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Diversity, Volume 13, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 56 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Orchids are one of the most diverse and widely distributed flowering plant groups worldwide, with significant conservation assessment and prioritization needs. However, many orchid species are being threatened and becoming extinct, owing to the destruction of their habitats, use in traditional medicine, illegal trade and climate change. We revised the checklist of orchids of Mongolia and conducted species conservation assessment according to IUCN criteria for the first time. In addition, 970 georeferenced records of 26 taxa were analyzed to determine orchid species richness and conservation gaps, revealing their "hotspot" distribution and state of conservation measurement. Regrettably, most orchid-rich locations in Mongolia are not fully within protected areas, highlighting the need for protection management updates. View this paper
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Article
Diversity and Abundance of Roadkilled Bats in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070335 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Faunal mortality from roadkill has a negative impact on global biodiversity, and bats are among the roadkilled animals. In South America, the Atlantic Forest covers southeastern Brazil, a region which sustains a large bat diversity. In this biome, the Sooretama reserves are crossed [...] Read more.
Faunal mortality from roadkill has a negative impact on global biodiversity, and bats are among the roadkilled animals. In South America, the Atlantic Forest covers southeastern Brazil, a region which sustains a large bat diversity. In this biome, the Sooretama reserves are crossed by the federal highway BR-101, one of the busiest in Brazil. We analyzed bats roadkilled along the 25 km stretch of highway that crosses the Sooretama reserves. Data were collected between the years 2010 and 2015. In total, 773 individuals distributed among 47 bat species were roadkilled during this period. The insectivorous feeding guild was the most affected, accounting for 25 species and 74% of the recorded roadkill, and those flying in the open area were the most frequently roadkilled (41.9%). Bat mortality rates did not differ between months of the year. However, the relation between rainy days and roadkill was negative. Monitoring by foot was more efficient than by car for detection of bat carcasses. Radars with a speed limit below 60 km/h reduced the rates of roadkill. The diversity of deceased bats found in this study represents 40% of the known species in the Atlantic Forest, and is the largest among current studies of species killed on highways globally. The present study raises concerns about the high diversity and abundance of roadkilled insectivorous bats and the conservation of these animals in the Neotropical region. Full article
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Review
Black Coral Distribution in the Italian Seas: A Review
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070334 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 209
Abstract
Antipatharian corals are important structural and complex members of benthic communities inhabiting the Italian seafloor. In this study, the distribution of black corals in Italy is reported and mapped for the first time. This review has permitted the identification of occurrences of such [...] Read more.
Antipatharian corals are important structural and complex members of benthic communities inhabiting the Italian seafloor. In this study, the distribution of black corals in Italy is reported and mapped for the first time. This review has permitted the identification of occurrences of such vulnerable marine ecosystems along the Italian coasts in a bathymetric range of 42 m to 790 m. Black corals appear to be most conspicuous and widely distributed in the mesophotic zone (from around 60 to 300 m depth), with a major occurrence on the rocky bottom and shoals. This review also highlights that these communities suffer direct damage from anthropogenic impacts (fishing activity and lost garbage). Finally, this study provides evidence that the reported Italian submarine sites associated with the occurrence of black corals probably represent only a small portion of their real distribution. This finding urges the need to increase monitoring efforts to support the protection and the conservation of these pristine species assemblages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers on Marine Diversity)
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Article
Effect of Cothurnia variabilis and Epistylis gammari (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) on Metabolic Rate of the Crayfish Cambarellus (Cambarellus) montezumae
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070333 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Peritrichs usually settle on the external surface and gills of crustaceans. However, their physiological effect on the host has not been studied. Respiratory rate is a susceptible index for some factors that affect an organism. To test if ciliates attached to the crustacean [...] Read more.
Peritrichs usually settle on the external surface and gills of crustaceans. However, their physiological effect on the host has not been studied. Respiratory rate is a susceptible index for some factors that affect an organism. To test if ciliates attached to the crustacean gills have a physiological effect, we measured crustacean oxygen consumption in a closed system. Crayfish Cambarellus (Cambarellus) montezumae were collected in Lago Xochimilco in Mexico City and were isolated in chambers. Two peritrich species, Cothurnia variabilis (32.5%) and Epistylis gammari (67.5%), were observed on the gills. The metabolic rate was evaluated by oxygen consumption with a polarimetric oximeter. Statistical analyses demonstrated that a density of ciliates attached to the gills of the crayfish above ~50 individuals increased oxygen consumption with a positive correlation to epibiont density. We conclude that C. variabilis and E. gammari ciliate epibionts attached to the gill of the crayfish Cambarellus (Cambarellus) montezumae cause an increase in metabolic rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Taxonomy of Protists: Morphology, Genes and Symbionts)
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Article
The Arthropod Fauna of Oak (Quercus spp., Fagaceae) Canopies in Norway
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070332 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
(1) We document the invertebrate fauna collected from 24 oak canopies in east and west Norway as a contribution to the Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre’s ‘The Norwegian Taxonomy Initiative’. (2) A snap-shot inventory of the canopies was recorded by means of emitting a [...] Read more.
