological mechanisms involved in the development of AD are associated with cholinergic deficit, glutamate excitotoxicity, beta-amyloid aggregation, tau phosphorylation, neuro-inflammation, and oxidative damage to neurons. Currently there is no cure for AD; however, synthetic therapies have been developed to effectively manage some of the symptoms at the early stage of the disease. Natural products from plants and marine organisms have been identified as important sources of bioactive compounds with neuroprotective potentials and less adverse effects compared to synthetic agents. Seaweeds contain several kinds of secondary metabolites such as phlorotannins, carotenoids, sterols, fucoidans, and poly unsaturated fatty acids. However, their neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of action have not been fully explored. This review discusses recent investigations and/or updates on interactions of bioactive compounds from seaweeds with biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis of AD using reports in electronic databases such as Web of science, Scopus, PubMed, Science direct, Scifinder, Taylor and Francis, Wiley, Springer, and Google scholar between 2015 and 2019. Phlorotannins, fucoidans, sterols, and carotenoids showed strong neuroprotective potentials in different experimental models. However, there are no data from human studies and/or clinical trials. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Current Research on the Bioprospection of Linear Diterpenes from Bifurcaria bifurcata: From Extraction Methodologies to Possible Applications
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(10), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17100556 - 28 Sep 2019
Abstract
Marine resources are considered as a very promising source of bioactive molecules, and macroalgae in particular have gained special attention, due to their structurally diverse composition. Particular interest has been devoted to the brown macroalga Bifurcaria bifurcata, due to their abundance in [...] Read more.
Marine resources are considered as a very promising source of bioactive molecules, and macroalgae in particular have gained special attention, due to their structurally diverse composition. Particular interest has been devoted to the brown macroalga Bifurcaria bifurcata, due to their abundance in bioactive linear diterpenes. In this appraisal, a thorough review concerning the methodologies used in the extraction, fractionation, and identification of diterpenes from B. bifurcata is provided and discussed in detail. An exhaustive compilation of the mass spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data are also provided. The in vitro and in chemico assays already performed to assess different biological activities attributed to B. bifurcata diterpenes are also reviewed, emphasizing the use of isolated components, enriched fractions, or crude extracts. The associated major strengths and challenges for the exploitation of B. bifurcata diterpenes for high-value applications are critically discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Prebiotics from Seaweeds: An Ocean of Opportunity?
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060327 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Seaweeds are an underexploited and potentially sustainable crop which offer a rich source of bioactive compounds, including novel complex polysaccharides, polyphenols, fatty acids, and carotenoids. The purported efficacies of these phytochemicals have led to potential functional food and nutraceutical applications which aim to [...] Read more.
Seaweeds are an underexploited and potentially sustainable crop which offer a rich source of bioactive compounds, including novel complex polysaccharides, polyphenols, fatty acids, and carotenoids. The purported efficacies of these phytochemicals have led to potential functional food and nutraceutical applications which aim to protect against cardiometabolic and inflammatory risk factors associated with non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and some cancers. Concurrent understanding that perturbations of gut microbial composition and metabolic function manifest throughout health and disease has led to dietary strategies, such as prebiotics, which exploit the diet-host-microbe paradigm to modulate the gut microbiota, such that host health is maintained or improved. The prebiotic definition was recently updated to “a substrate that is selectively utilised by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit”, which, given that previous discussion regarding seaweed prebiotics has focused upon saccharolytic fermentation, an opportunity is presented to explore how non-complex polysaccharide components from seaweeds may be metabolised by host microbial populations to benefit host health. Thus, this review provides an innovative approach to consider how the gut microbiota may utilise seaweed phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and carotenoids, and provides an updated discussion regarding the catabolism of seaweed-derived complex polysaccharides with potential prebiotic activity. Additional in vitro screening studies and in vivo animal studies are needed to identify potential prebiotics from seaweeds, alongside untargeted metabolomics to decipher microbial-derived metabolites from seaweeds. Furthermore, controlled human intervention studies with health-related end points to elucidate prebiotic efficacy are required. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Integral Utilization of Red Seaweed for Bioactive Production
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060314 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The hydrocolloids carrageenan and agar are the major fraction industrially extracted and commercialized from red seaweeds. However, this type of macroalgae also contains a variety of components with nutritional, functional and biological properties. In the context of sustainability and bioeconomy, where the integral [...] Read more.
The hydrocolloids carrageenan and agar are the major fraction industrially extracted and commercialized from red seaweeds. However, this type of macroalgae also contains a variety of components with nutritional, functional and biological properties. In the context of sustainability and bioeconomy, where the integral utilization of the natural resources is incentivized, the sequential separation and valorization of seaweed components with biological properties of interest for food, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and pharmaceuticals is proposed. In this work, a review of the available conventional and alternative greener and efficient extraction for obtaining red seaweed bioactives is presented. The potential of emerging technologies for the production of valuable oligomers from carrageenan and agar is also commented, and finally, the sequential extraction of the constituent fractions is discussed. Full article
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