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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 21, Issue 1 (January-1 2020) – 370 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Profiling of O-acetylated Gangliosides Expressed in Neuroectoderm Derived Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010370 - 06 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The expression and biological functions of oncofetal markers GD2 and GD3 were extensively studied in neuroectoderm-derived cancers in order to characterize their potential as therapeutic targets. Using immunological approaches, we previously identified GD3, GD2, and OAcGD2 expression in breast cancer (BC) cell [...] Read more.
The expression and biological functions of oncofetal markers GD2 and GD3 were extensively studied in neuroectoderm-derived cancers in order to characterize their potential as therapeutic targets. Using immunological approaches, we previously identified GD3, GD2, and OAcGD2 expression in breast cancer (BC) cell lines. However, antibodies specific for O-acetylated gangliosides are not exempt of limitations, as they only provide information on the expression of a limited set of O-acetylated ganglioside species. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to use structural approaches in order to apprehend ganglioside diversity in melanoma, neuroblastoma, and breast cancer cells, focusing on O-acetylated species that are usually lost under alkaline conditions and require specific analytical procedures. We used purification and extraction methods that preserve the O-acetyl modification for the analysis of native gangliosides by MALDI-TOF. We identified the expression of GM1, GM2, GM3, GD2, GD3, GT2, and GT3 in SK-Mel28 (melanoma), LAN-1 (neuroblastoma), Hs 578T, SUM 159PT, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 (BC), and BC cell lines over-expressing GD3 synthase. Among O-acetylated gangliosides, we characterized the expression of OAcGM1, OAcGD3, OAcGD2, OAcGT2, and OAcGT3. Furthermore, the experimental procedure allowed us to clearly identify the position of the sialic acid residue that carries the O-acetyl group on b- and c-series gangliosides by MS/MS fragmentation. These results show that ganglioside O-acetylation occurs on both inner and terminal sialic acid residue in a cell type-dependent manner, suggesting different O-acetylation pathways for gangliosides. They also highlight the limitation of immuno-detection for the complete identification of O-acetylated ganglioside profiles in cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gangliosides: Modes of Action and Cell Fates)
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Open AccessReview
Nephrocalcinosis: A Review of Monogenic Causes and Insights They Provide into This Heterogeneous Condition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010369 - 06 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The abnormal deposition of calcium within renal parenchyma, termed nephrocalcinosis, frequently occurs as a result of impaired renal calcium handling. It is closely associated with renal stone formation (nephrolithiasis) as elevated urinary calcium levels (hypercalciuria) are a key common pathological feature underlying these [...] Read more.
The abnormal deposition of calcium within renal parenchyma, termed nephrocalcinosis, frequently occurs as a result of impaired renal calcium handling. It is closely associated with renal stone formation (nephrolithiasis) as elevated urinary calcium levels (hypercalciuria) are a key common pathological feature underlying these clinical presentations. Although monogenic causes of nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis are rare, they account for a significant disease burden with many patients developing chronic or end-stage renal disease. Identifying underlying genetic mutations in hereditary cases of nephrocalcinosis has provided valuable insights into renal tubulopathies that include hypercalciuria within their varied phenotypes. Genotypes affecting other enzyme pathways, including vitamin D metabolism and hepatic glyoxylate metabolism, are also associated with nephrocalcinosis. As the availability of genetic testing becomes widespread, we cannot be imprecise in our approach to nephrocalcinosis. Monogenic causes of nephrocalcinosis account for a broad range of phenotypes. In cases such as Dent disease, supportive therapies are limited, and early renal replacement therapies are necessitated. In cases such as renal tubular acidosis, a good renal prognosis can be expected providing effective treatment is implemented. It is imperative we adopt a precision-medicine approach to ensure patients and their families receive prompt diagnosis, effective, tailored treatment and accurate prognostic information. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Adaptation to Sulfur of Hyperthermophilic Palaeococcus pacificus DY20341T from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sediments
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010368 - 06 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The hyperthermo-piezophilic archaeon Palaeococcus pacificus DY20341T, isolated from East Pacific hydrothermal sediments, can utilize elemental sulfur as a terminal acceptor to simulate growth. To gain insight into sulfur metabolism, we performed a genomic and transcriptional analysis of Pa. pacificus DY20341T [...] Read more.