(1) We document the invertebrate fauna collected from 24 oak canopies in east and west Norway as a contribution to the Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre’s ‘The Norwegian Taxonomy Initiative’. (2) A snap-shot inventory of the canopies was recorded by means of emitting a mist of natural pyrethrum into the canopies at night using a petrol-driven fogger and collecting the specimens in butterfly nets spread on the ground under the canopy. (3) Almost the entire catch of more than 6800 specimens was identified to 722 species. Out of 92 species new to the Norwegian fauna, 21 were new to science and, additionally, 15 were new to the Nordic fauna. Diptera alone constituted nearly half of the species represented, with 61 new records (18 new species). Additionally, 24 Hymenoptera (one new species), six oribatid mites (two new species) and one Thysanoptera were new to the Norwegian fauna. (4) Our study emphasizes the importance of the oak tree as a habitat both for a specific fauna and occasional visitors, and it demonstrates that the canopy fogging technique is an efficient way to find the ‘hidden fauna’ of Norwegian forests. The low number of red listed species found reflects how poor the Norwegian insect fauna is still studied. Moreover, the implication of the IUCN red list criteria for newly described or newly observed species is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropods Associated with Forest Soil and Wood)
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Article
Diversity Loss in Coralligenous Structuring Species Impacted by Fishing Gear and Marine Litter
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070331 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Coralligenous structuring species (CSS) form a group of marine megabenthic species with an engineering capacity. Since they are highly vulnerable to anthropogenic activities, they have been selected for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) monitoring programs. The pressure and impact of fishing gear [...] Read more.
Coralligenous structuring species (CSS) form a group of marine megabenthic species with an engineering capacity. Since they are highly vulnerable to anthropogenic activities, they have been selected for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) monitoring programs. The pressure and impact of fishing gear and marine litter on these species were evaluated through the image analysis of 54 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) routes along the Campania coasts (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). CSS density was calculated as the number of colonies/100 m2. Anthropogenic pressure was estimated as the frequency of frames showing longline, nets, other gear, plastic objects, metal objects, and other litter; while the impact was expressed as the frequency showing necrosis/epibiosis, broken/upturned and covered/entangled colonies. Cnidaria dominate in the Napoli, Campanella and Capri areas, while Bryozoa dominate in Cilento N and Cilento S areas. Campanella and Capri appeared to be the least heterogeneous despite their higher CSS densities, which was possibly related to the dominance of a few species. These areas were the most affected by showing the highest numbers of fishing gear (longlines) and marine litter (metal objects) recorded, amongst which longlines are the most abundant. In addition, these fishing areas are either close to a large urban center or located along popular touristic routes. In all the areas, colonies with necrosis/epibiosis (CNE) impact are present with low-moderate values, while the category gears covering/entangling (GCE) impact prevails in the Campanella and Capri areas, and this is strictly connected to the high presence of fishing gear. Full article
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Review
Ethnolichenology—The Use of Lichens in the Himalayas and Southwestern Parts of China
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070330 - 18 Jul 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Lichens are used in traditional medicine, food and various other ethnic uses by cultures across the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China. Evidence-based knowledge from historical and modern literatures and investigation of ethnic uses from 1990 proved that lichen species used as medicine [...] Read more.
Lichens are used in traditional medicine, food and various other ethnic uses by cultures across the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China. Evidence-based knowledge from historical and modern literatures and investigation of ethnic uses from 1990 proved that lichen species used as medicine in the Himalayas and southwestern parts of China totaled to 142 species; furthermore, 42 species were utilized as food. Moreover, some lichens are popularly used for lichen produce in ethnic and modern life. An understanding and clarification of the use of lichens in the Himalayas and southeastern parts of China can therefore be important for understanding uses of lichens elsewhere and a reference for additional research of lichen uses in the future. Full article
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Article
Influence of Geographical and Climatic Factors on Quercus variabilis Blume Fruit Phenotypic Diversity
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070329 - 18 Jul 2021
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Quercus variabilis Blume is one of the most ecologically valuable tree species in China and is known to have adaptive mechanisms to climate change. Our objective was to quantify the variation pattern in the fruit morphology of Q. variabilis. Fruit samples were [...] Read more.
Quercus variabilis Blume is one of the most ecologically valuable tree species in China and is known to have adaptive mechanisms to climate change. Our objective was to quantify the variation pattern in the fruit morphology of Q. variabilis. Fruit samples were collected from 43 natural populations in autumn of 2019. Our results indicated that the coefficient of variation (CV) of the fruit length (FL) and fruit width (FW) were 10.08% and 11.21%, respectively. There were significant differences in the FL, FW, and fruit length-to-width ratios (FL/FW) among the studied populations. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between the FW and FL. The FL decreased with increasing precipitation in the wettest quarter (PWQ). A concave trend was observed in the variations in FL with the equivalent latitude (ELAT), longitude (LON), annual mean air temperature (MAT), and annual precipitation (AP). A similar concave trend was observed for the FL/FW with LON, MAT, and AP. A positive correlation was observed between the FW, FL and FL/FW, and the ELAT. The cluster analysis revealed five groups of the 43 natural populations. Our study findings suggests that Q. variabilis has high levels of phenotypic plasticity for geographical and climatic factors. Full article
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Article
Bacterial Number and Genetic Diversity in a Permafrost Peatland (Western Siberia): Testing a Link with Organic Matter Quality and Elementary Composition of a Peat Soil Profile
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070328 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Permafrost peatlands, containing a sizable amount of soil organic carbon (OC), play a pivotal role in soil (peat) OC transformation into soluble and volatile forms and greatly contribute to overall natural CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere under ongoing permafrost [...] Read more.
