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Article

Bacterial Number and Genetic Diversity in a Permafrost Peatland (Western Siberia): Testing a Link with Organic Matter Quality and Elementary Composition of a Peat Soil Profile

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Arctic Biomonitoring Laboratory, Northern (Arctic) Federal University, 17 Naberezhnaya Sev. Dviny, 163002 Arkhangelsk, Russia
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N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 Naberezhnaya Sev. Dviny, 163000 Arkhangelsk, Russia
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Geosciences and Environment Toulouse, UMR 5563 CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
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BIO-GEO-CLIM Laboratory, Tomsk State University, 36 Lenina, Build. 1, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
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UMR 7619 Métis, Sorbonne Université, F-75252 Paris, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael Wink, Boris A. Levin, Yulia V. Bespalaya and Maria Teresa Ceccherini Guicciardini
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070328
Received: 4 June 2021 / Revised: 8 July 2021 / Accepted: 14 July 2021 / Published: 17 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Biodiversity: Evolution, Taxonomy and Conservation)
Permafrost peatlands, containing a sizable amount of soil organic carbon (OC), play a pivotal role in soil (peat) OC transformation into soluble and volatile forms and greatly contribute to overall natural CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere under ongoing permafrost thaw and soil OC degradation. Peat microorganisms are largely responsible for the processing of this OC, yet coupled studies of chemical and bacterial parameters in permafrost peatlands are rather limited and geographically biased. Towards testing the possible impact of peat and peat pore water chemical composition on microbial population and diversity, here we present results of a preliminary study of the western Siberia permafrost peatland discontinuous permafrost zone. The quantitative evaluation of microorganisms and determination of microbial diversity along a 100 cm thick peat soil column, which included thawed and frozen peat and bottom mineral horizon, was performed by RT-PCR and 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis, respectively. Bacteria (mainly Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria) strongly dominated the microbial diversity (99% sequences), with a negligible proportion of archaea (0.3–0.5%). There was a systematic evolution of main taxa according to depth, with a maximum of 65% (Acidobacteria) encountered in the active layer, or permafrost boundary (50–60 cm). We also measured C, N, nutrients and ~50 major and trace elements in peat (19 samples) as well as its pore water and dispersed ice (10 samples), sampled over the same core, and we analyzed organic matter quality in six organic and one mineral horizon of this core. Using multiparametric statistics (PCA), we tested the links between the total microbial number and 16S rRNA diversity and chemical composition of both the solid and fluid phase harboring the microorganisms. Under climate warming and permafrost thaw, one can expect a downward movement of the layer of maximal genetic diversity following the active layer thickening. Given a one to two orders of magnitude higher microbial number in the upper (thawed) layers compared to bottom (frozen) layers, an additional 50 cm of peat thawing in western Siberia may sizably increase the total microbial population and biodiversity of active cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: permafrost; peat; pore water; bacteria; number; metabolism; active layer permafrost; peat; pore water; bacteria; number; metabolism; active layer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aksenov, A.S.; Shirokova, L.S.; Kisil, O.Y.; Kolesova, S.N.; Lim, A.G.; Kuzmina, D.; Pouillé, S.; Alexis, M.A.; Castrec-Rouelle, M.; Loiko, S.V.; Pokrovsky, O.S. Bacterial Number and Genetic Diversity in a Permafrost Peatland (Western Siberia): Testing a Link with Organic Matter Quality and Elementary Composition of a Peat Soil Profile. Diversity 2021, 13, 328. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070328

AMA Style

Aksenov AS, Shirokova LS, Kisil OY, Kolesova SN, Lim AG, Kuzmina D, Pouillé S, Alexis MA, Castrec-Rouelle M, Loiko SV, Pokrovsky OS. Bacterial Number and Genetic Diversity in a Permafrost Peatland (Western Siberia): Testing a Link with Organic Matter Quality and Elementary Composition of a Peat Soil Profile. Diversity. 2021; 13(7):328. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070328

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aksenov, Andrey S., Liudmila S. Shirokova, Oksana Y. Kisil, Sofiia N. Kolesova, Artem G. Lim, Darya Kuzmina, Sophie Pouillé, Marie A. Alexis, Maryse Castrec-Rouelle, Sergey V. Loiko, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky 2021. "Bacterial Number and Genetic Diversity in a Permafrost Peatland (Western Siberia): Testing a Link with Organic Matter Quality and Elementary Composition of a Peat Soil Profile" Diversity 13, no. 7: 328. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070328

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