The hyperthermo-piezophilic archaeon Palaeococcus pacificus DY20341T, isolated from East Pacific hydrothermal sediments, can utilize elemental sulfur as a terminal acceptor to simulate growth. To gain insight into sulfur metabolism, we performed a genomic and transcriptional analysis of Pa. pacificus DY20341T with/without elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor. In the 2001 protein-coding sequences of the genome, transcriptomic analysis showed that 108 genes increased (by up to 75.1 fold) and 336 genes decreased (by up to 13.9 fold) in the presence of elemental sulfur. Palaeococcus pacificus cultured with elemental sulfur promoted the following: the induction of membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBX), NADH:polysulfide oxidoreductase (NPSOR), NAD(P)H sulfur oxidoreductase (Nsr), sulfide dehydrogenase (SuDH), connected to the sulfur-reducing process, the upregulation of iron and nickel/cobalt transfer, iron–sulfur cluster-carrying proteins (NBP35), and some iron–sulfur cluster-containing proteins (SipA, SAM, CobQ, etc.). The accumulation of metal ions might further impact on regulators, e.g., SurR and TrmB. For growth in proteinous media without elemental sulfur, cells promoted flagelin, peptide/amino acids transporters, and maltose/sugar transporters to upregulate protein and starch/sugar utilization processes and riboflavin and thiamin biosynthesis. This indicates how strain DY20341T can adapt to different living conditions with/without elemental sulfur in the hydrothermal fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic Microbes and Enzymes)
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Open AccessReview
Exosomes for Diagnosis and Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010367 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Exosomes are membrane-bound extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by most cells, having a size ranging from 30 to 150 nm, and are involved in mechanisms of cell-cell communication in physiological and pathological tissues. Exosomes are engaged in the transport of biomolecules, such as lipids, [...] Read more.
Exosomes are membrane-bound extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by most cells, having a size ranging from 30 to 150 nm, and are involved in mechanisms of cell-cell communication in physiological and pathological tissues. Exosomes are engaged in the transport of biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins, messenger RNAs, and microRNA, and in signal transmission through the intercellular transfer of components. In the context of proteins and nucleic acids transported from exosomes, our interest is focused on the Frizzled proteins family and related messenger RNA. Exosomes can regenerate stem cell phenotypes and convert them into cancer stem cells by regulating the Wnt pathway receptor family, namely Frizzled proteins. In particular, for gastrointestinal cancers, the Frizzled protein involved in those mechanisms is Frizzled-10 (FZD-10). Currently, increasing attention is being devoted to the protein and lipid composition of exosomes interior and membranes, representing profound knowledge of specific exosomes composition fundamental for their application as new delivering drug tools for cancer therapy. This review intends to cover the most recent literature on the use of exosome vesicles for early diagnosis, follow-up, and the use of these physiological nanovectors as drug delivery systems for gastrointestinal cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology in Colonic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Hup-Type Hydrogenases of Purple Bacteria: Homology Modeling and Computational Assessment of Biotechnological Potential
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010366 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 240
Abstract
Three-dimensional structures of six closely related hydrogenases from purple bacteria were modeled by combining the template-based and ab initio modeling approach. The results led to the conclusion that there should be a 4Fe3S cluster in the structure of these enzymes. Thus, these hydrogenases [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional structures of six closely related hydrogenases from purple bacteria were modeled by combining the template-based and ab initio modeling approach. The results led to the conclusion that there should be a 4Fe3S cluster in the structure of these enzymes. Thus, these hydrogenases could draw interest for exploring their oxygen tolerance and practical applicability in hydrogen fuel cells. Analysis of the 4Fe3S cluster’s microenvironment showed intragroup heterogeneity. A possible function of the C-terminal part of the small subunit in membrane binding is discussed. Comparison of the built models with existing hydrogenases of the same subgroup (membrane-bound oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases) was carried out. Analysis of intramolecular interactions in the large subunits showed statistically reliable differences in the number of hydrophobic interactions and ionic interactions. Molecular tunnels were mapped in the models and compared with structures from the PDB. Protein–protein docking showed that these enzymes could exchange electrons in an oligomeric state, which is important for oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases. Molecular docking with model electrode compounds showed mostly the same results as with hydrogenases from E. coli, H. marinus, R. eutropha, and S. enterica; some interesting results were shown in case of HupSL from Rba. sphaeroides and Rvi. gelatinosus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pistachio Consumption Alleviates Inflammation and Improves Gut Microbiota Composition in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010365 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 266
Abstract
High-fat diet (HFD) induces inflammation and microbial dysbiosis, which are components of the metabolic syndrome. Nutritional strategies can be a valid tool to prevent metabolic and inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the chronic intake of pistachio [...] Read more.