Permafrost peatlands, containing a sizable amount of soil organic carbon (OC), play a pivotal role in soil (peat) OC transformation into soluble and volatile forms and greatly contribute to overall natural CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere under ongoing permafrost thaw and soil OC degradation. Peat microorganisms are largely responsible for the processing of this OC, yet coupled studies of chemical and bacterial parameters in permafrost peatlands are rather limited and geographically biased. Towards testing the possible impact of peat and peat pore water chemical composition on microbial population and diversity, here we present results of a preliminary study of the western Siberia permafrost peatland discontinuous permafrost zone. The quantitative evaluation of microorganisms and determination of microbial diversity along a 100 cm thick peat soil column, which included thawed and frozen peat and bottom mineral horizon, was performed by RT-PCR and 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis, respectively. Bacteria (mainly Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria) strongly dominated the microbial diversity (99% sequences), with a negligible proportion of archaea (0.3–0.5%). There was a systematic evolution of main taxa according to depth, with a maximum of 65% (Acidobacteria) encountered in the active layer, or permafrost boundary (50–60 cm). We also measured C, N, nutrients and ~50 major and trace elements in peat (19 samples) as well as its pore water and dispersed ice (10 samples), sampled over the same core, and we analyzed organic matter quality in six organic and one mineral horizon of this core. Using multiparametric statistics (PCA), we tested the links between the total microbial number and 16S rRNA diversity and chemical composition of both the solid and fluid phase harboring the microorganisms. Under climate warming and permafrost thaw, one can expect a downward movement of the layer of maximal genetic diversity following the active layer thickening. Given a one to two orders of magnitude higher microbial number in the upper (thawed) layers compared to bottom (frozen) layers, an additional 50 cm of peat thawing in western Siberia may sizably increase the total microbial population and biodiversity of active cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Biodiversity: Evolution, Taxonomy and Conservation)
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Article
Soil Nematode Communities in Managed and Natural Temperate Forest
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070327 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Forest management and the stand age play key roles in determining the composition of soil biota, including nematodes. We analysed the effect of the interaction between stands of natural forest and stands influenced by human activity on nematode communities, necessary for realistically assessing [...] Read more.
Forest management and the stand age play key roles in determining the composition of soil biota, including nematodes. We analysed the effect of the interaction between stands of natural forest and stands influenced by human activity on nematode communities, necessary for realistically assessing the specific potentials of forest soils, plant protection, forest management, and land use management. Nematode communities were evaluated and compared in managed beech and spruce forests in three age classes (0–20, 40–60, and 100–120 years old) and an unmanaged old-growth temperate forest. A total of 51 nematode genera were found in the forests. The number of nematode genera was the highest (46) in European beech forests, dominated by Rhabditis and Filenchus. In contrast, the number of nematode genera was the lowest (37) in a Norway spruce forest, but where nematode abundance was the highest due mostly to the high abundance of bacterivorous nematodes such as Acrobeloides, Plectus, and Rhabditis. The unmanaged old-growth forest had the lowest nematode abundance and total biomass but the highest abundance of herbivorous nematodes of the order Tylenchida, especially Filenchus, Malenchus, and Paratylenchus, and a high abundance of identified genera of predators. The number of identified nematode genera, abundance, total biomass, and diversity index were the highest in young 0–20-year-old stands, and the lowest in 100–120-year-old stands. Enrichment, structure, and basal indices were influenced by both the stands and the ages of the forests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promoting Biodiversity in Forest and Landscape Restoration)
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Article
Undara Lava Cave Fauna in Tropical Queensland with an Annotated List of Australian Subterranean Biodiversity Hotspots
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070326 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 496
Abstract
The lava tubes at Undara became internationally recognised in the late 1980s, when 24 species of terrestrial cave-adapted invertebrates (troglobionts) were recorded from Bayliss Cave, making it one of the 20 richest known cave communities in the world at the time. Over the [...] Read more.
The lava tubes at Undara became internationally recognised in the late 1980s, when 24 species of terrestrial cave-adapted invertebrates (troglobionts) were recorded from Bayliss Cave, making it one of the 20 richest known cave communities in the world at the time. Over the last decades, several of the Undara species have been taxonomically described and a great deal of research has been undertaken in other parts of Australia, which has revealed additional subterranean hotspots. It is therefore timely to update the list of Undara cave fauna, and to evaluate the Undara cave system in relation to other subterranean hotspots in Australia. The updated species list was compiled from the published literature and museum databases. Minimally, 78 species of arthropods have been recorded from 17 lava tube caves in the Undara Basalt. Sixteen species have been taxonomically described; 30 identified to genus and/or morpho-species; and 32 remain unidentified to species or genus level. Thirty troglobionts and one stygobiont species were recorded. Seven caves harboured obligate subterranean species; Bayliss Cave harboured the most obligate subterranean species: 23 troglobionts and one stygobiont. All these caves contained deep zone environments with high humidity, of which three also contained ‘bad air’ (CO2). The unique combination of geomorphic structure and environmental parameters (high humidity) and multiple energy sources (tree roots, bats and guano, organic material wash-in) are the main factors responsible for Bayliss Cave’s extraordinary local richness. Further research is needed to investigate CO2 as a factor influencing troglobiont richness and distribution in ‘bad air’ caves. Undara remains the richest subterranean hotspot in humid tropical Australia; however, significantly richer subterranean assemblages are found in arid and semi-arid calcrete aquifers, karst and iron-ore terrains, mostly in Western Australia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hotspots of Subterranean Biodiversity)
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Article
What Makes a Hot-Spring Habitat “Hot” for the Hot-Spring Snake: Distributional Data and Niche Modelling for the Genus Thermophis (Serpentes, Colubridae)
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070325 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Knowledge about species’ distributions is central to diverse applications in ecology, biogeography, and conservation science. Hot-spring snakes of the genus Thermophis share a distribution restricted to geothermal sites at the Tibetan Plateau (T. baileyi) and in the Hengduan Mountains (T. [...] Read more.
