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Zeaxanthin Isolated from Dunaliella salina Microalgae Ameliorates Age Associated Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats through Stimulation of Retinoid Receptors

1
Plant Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre (NRC), 33 El Buhouth St. (Former El Tahrir St.), Dokki, Giza P.O.12622, Egypt
2
Pharmacognosy Department, National Research Centre (NRC), 33 El Buhouth St. (Former El Tahrir St.), Dokki, Giza P.O.12622, Egypt
3
Pharmacology Department, National Research Centre (NRC), 33 El Buhouth St. (Former El Tahrir St.), Dokki, Giza P.O.12622, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050290
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention)
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Abstract

Retinoids are essential during early cardiovascular morphogenesis. However, recent studies showed their important role in cardiac remodeling in rats with hypertension and following myocardial infarction. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of zeaxanthin heneicosylate (ZH); a carotenoid ester isolated from Dunaliella salina microalgae, on cardiac dysfunction ensuing d-galactose injection in rats. Rats injected with d-GAL (200 mg/kg; I.P) for 8 weeks were orally treated with ZH (250 μg/kg) for 28 consecutive days. Results showed that d-GAL injection caused dramatic electrocardiographic changes as well as marked elevation in serum levels of homocysteine, creatinine kinase isoenzyme and lactate dehydrogenase. A reduction in the cardiac contents of glucose transporter-4 and superoxide dismutase along with the elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthetase and interleukin-6 was also noticed. Oral administration of ZH significantly improved the above mentioned cardiac aging manifestations; this was further emphasized through histopathological examinations. The effect of ZH is mediated through the interaction with retinoid receptor alpha (RAR-α) as evidenced through a significant elevation of RAR-α expression in cardiac tissue following the lead of an in silico molecular docking study. In conclusion, zeaxanthin heneicosylate isolated from D. salina ameliorated age-associated cardiac dysfunction in rats through the activation of retinoid receptors. View Full-Text
Keywords: zeaxanthin; carotenoids; Dunaliella salina; aging; cardiac dysfunction; retinoid receptors zeaxanthin; carotenoids; Dunaliella salina; aging; cardiac dysfunction; retinoid receptors
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El-Baz, F.K.; Hussein, R.A.; Saleh, D.O.; Abdel Jaleel, G.A.R. Zeaxanthin Isolated from Dunaliella salina Microalgae Ameliorates Age Associated Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats through Stimulation of Retinoid Receptors. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 290.

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