High-fat diet (HFD) induces inflammation and microbial dysbiosis, which are components of the metabolic syndrome. Nutritional strategies can be a valid tool to prevent metabolic and inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the chronic intake of pistachio prevents obesity-associated inflammation and dysbiosis in HFD-fed mice. Three groups of male mice (four weeks old; n = 8 per group) were fed for 16 weeks with a standard diet (STD), HFD, or HFD supplemented with pistachios (HFD-P; 180 g/kg of HFD). Serum, hepatic and adipose tissue inflammation markers were analyzed in HFD-P animals and compared to HFD and STD groups. Measures of inflammation, obesity, and intestinal integrity were assessed. Fecal samples were collected for gut microbiota analysis. Serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels were significantly reduced in HFD-P compared to HFD. Number and area of adipocytes, crown-like structure density, IL-1β, TNF-α, F4-80, and CCL-2 mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in HFD-P subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, compared to HFD. A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory foci and IL-1β and CCL-2 gene expression was observed in the liver of HFD-P mice compared with HFD. Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was reduced in HFD-P mice in comparison to the HFD group. A pistachio diet significantly increased abundance of healthy bacteria genera such as Parabacteroides, Dorea, Allobaculum, Turicibacter, Lactobacillus, and Anaeroplasma, and greatly reduced bacteria associated with inflammation, such as Oscillospira, Desulfovibrio, Coprobacillus, and Bilophila. The intestinal conductance was lower in HFD-P mice than in the HFD mice, suggesting an improvement in the gut barrier function. The results of the present study showed that regular pistachio consumption improved inflammation in obese mice. The positive effects could be related to positive modulation of the microbiota composition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Global Gene Expression Analysis Identifies Age-Related Differences in Knee Joint Transcriptome during the Development of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010364 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Aging and injury are two major risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Yet, very little is known about how aging and injury interact and contribute to OA pathogenesis. In the present study, we examined age- and injury-related molecular changes in mouse knee joints that [...] Read more.
Aging and injury are two major risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Yet, very little is known about how aging and injury interact and contribute to OA pathogenesis. In the present study, we examined age- and injury-related molecular changes in mouse knee joints that could contribute to OA. Using RNA-seq, first we profiled the knee joint transcriptome of 10-week-old, 62-week-old, and 95-week-old mice and found that the expression of several inflammatory-response related genes increased as a result of aging, whereas the expression of several genes involved in cartilage metabolism decreased with age. To determine how aging impacts post-traumatic arthritis (PTOA) development, the right knee joints of 10-week-old and 62-week-old mice were injured using a non-invasive tibial compression injury model and injury-induced structural and molecular changes were assessed. At six-week post-injury, 62-week-old mice displayed significantly more cartilage degeneration and osteophyte formation compared with young mice. Although both age groups elicited similar transcriptional responses to injury, 62-week-old mice had higher activation of inflammatory cytokines than 10-week-old mice, whereas cartilage/bone metabolism genes had higher expression in 10-week-old mice, suggesting that the differential expression of these genes might contribute to the differences in PTOA severity observed between these age groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Pathogenesis and Novel Therapeutics in Arthritis 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Responses to Drought Vary Widely Among Eight Diverse Genotypes of Rice (Oryza sativa)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010363 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Rice is a critically important food source but yields worldwide are vulnerable to periods of drought. We exposed eight genotypes of upland and lowland rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and indica) to drought stress at the late vegetative stage, and [...] Read more.