Knowledge about species’ distributions is central to diverse applications in ecology, biogeography, and conservation science. Hot-spring snakes of the genus Thermophis share a distribution restricted to geothermal sites at the Tibetan Plateau (T. baileyi) and in the Hengduan Mountains (T. zhaoermii, T. shangrila). Although the suture zones of these regions are widely covered with hot springs, Thermophis populations are restricted to only a few of these habitats. Here, we use bioclimatic, topographic, and land cover data to model the potential distribution of the genus. Moreover, using logistic regression on field survey data of T. zhaoermii, we test whether hot-spring water parameters and landscape features correlate with the species’ presence or absence. Hot springs with temperatures between 45 and 100 °C and winter precipitation showed the most predictive power. At small scale, our data support the relevance of the hot-spring temperature on the species’ occurrence and indicate that also the along-valley distance from the hot-spring site to the major river might influence the distribution of Thermophis species. Our findings contribute to better understand factors shaping the current distribution of the genus and will aid in setting priorities in applied conservation biology for the hot-spring snakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2021 Feature Papers by Diversity’s Editorial Board Members)
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Article
Genetic Structure and Diversity of the Yellowbelly Threadfin Bream Nemipterus bathybius in the Northern South China Sea
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070324 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
The genetic structure and demography of the yellowbelly threadfin bream, Nemipterus bathybius, in the northern South China Sea were examined using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene (1141 bp). High levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversities (0.98 and 5.26 × 10−3 [...] Read more.
The genetic structure and demography of the yellowbelly threadfin bream, Nemipterus bathybius, in the northern South China Sea were examined using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene (1141 bp). High levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversities (0.98 and 5.26 × 10−3, respectively) showed that all populations exhibited a high level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), FST statistics, and haplotype networks suggested the absence of significant genetic differentiation along the coast of the northern South China Sea. Although the results suggested that the lack of differentiation within the population structure of N. bathybius was shaped by ocean currents, our results also showed that the Qiongzhou Strait limited their migration between Beibu Gulf and the northern South China Sea. Neutrality tests and mismatch distributions indicated population expansion, but the Bayesian skyline plots and approximate Bayesian computation approaches suggested that the population sizes recently contracted. The diversification of multiple stocks, which were induced by two ocean current systems, contributed to these discordant results. Although these analyses of demographic history revealed no evidence for recent population bottlenecks, the population demography needs to be evaluated further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Diversity)
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First Insights into the Microbiology of Three Antarctic Briny Systems of the Northern Victoria Land
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070323 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 261
Abstract
Different polar environments (lakes and glaciers), also in Antarctica, encapsulate brine pools characterized by a unique combination of extreme conditions, mainly in terms of high salinity and low temperature. Since 2014, we have been focusing our attention on the microbiology of brine pockets [...] Read more.
Different polar environments (lakes and glaciers), also in Antarctica, encapsulate brine pools characterized by a unique combination of extreme conditions, mainly in terms of high salinity and low temperature. Since 2014, we have been focusing our attention on the microbiology of brine pockets from three lakes in the Northern Victoria Land (NVL), lying in the Tarn Flat (TF) and Boulder Clay (BC) areas. The microbial communities have been analyzed for community structure by next generation sequencing, extracellular enzyme activities, metabolic potentials, and microbial abundances. In this study, we aim at reconsidering all available data to analyze the influence exerted by environmental parameters on the community composition and activities. Additionally, the prediction of metabolic functions was attempted by the phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt2) tool, highlighting that prokaryotic communities were presumably involved in methane metabolism, aromatic compound biodegradation, and organic compound (proteins, polysaccharides, and phosphates) decomposition. The analyzed cryoenvironments were different in terms of prokaryotic diversity, abundance, and retrieved metabolic pathways. By the analysis of DNA sequences, common operational taxonomic units ranged from 2.2% to 22.0%. The bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes. In both BC and TF brines, sequences of the most thermally tolerant and methanogenic Archaea were detected, some of them related to hyperthermophiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2021 Feature Papers by Diversity’s Editorial Board Members)
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Article
Characterizing the Influence of Domestic Cats on Birds with Wildlife Rehabilitation Center Data
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070322 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Depredation of birds by domestic cats is hypothesized to be one of many significant sources of mortality leading to global bird declines. Direct observations are relatively rarely documented compared with large numbers of birds hypothesized to be killed or wounded by cats. We [...] Read more.
Depredation of birds by domestic cats is hypothesized to be one of many significant sources of mortality leading to global bird declines. Direct observations are relatively rarely documented compared with large numbers of birds hypothesized to be killed or wounded by cats. We analyzed data from two wildlife rehabilitation centers located in Salem and Grants Pass, Oregon USA, to understand which species were most likely to interact with a cat, and the species traits associated with cat interactions and habitats (urban vs. rural) of rescued birds. Interaction with a cat was the second-most commonly reported cause of admission, representing 12.3% of 6345 admissions. Half to two-thirds of birds were rescued from cats in urban settings and were usually species foraging on or near the ground. Most species were admitted to rehabilitation centers in direct proportion to their regional abundance. An exception was the absence of common species weighing less than 70 g, which we conclude is an effect of sampling bias. We conclude that cats most often interact with regionally common near-ground-dwelling bird species in both urban and rural habitats. Wildlife rehabilitation centers can provide valuable sources of data for cat-bird interactions but potential sources of uncertainty and bias in their data need to be considered carefully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2021 Feature Papers by Diversity’s Editorial Board Members)
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Review
Nematodes of Amphibians from the South American Chaco: Distribution, Host Specificity and Ecological Aspects
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070321 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
This is the first review of the nematode parasites of amphibians from Dry Chaco (DC) and Humid Chaco (HC) ecoregions of South America, covering aspects related to their systematics, distribution, host range and ecology, including their life cycles. Of approximately 100 species of [...] Read more.
