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Genetic Diversity in 19th Century Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Reflects Differing Agricultural Practices and Seed Trade in Jämtland, Sweden

1
Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden
2
The Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Michael Wink
Diversity 2021, 13(7), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070315
Received: 10 June 2021 / Revised: 2 July 2021 / Accepted: 4 July 2021 / Published: 9 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Diversity)
Landrace crops are important genetic resources, both for plant breeding efforts and for studying agrarian history. The distribution of genetic diversity among landraces can reflect effects of climate, economic structure, and trade also over a limited spatial and temporal scale. In this study, we have SNP genotyped historical barley seed samples from the late 19th century, together with extant barley landrace accessions from Jämtland, Sweden, a county centrally located, situated between Sweden and Norway. We found two main genetic clusters, one associated with the main agricultural district around lake Storsjön and one in the peripheral areas. Data was also compared with genotypes from landraces from across the Scandinavian peninsula. Accessions from the peripheral part of Jämtland show genetic similarity to accessions from a large part of central Scandinavia, while the accessions from the Storsjön district are more differentiated. We suggest that these dissimilarities in genetic diversity distribution are explained by differences in the relative importance of agriculture and trading. We further compared the historical material with ex situ preserved extant landraces from the same region and found that their genetic diversity was not always representative of the given provenience. The historical material, in contrast, proved particularly valuable for assessing how crop genetic diversity has historically been influenced by economic focus. View Full-Text
Keywords: landraces; genetic diversity; barley; Hordeum vulgare; population structure; seed exchange networks; gene bank conservation; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); historical DNA; agrarian history landraces; genetic diversity; barley; Hordeum vulgare; population structure; seed exchange networks; gene bank conservation; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); historical DNA; agrarian history
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MDPI and ACS Style

Larsson, M.N.A.; Leino, M.W.; Hagenblad, J. Genetic Diversity in 19th Century Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Reflects Differing Agricultural Practices and Seed Trade in Jämtland, Sweden. Diversity 2021, 13, 315. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070315

AMA Style

Larsson MNA, Leino MW, Hagenblad J. Genetic Diversity in 19th Century Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Reflects Differing Agricultural Practices and Seed Trade in Jämtland, Sweden. Diversity. 2021; 13(7):315. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070315

Chicago/Turabian Style

Larsson, Martin N.A., Matti W. Leino, and Jenny Hagenblad. 2021. "Genetic Diversity in 19th Century Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Reflects Differing Agricultural Practices and Seed Trade in Jämtland, Sweden" Diversity 13, no. 7: 315. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13070315

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