Rice is a critically important food source but yields worldwide are vulnerable to periods of drought. We exposed eight genotypes of upland and lowland rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and indica) to drought stress at the late vegetative stage, and harvested leaves for label-free shotgun proteomics. Gene ontology analysis was used to identify common drought-responsive proteins in vegetative tissues, and leaf proteins that are unique to individual genotypes, suggesting diversity in the metabolic responses to drought. Eight proteins were found to be induced in response to drought stress in all eight genotypes. A total of 213 proteins were identified in a single genotype, 83 of which were increased in abundance in response to drought stress. In total, 10 of these 83 proteins were of a largely uncharacterized function, making them candidates for functional analysis and potential biomarkers for drought tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers in Molecular Plant Sciences)
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Open AccessReview
HMGA Proteins in Stemness and Differentiation of Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010362 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 210
Abstract
HMGA1 and HMGA2 are chromatin architectural proteins that do not have transcriptional activity per se, but are able to modify chromatin structure by interacting with the transcriptional machinery and thus negatively or positively regulate the transcription of several genes. They have been extensively [...] Read more.
HMGA1 and HMGA2 are chromatin architectural proteins that do not have transcriptional activity per se, but are able to modify chromatin structure by interacting with the transcriptional machinery and thus negatively or positively regulate the transcription of several genes. They have been extensively studied in cancer where they are often found to be overexpressed but their functions under physiologic conditions have still not been completely addressed. Hmga1 and Hmga2 are expressed during the early stages of mouse development, whereas they are not detectable in most adult tissues. Hmga overexpression or knockout studies in mouse have pointed to a key function in the development of the embryo and of various tissues. HMGA proteins are expressed in embryonic stem cells and in some adult stem cells and numerous experimental data have indicated that they play a fundamental role in the maintenance of stemness and in the regulation of differentiation. In this review, we discuss available experimental data on HMGA1 and HMGA2 functions in governing embryonic and adult stem cell fate. Moreover, based on the available evidence, we will aim to outline how HMGA expression is regulated in different contexts and how these two proteins contribute to the regulation of gene expression and chromatin architecture in stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HMG Proteins in Development and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Elucidation of Molecular Mechanism of a Selective PPARα Modulator, Pemafibrate, through Combinational Approaches of X-ray Crystallography, Thermodynamic Analysis, and First-Principle Calculations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010361 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 315
Abstract
The selective PPARα modulator (SPPARMα) is expected to medicate dyslipidemia with minimizing adverse effects. Recently, pemafibrate was screened from the ligand library as an SPPARMα bearing strong potency. Several clinical pieces of evidence have proved the usefulness of pemafibrate as a medication; however, [...] Read more.