This is the first review of the nematode parasites of amphibians from Dry Chaco (DC) and Humid Chaco (HC) ecoregions of South America, covering aspects related to their systematics, distribution, host range and ecology, including their life cycles. Of approximately 100 species of amphibians that inhabit these ecoregions, the nematode parasites of 32 species are known. The parasite species consisted of 51 taxa: 27 in HC and 18 in DC. The family Cosmocercidae alone included 18 species. Aplectana hylambatis and Cosmocerca podicipinus showed the widest geographical and host distribution. Leptodactylus bufonius and Rhinella major presented a high number of nematode parasites. The species richness of nematodes was related to the host body sizes and to the strategy to obtain prey. The mean species richness was higher in terrestrial amphibians with intermediate characteristics in the generalist–specialist spectrum in terms of diet, and in amphibians with intermediate characteristics between actively foraging and the “sit-and-wait” approach in terms of searching for prey. The patterns of similarity among amphibian species showed groups linking with their habitats. Nematodes usually have direct life cycles with the infectious form entering the host passively or actively. However, many amphibians are also involved in heteroxenous cycles that develop in the aquatic environment. Full article
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Respiration Rates, Metabolic Demands and Feeding of Ephyrae and Young Medusae of the Rhizostome Rhopilema nomadica
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070320 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Jellyfish (cnidarians and ctenophores) affect the marine food web through high feeding rates and feeding efficiency, but in contrast to their great importance in the ecosystem, our knowledge of their dietary requirements is limited. Here we present the results of respiratory and feeding [...] Read more.
Jellyfish (cnidarians and ctenophores) affect the marine food web through high feeding rates and feeding efficiency, but in contrast to their great importance in the ecosystem, our knowledge of their dietary requirements is limited. Here we present the results of respiratory and feeding trials of the rhizostome Rhopilema nomadica, the dominant scyphozoan in the waters of the Eastern Mediterranean, which often establishes massive swarms, mainly in the summer months. Through multiple measurements of oxygen demand in R. nomadica at bell diameters of 3–49 mm, we were able to assess its minimum energetic requirements. These, and the results of the feeding trials on individuals of the same bell diameter range, show that R. nomadica is a very efficient predator. When presented with prey concentrations of 100 prey items per liter, a single hourly feeding session provided between 1.15 and 3 times the estimated daily basal carbon requirement. Our findings suggest that R. nomadica is well adapted to its environment, the hyperoligotrophic waters of the eastern Mediterranean, able to efficiently exploit patches of plankton, possibly at rates even higher than what we observed under laboratory conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Patterns and Ecology of Jellyfish in Marine Environment)
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Article
Seasonal Climate Impacts on Vocal Activity in Two Neotropical Nonpasserines
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070319 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Climatic conditions represent one of the main constraints that influence avian calling behavior. Here, we monitored the daily calling activity of the Undulated Tinamou (Crypturellus undulatus) and the Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) during the dry and wet seasons in [...] Read more.
Climatic conditions represent one of the main constraints that influence avian calling behavior. Here, we monitored the daily calling activity of the Undulated Tinamou (Crypturellus undulatus) and the Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) during the dry and wet seasons in the Brazilian Pantanal. We aimed to assess the effects of climate predictors on the vocal activity of these focal species and evaluate whether these effects may vary among seasons. Air temperature was positively associated with the daily calling activity of both species during the dry season. However, the vocal activity of both species was unrelated to air temperature during the wet season, when higher temperatures occur. Daily rainfall was positively related to the daily calling activity of both species during the dry season, when rainfall events are scarce and seem to act as a trigger for breeding phenology of the focal species. Nonetheless, daily rainfall was negatively associated with the daily calling activity of the Undulated Tinamou during the wet season, when rainfall was abundant. This study improves our understanding of the vocal behavior of tropical birds and their relationships with climate, but further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms behind the associations found in our study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Animal Diversity)
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How Do Young Community and Citizen Science Volunteers Support Scientific Research on Biodiversity? The Case of iNaturalist
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070318 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Online community and citizen science (CCS) projects have broadened access to scientific research and enabled different forms of participation in biodiversity research; however, little is known about whether and how such opportunities are taken up by young people (aged 5–19). Furthermore, when they [...] Read more.
Online community and citizen science (CCS) projects have broadened access to scientific research and enabled different forms of participation in biodiversity research; however, little is known about whether and how such opportunities are taken up by young people (aged 5–19). Furthermore, when they do participate, there is little research on whether their online activity makes a tangible contribution to scientific research. We addressed these knowledge gaps using quantitative analytical approaches and visualisations to investigate 249 youths’ contributions to CCS on the iNaturalist platform, and the potential for the scientific use of their contributions. We found that nearly all the young volunteers’ observations were ‘verifiable’ (included a photo, location, and date/time) and therefore potentially useful to biodiversity research. Furthermore, more than half were designated as ‘Research Grade’, with a community agreed-upon identification, making them more valuable and accessible to biodiversity science researchers. Our findings show that young volunteers with lasting participation on the platform and those aged 16–19 years are more likely to have a higher proportion of Research Grade observations than younger, or more ephemeral participants. This study enhances our understanding of young volunteers’ contributions to biodiversity research, as well as the important role professional scientists and data users can play in helping verify youths’ contributions to make them more accessible for biodiversity research. Full article
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Article
Effects of Continuous Cropping of Codonopsis tangshen on Rhizospheric Soil Bacterial Community as Determined by Pyrosequencing
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070317 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Codonopsis tangshen, a perennial herbaceous, has been shown to be affected by continuous cropping, with significant decline in both yield and quality. In this study, we studied the effect of continuous cropping on the abundance and composition of rhizospheric soil bacterial community. [...] Read more.
Codonopsis tangshen, a perennial herbaceous, has been shown to be affected by continuous cropping, with significant decline in both yield and quality. In this study, we studied the effect of continuous cropping on the abundance and composition of rhizospheric soil bacterial community. Results showed that continuous cropping causes a significant decline in both yield and quality. The nutrient content in continuous cropping soil was higher than that of soil in main cropping. Pyrosequencing analyses revealed Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria as the main phyla in two types of soils. Relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, TM7, and AD3 phyla was observed to be high in continuous cropping soils, whereas Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes phyla were richer in main cropping soils. At the genus level, high relative abundance of Pseudomonas (γ-Proteobacteria), Rhodanobacter, Candidatus Koribacter, and Candidatus were observed in continuous cropping soil. Different patterns of bacterial community structure were observed between different soils. Redundancy analysis indicated that organic matter content and available nitrogen content exhibited the strongest effect on bacterial community structure in the continuous cropping soil. Taken together, continuous cropping led to a significant decline in yield and quality, decrease in rhizospheric soil bacterial abundance, and alteration of rhizospheric soil microbial community structure, thereby resulting in poor growth of C. tangshen in the continuous cropping system. Full article
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Article
Reproduction of the Androgenetic Population of the Asian Corbicula Clam (Bivalvia: Cyrenidae) in the Northern Dvina River Basin, Russia
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070316 - 10 Jul 2021
Viewed by 322
Abstract
The Corbicula clam is one of the most successful invaders of aquatic ecosystems and has invaded all continents except Antarctica. The natural dispersion of Corbicula seems to be limited by low winter temperatures that fall below the lower lethal temperatures (0 to +2 [...] Read more.
The Corbicula clam is one of the most successful invaders of aquatic ecosystems and has invaded all continents except Antarctica. The natural dispersion of Corbicula seems to be limited by low winter temperatures that fall below the lower lethal temperatures (0 to +2 °C). However, Corbicula can be found in colder regions, taking refuge in waters heated by thermal power plants. The purpose of this investigation was to study the gonadal histology, reproductive cycle, and the seasonal changes of shell size structure of the Corbicula clam populations in the warm water discharge of the Arkhangelsk thermal power plant (Northwest Russia). Samples were collected monthly from January 2017 to December 2018 and processed using traditional histological and morphological techniques. The number of reproductive periods varied from year to year. It was established that the Corbicula clam has a continuous reproduction period which may be adaptive in unstable environmental conditions. This reproductive strategy is probably aimed at increasing the reproductive success of the population. Our data expand the understanding of reproductive features of the Corbicula clam in harsh environmental conditions. These results could be applied to control, monitoring, and management measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Biodiversity: Evolution, Taxonomy and Conservation)
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Article
Genetic Diversity in 19th Century Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Reflects Differing Agricultural Practices and Seed Trade in Jämtland, Sweden
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070315 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Landrace crops are important genetic resources, both for plant breeding efforts and for studying agrarian history. The distribution of genetic diversity among landraces can reflect effects of climate, economic structure, and trade also over a limited spatial and temporal scale. In this study, [...] Read more.
Landrace crops are important genetic resources, both for plant breeding efforts and for studying agrarian history. The distribution of genetic diversity among landraces can reflect effects of climate, economic structure, and trade also over a limited spatial and temporal scale. In this study, we have SNP genotyped historical barley seed samples from the late 19th century, together with extant barley landrace accessions from Jämtland, Sweden, a county centrally located, situated between Sweden and Norway. We found two main genetic clusters, one associated with the main agricultural district around lake Storsjön and one in the peripheral areas. Data was also compared with genotypes from landraces from across the Scandinavian peninsula. Accessions from the peripheral part of Jämtland show genetic similarity to accessions from a large part of central Scandinavia, while the accessions from the Storsjön district are more differentiated. We suggest that these dissimilarities in genetic diversity distribution are explained by differences in the relative importance of agriculture and trading. We further compared the historical material with ex situ preserved extant landraces from the same region and found that their genetic diversity was not always representative of the given provenience. The historical material, in contrast, proved particularly valuable for assessing how crop genetic diversity has historically been influenced by economic focus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Diversity)
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Article
Seasonal and Interspecific Variation in Frugivory by a Mixed Resident-Migrant Overwintering Songbird Community
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070314 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Many temperate passerine bird species switch from diets of mostly invertebrates in the spring and summer to diets that include fruit and seeds in the fall and winter. However, relatively few studies have quantified diet composition or the extent of seasonal shifts during [...] Read more.
Many temperate passerine bird species switch from diets of mostly invertebrates in the spring and summer to diets that include fruit and seeds in the fall and winter. However, relatively few studies have quantified diet composition or the extent of seasonal shifts during the non-breeding period, particularly among species and across communities with both residents and migrants. We measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values in food items (fruits, C3 and C4 seeds, and insects from various trophic levels and plant communities) and in multiple tissues (feathers and plasma/whole blood) from 11 species of songbirds wintering in the southeastern U.S. We combined these diet and tissue values with empirically derived discrimination factors and used concentration-dependent mixing models to quantify seasonal diet shifts. We also validated mixing model results with data from fecal samples. Diets in this bird community, as delineated N and C isotopic space, diverged in the fall and winter relative to the summer as consumption of fruits and seeds increased. Across this songbird community, estimated contributions of fruit to plasma/whole blood increased from 16.2 ± 7.5% in the fall (mean ± SD; range: 4–26%) to 21.7 ± 10.3% (range: 9–37%) in the winter, while contributions of seeds increased from 29.4 ± 2.6% (range: 28–32%) in the fall to 36.6 ± 4.8% (range: 32–42%) in the winter. Fecal data showed qualitatively similar trends to mixing models, but consistently estimated higher contributions of fruit. Our work indicates that fruits and seeds constitute substantial sources of sustenance for non-breeding songbirds, there is considerable separation of resource use among species in the fall and winter, and fecal estimates of contributions to songbird tissues should be interpreted cautiously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stable Isotope Ecology)
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Opinion
The Future of DNA Barcoding: Reflections from Early Career Researchers
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070313 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 993
Abstract
Over the last two decades, the use of DNA barcodes has transformed our ability to identify and assess life on our planet. Both strengths and weaknesses of the method have been exemplified through thousands of peer-reviewed scientific articles. Given the novel sequencing approaches, [...] Read more.
Over the last two decades, the use of DNA barcodes has transformed our ability to identify and assess life on our planet. Both strengths and weaknesses of the method have been exemplified through thousands of peer-reviewed scientific articles. Given the novel sequencing approaches, currently capable of generating millions of reads at low cost, we reflect on the questions: What will the future bring for DNA barcoding? Will identification of species using short, standardized fragments of DNA stand the test of time? We present reflected opinions of early career biodiversity researchers in the form of a SWOT analysis and discuss answers to these questions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Barcodes for Evolution and Biodiversity)
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Article
An Assessment of Applicability of SNP Chip Developed for Domestic Goats in Genetic Studies of Caucasian Tur (Capra caucasica)
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070312 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Caucasian tur (Capra caucasica) is native to Greater Caucasus Mountain Chain from Azerbaijan and Georgia in the East to Krasnodar region of Russia in the West. This species is divided into two subspecies (by some authors into species)—East-Caucasian tur and West-Caucasian [...] Read more.
Caucasian tur (Capra caucasica) is native to Greater Caucasus Mountain Chain from Azerbaijan and Georgia in the East to Krasnodar region of Russia in the West. This species is divided into two subspecies (by some authors into species)—East-Caucasian tur and West-Caucasian tur and a subpopulation referred to as Mid-Caucasian tur. Up to date most of the genetic studies of Caucasian tur are based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and comprehensive investigation based on nuclear DNA is required for clarification of its genetic diversity and population structure. In our work, we assessed the applicability of Illumina Goat SNP50 BeadChip for genetic studies of Caucasian tur. Total of 15 specimens of Capra caucasica including East-Caucasian tur from Dagestan (E_TUR, n = 5), West-Caucasian tur from Karachay-Cherkessia (W_TUR, n = 5), and Mid-Caucasian tur from Kabardino-Balkaria (M_TUR, n = 5) were genotyped. After quality control, 5544 polymorphic loci, which were distributed all over 29 autosomes, were detected. The lowest number of SNPs was found on the 25th chromosome—68, and the highest on the 1st chromosome—348. It was shown that all the three groups of Caucasian tur clustered separately. A total of 2061 SNPs were common for all the populations, 594 were found only in W_TUR, 689 in E_TUR, and 530 in M_TUR. Individual heterozygosity ranged from 0.273 to 0.282 in W_TUR, from 0.217 to 0.253 in E_TUR, and from 0.255 to 0.283 in M_TUR. A clinal pattern of genetic variation was revealed. It was suggested to consider Caucasian tur a single species with several ecotypes. Thus, in our study we demonstrated that the Illumina Goat SNP50 BeadChip developed for domestic goats can be used as a useful tool for genetic studies of Caucasian tur. Full article
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Article
Ocean Acidification and Mollusc Settlement in Posidonia oceanica Meadows: Does the Seagrass Buffer Lower pH Effects at CO2 Vents?
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070311 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Ocean acidification has been broadly recognised to have effects on the structure and functioning of marine benthic communities. The selection of tolerant or vulnerable species can also occur during settlement phases, especially for calcifying organisms which are more vulnerable to low pH–high pCO [...] Read more.
Ocean acidification has been broadly recognised to have effects on the structure and functioning of marine benthic communities. The selection of tolerant or vulnerable species can also occur during settlement phases, especially for calcifying organisms which are more vulnerable to low pH–high pCO2 conditions. Here, we use three natural CO2 vents (Castello Aragonese north and south sides, and Vullatura, Ischia, Italy) to assess the effect of a decrease of seawater pH on the settlement of Mollusca in Posidonia oceanica meadows, and to test the possible buffering effect provided by the seagrass. Artificial collectors were installed and collected after 33 days, during April–May 2019, in three different microhabitats within the meadow (canopy, bottom/rhizome level, and dead matte without plant cover), following a pH decreasing gradient from an extremely low pH zone (pH < 7.4), to ambient pH conditions (pH = 8.10). A total of 4659 specimens of Mollusca, belonging to 57 different taxa, were collected. The number of taxa was lower in low and extremely low pH conditions. Reduced mollusc assemblages were reported at the acidified stations, where few taxa accounted for a high number of individuals. Multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in mollusc assemblages among pH conditions, microhabitat, and the interaction of these two factors. Acanthocardia echinata, Alvania lineata, Alvania sp. juv, Eatonina fulgida, Hiatella arctica, Mytilys galloprovincialis, Musculus subpictus, Phorcus sp. juv, and Rissoa variabilis were the species mostly found in low and extremely low pH stations, and were all relatively robust to acidified conditions. Samples placed on the dead matte under acidified conditions at the Vullatura vent showed lower diversity and abundances if compared to canopy and bottom/rhizome samples, suggesting a possible buffering role of the Posidonia on mollusc settlement. Our study provides new evidence of shifts in marine benthic communities due to ocean acidification and evidence of how P. oceanica meadows could mitigate its effects on associated biota in light of future climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seagrass Ecosystems, Associated Biodiversity, and Its Management)
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Article
Variation in Alpine Plant Diversity and Soil Temperatures in Two Mountain Landscapes of South Patagonia
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070310 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Alpine environments and their temporal changes are rarely studied at high latitudes in the southern hemisphere. We analyzed alpine plants, soil temperatures, and growing-season length in mountains of two landscapes of South Patagonia (46° to 56° SL): three summits (814–1085 m a.s.l) surrounded [...] Read more.
Alpine environments and their temporal changes are rarely studied at high latitudes in the southern hemisphere. We analyzed alpine plants, soil temperatures, and growing-season length in mountains of two landscapes of South Patagonia (46° to 56° SL): three summits (814–1085 m a.s.l) surrounded by foothill grasslands in Santa Cruz province (SC), and four summits (634–864 m a.s.l.) in sub-Antarctic forests of Tierra del Fuego province (TF). Sampling followed the protocolized methodology of the Global Observational Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA). Factors were topography (elevation and cardinal aspect) and time (baseline vs. re-sampling for plants, five annual periods for temperatures), assessed by univariate and multivariate tests. Plant composition reflected the lowland surrounding landscapes, with only 9 mountain species on 52 totals in SC and 3 on 30 in TF. Richness was higher in re-sampling than baseline, being assemblages more influenced by aspect than elevation. Mean annual soil temperature and growing-season length, which varied with topography, were related to the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index (MEI) but did not show clear warming trends over time. We highlight the importance of long-term studies in mountainous regions of extreme southern latitudes, where factors other than warming (e.g., extreme climate events) explain variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity, Ecology and Conservation of Alpine Plants)
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Concept Paper
Citizens, Scientists, and Enablers: A Tripartite Model for Citizen Science Projects
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070309 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 608
Abstract
In this paper, we focus on different roles in citizen science projects, and their respective relationships. We propose a tripartite model that recognises not only citizens and scientists, but also an important third role, which we call the ‘enabler’. In doing so, we [...] Read more.
In this paper, we focus on different roles in citizen science projects, and their respective relationships. We propose a tripartite model that recognises not only citizens and scientists, but also an important third role, which we call the ‘enabler’. In doing so, we acknowledge that additional expertise and skillsets are often present in citizen science projects, but are frequently overlooked in associated literature. We interrogate this model by applying it to three case studies and explore how the success and sustainability of a citizen science project requires all roles to be acknowledged and interacting appropriately. In this era of ‘wicked problems’, the nature of science and science communication has become more complex. In order to address critical emerging issues, a greater number of stakeholders are engaging in multi-party partnerships and research is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. Within this context, explicitly acknowledging the role and motivations of everyone involved can provide a framework for enhanced project transparency, delivery, evaluation and impact. By adapting our understanding of citizen science to better recognise the complexity of the organisational systems within which they operate, we propose an opportunity to strengthen the collaborative delivery of both valuable scientific research and public engagement. Full article
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Article
Ecosystem Services Assessment, Trade-Off, and Bundles in the Yellow River Basin, China
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070308 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Understanding ecosystem services(ESs)and their interactions will help to formulate effective and sustainable land use management plans, and clarifying the balance and synergy between watershed ecosystem services can provide a basis for the regulation of the ecological environment in different regions of the watershed [...] Read more.
Understanding ecosystem services(ESs)and their interactions will help to formulate effective and sustainable land use management plans, and clarifying the balance and synergy between watershed ecosystem services can provide a basis for the regulation of the ecological environment in different regions of the watershed and the maximization of overall ecological benefits. This paper takes the Yellow River Basin as the research object and uses the Ecosystem Services and Trade Offs (InVEST)model to evaluate the water yield (WY), soil conservation (SC), carbon storage (CS) and habitat quality (HQ) of the Yellow River Basin. The paper adopts the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA)model to evaluate the net primary productivity (NPP), draws the spatial distribution map of the five ecosystems, analyzes the trade-off and synergy between the five ecosystems using correlation and binary spatial correlation, and expresses it in space. In addition, it adopts self-organizing mapping (SOM) method to identify ecosystem service clusters. The results show that: (1) ES is generally higher in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, and lower in the middle reaches. (2) WY and NPP, HQ, CS and WY are trade-off relationships, and other ecosystem services are synergistic relationships. Trade-offs and synergy show obvious spatial heterogeneity. (3) The ecosystem services of the Yellow River Basin, driven by different factors, can be divided into three areas, namely WY and SC service leading functional areas, HQ and CS service leading functional areas, and NPP service leading functional areas. Finally, it discusses the driving factors of the spatial heterogeneity of the balance of the ecosystem service functions of the Yellow River Basin and the suggestions of land use management in the basin. Full article
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Article
Species-Specific Cuticular Phenotypes in Eutardigrada: A Morphometric Approach to Analyze the Variation of Star-Shaped Pores in Minibiotus Species
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070307 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
The use and characterization of cuticular attributes for separation and description of species has been traditionally used in heterotardigrades; however, despite that eutardigrades show structures in the cuticle with this potential use, the intra and interspecific variation of these characters using multivariate analysis [...] Read more.
The use and characterization of cuticular attributes for separation and description of species has been traditionally used in heterotardigrades; however, despite that eutardigrades show structures in the cuticle with this potential use, the intra and interspecific variation of these characters using multivariate analysis (e.g., PCA, CVA) had not been analyzed. In this present study, the shape and size of the star-shaped pores of four Minibiotus species were analyzed under univariate and multivariate morphometric analysis of six morphological characters. Our approach to evaluate the variation of pores indicate the presence of species-specific cuticular phenotypes among M. citlalium, M. constellatus, M. sidereus and M. pentannulatus. The morphological differences in these elements of sculpture allowed us to acknowledge their range of variation, as well as the identification of new potential characters o recognize these taxa, which are included in a taxonomic key to identify them together with M. eichhorni, M. pseudostellarus and M. vinciguerrae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Diversity)
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Review
Aquatic Organisms Research with DNA Barcodes
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070306 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Since their inception, DNA barcodes have become a powerful tool for understanding the biodiversity and biology of aquatic species, with multiple applications in diverse fields such as food security, fisheries, environmental DNA, conservation, and exotic species detection. Nevertheless, most aquatic ecosystems, from marine [...] Read more.
Since their inception, DNA barcodes have become a powerful tool for understanding the biodiversity and biology of aquatic species, with multiple applications in diverse fields such as food security, fisheries, environmental DNA, conservation, and exotic species detection. Nevertheless, most aquatic ecosystems, from marine to freshwater, are understudied, with many species disappearing due to environmental stress, mostly caused by human activities. Here we highlight the progress that has been made in studying aquatic organisms with DNA barcodes, and encourage its further development in assisting sustainable use of aquatic resources and conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Organisms Research with DNA Barcodes)
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