The selective PPARα modulator (SPPARMα) is expected to medicate dyslipidemia with minimizing adverse effects. Recently, pemafibrate was screened from the ligand library as an SPPARMα bearing strong potency. Several clinical pieces of evidence have proved the usefulness of pemafibrate as a medication; however, how pemafibrate works as a SPPARMα at the molecular level is not fully known. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanism behind its novel SPPARMα character through a combination of approaches of X-ray crystallography, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and fragment molecular orbital (FMO) analysis. ITC measurements have indicated that pemafibrate binds more strongly to PPARα than to PPARγ. The crystal structure of PPARα-ligand binding domain (LBD)/pemafibrate/steroid receptor coactivator-1 peptide (SRC1) determined at 3.2 Å resolution indicates that pemafibrate binds to the ligand binding pocket (LBP) of PPARα in a Y-shaped form. The structure also reveals that the conformation of the phenoxyalkyl group in pemafibrate is flexible in the absence of SRC1 coactivator peptide bound to PPARα; this gives a freedom for the phenoxyalkyl group to adopt structural changes induced by the binding of coactivators. FMO calculations have indicated that the accumulation of hydrophobic interactions provided by the residues at the LBP improve the interaction between pemafibrate and PPARα compared with the interaction between fenofibrate and PPARα. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PPARs in Metabolic Regulation: Implications for Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Antrodan Alleviates High-Fat and High-Fructose Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Disease in C57BL/6 Mice Model via AMPK/Sirt1/SREBP-1c/PPARγ Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010360 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and -steatohepatitis (NASH) imply a state of excessive fat built-up in livers with/or without inflammation and have led to serious medical concerns in recent years. Antrodan (Ant), a purified β-glucan from A. cinnamomea has been shown to [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and -steatohepatitis (NASH) imply a state of excessive fat built-up in livers with/or without inflammation and have led to serious medical concerns in recent years. Antrodan (Ant), a purified β-glucan from A. cinnamomea has been shown to exhibit tremendous bioactivity, including hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, antiliver cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. Considering the already well-known alleviating bioactivity of A. cinnamomea for the alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), we propose that Ant can be beneficial to NAFLD, and that the AMPK/Sirt1/PPARγ/SREBP-1c pathways may be involved in such alleviations. To uncover this, we carried out this study with 60 male C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat high-fructose diet (HFD) for 60 days, in order to induce NAFLD/NASH. Mice were then grouped and treated (by oral administration) as: G1: control; G2: HFD (HFD control); G3: Ant, 40 mgkg (Ant control); G4: HFD+Orlistat (10 mg/kg) (as Orlistat control); G5: HFD+Ant L (20 mg/kg); and G6: HFD+Ant H (40 mg/kg) for 45 days. The results indicated Ant at 40 mg/kg effectively suppressed the plasma levels of malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, triglycerides, GOT, GPT, uric acid, glucose, and insulin; upregulated leptin, adiponectin, pAMPK, Sirt1, and down-regulated PPARγ and SREBP-1c. Conclusively, Ant effectively alleviates NAFLD via AMPK/Sirt1/CREBP-1c/PPARγ pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrative Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Molecular Mechanism Responding to Salt Stress during Seed Germination in Hulless Barley
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010359 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) is one of the most important crops in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Soil salinity seriously affects its cultivation. To investigate the mechanism of salt stress response during seed germination, two contrasting hulless barley genotypes were [...] Read more.
Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) is one of the most important crops in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Soil salinity seriously affects its cultivation. To investigate the mechanism of salt stress response during seed germination, two contrasting hulless barley genotypes were selected to first investigate the molecular mechanism of seed salinity response during the germination stage using RNA-sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation technologies. Compared to the salt-sensitive landrace lk621, the salt-tolerant one lk573 germinated normally under salt stress. The changes in hormone contents also differed between lk621 and lk573. In lk573, 1597 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 171 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were specifically detected at 4 h after salt stress, and correspondingly, 2748 and 328 specifically detected at 16 h. Most specific DEGs in lk573 were involved in response to oxidative stress, biosynthetic process, protein localization, and vesicle-mediated transport, and most specific DEPs were assigned to an oxidation-reduction process, carbohydrate metabolic process, and protein phosphorylation. There were 96 genes specifically differentially expressed at both transcriptomic and proteomic levels in lk573. These results revealed the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance and provided candidate genes for further study and salt-tolerant improvement in hulless barley. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessReview
Oxidative Stress-Responsive MicroRNAs in Heart Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010358 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important molecules in the living organisms as a part of many signaling pathways. However, if overproduced, they also play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, ischemia/reperfusion injury (e.g., myocardial infarction and [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important molecules in the living organisms as a part of many signaling pathways. However, if overproduced, they also play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, ischemia/reperfusion injury (e.g., myocardial infarction and heart transplantation), and heart failure. As a result of oxidative stress action, apoptosis, hypertrophy, and fibrosis may occur. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent important endogenous nucleotides that regulate many biological processes, including those involved in heart damage caused by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can alter the expression level of many miRNAs. These changes in miRNA expression occur mainly via modulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), sirtuins, calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT), or nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Up until now, several circulating miRNAs have been reported to be potential biomarkers of ROS-related cardiac diseases, including myocardial infarction, hypertrophy, ischemia/reperfusion, and heart failure, such as miRNA-499, miRNA-199, miRNA-21, miRNA-144, miRNA-208a, miRNA-34a, etc. On the other hand, a lot of studies are aimed at using miRNAs for therapeutic purposes. This review points to the need for studying the role of redox-sensitive miRNAs, to identify more effective biomarkers and develop better therapeutic targets for oxidative-stress-related heart diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Effectiveness in Concerted Ih Inhibition and IK(Ca) Stimulation by Pterostilbene (Trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxystilbene), a Stilbenoid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010357 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Pterostilbene (PTER), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol, has been demonstrated to produce anti-neoplastic or neuroprotective actions. However, how and whether this compound can entail any perturbations on ionic currents in electrically excitable cells remains unknown. In whole-cell current recordings, addition of PTER [...] Read more.
Pterostilbene (PTER), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol, has been demonstrated to produce anti-neoplastic or neuroprotective actions. However, how and whether this compound can entail any perturbations on ionic currents in electrically excitable cells remains unknown. In whole-cell current recordings, addition of PTER decreased the amplitude of macroscopic Ih during long-lasting hyperpolarization in GH3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with an effective IC50 value of 0.84 μM. Its presence also shifted the activation curve of Ih along the voltage axis to a more hyperpolarized potential, by 11 mV. PTER at a concentration greater than 10 μM could also suppress l-type Ca2+ and transient outward K+ currents in GH3 cells. With the addition of PTER, IK(Ca) amplitude was increased, with an EC50 value of 2.23 μM. This increase in IK(Ca) amplitude was attenuated by further addition of verruculogen, but not by tolbutamide or TRAM-39. Neither atropine nor nicotine, in the continued presence of PTER, modified the PTER-stimulated IK(Ca). PTER (10 μM) slightly suppressed the amplitude of l-type Ca2+ current and transient outward K+ current. The presence of PTER (3 μM) was also effective at increasing the open-state probability of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels identified in hippocampal mHippoE-14 neurons; however, its inability to alter single-channel conductance was detected. Our study highlights evidence to show that PTER has the propensity to perturb ionic currents (e.g., Ih and IK(Ca)), thereby influencing the functional activities of neurons, and neuroendocrine or endocrine cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers in Molecular Pharmacology)
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Open AccessArticle
Coronin 1 Is Required for Integrin β2 Translocation in Platelets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010356 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 261
Abstract
Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is one of the critical events that allows platelets to undergo morphological and functional changes in response to receptor-mediated signaling cascades. Coronins are a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, represented [...] Read more.
Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is one of the critical events that allows platelets to undergo morphological and functional changes in response to receptor-mediated signaling cascades. Coronins are a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, represented by the abundant coronins 1, 2, and 3 and the less abundant coronin 7 in platelets, but their functions in these cells are poorly understood. A recent report revealed impaired agonist-induced actin polymerization and cofilin phosphoregulation and altered thrombus formation in vivo as salient phenotypes in the absence of an overt hemostasis defect in vivo in a knockout mouse model of coronin 1. Here we show that the absence of coronin 1 is associated with impaired translocation of integrin β2 to the platelet surface upon stimulation with thrombin while morphological and functional alterations, including defects in Arp2/3 complex localization and cAMP-dependent signaling, are absent. Our results suggest a large extent of functional overlap among coronins 1, 2, and 3 in platelets, while aspects like integrin β2 translocation are specifically or predominantly dependent on coronin 1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessArticle
miR-218 Inhibits Mitochondrial Clearance by Targeting PRKN E3 Ubiquitin Ligase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010355 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 397
Abstract
The selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy is crucial for preserving mitochondrial quality and cellular homeostasis. The most described mitophagy pathway is regulated by a positive ubiquitylation feedback loop in which the PINK1 (PTEN induced kinase 1) kinase phosphorylates both ubiquitin and [...] Read more.
The selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy is crucial for preserving mitochondrial quality and cellular homeostasis. The most described mitophagy pathway is regulated by a positive ubiquitylation feedback loop in which the PINK1 (PTEN induced kinase 1) kinase phosphorylates both ubiquitin and the E3 ubiquitin ligase PRKN (Parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin ligase), also known as PARKIN. This event recruits PRKN to the mitochondria, thus amplifying ubiquitylation signal. Here we report that miR-218 targets PRKN and negatively regulates PINK1/PRKN-mediated mitophagy. Overexpression of miR-218 reduces PRKN mRNA levels, thus also reducing protein content and deregulating the E3 ubiquitin ligase action. In fact, following miR-218 overexpression, mitochondria result less ubiquitylated and the autophagy machinery fails to proceed with correct mitochondrial clearance. Since mitophagy defects are associated with various human diseases, these results qualify miR-218 as a promising therapeutic target for human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria-Targeted Approaches in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Exploring the Brassinosteroid Signaling in Monocots Reveals Novel Components of the Pathway and Implications for Plant Breeding
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010354 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroidal phytohormones which are key regulators of diverse processes during whole life cycle of plants. Studies conducted in the dicot model species Arabidopsis thaliana have allowed identification and characterization of various components of the BR signaling. It [...] Read more.
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroidal phytohormones which are key regulators of diverse processes during whole life cycle of plants. Studies conducted in the dicot model species Arabidopsis thaliana have allowed identification and characterization of various components of the BR signaling. It is currently known that the BR signaling is interconnected at various stages with other phytohormonal and stress signaling pathways. It enables a rapid and efficient adaptation of plant metabolism to constantly changing environmental conditions. However, our knowledge about mechanism of the BR signaling in the monocot species is rather limited. Thus, identification of new components of the BR signaling in monocots, including cereals, is an ongoing process and has already led to identification of some monocot-specific components of the BR signaling. It is of great importance as disturbances in the BR signaling influence architecture of mutant plants, and as a consequence, the reaction to environmental conditions. Currently, the modulation of the BR signaling is considered as a target to enhance yield and stress tolerance in cereals, which is of particular importance in the face of global climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brassinosteroids and Plant Steroid Hormone Signaling)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical-Chemical Study of Anthracene Selective Oxidation by a Fe(III)-Phenylporhyrin Derivative
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010353 - 05 Jan 2020
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Abstract
In this work, we studied the anthracene oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radical was generated by reaction of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin Fe (III) (TPPFe) with hydrogen peroxide under visible radiation at a nitrogen atmosphere. The TPPFe was synthesized by Adler Method followed by metal complexation [...] Read more.
In this work, we studied the anthracene oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radical was generated by reaction of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin Fe (III) (TPPFe) with hydrogen peroxide under visible radiation at a nitrogen atmosphere. The TPPFe was synthesized by Adler Method followed by metal complexation with Fe (III) chloride hexahydrate. Hydroxyl radical was detected by fluorescence emission spectroscopy and we studied kinetic of anthracene selective oxidation by hydroxyl radicals through the differential method. The TPPFe was characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements. The results indicated that TPPFE was compound by micro-particles with a size distribution of around 2500 nm. Kinetic results showed that the apparent rate constant for the oxidation of anthracene increased exponentially on as temperature increases, furthermore, the activation energy for the Anthracene oxidation by hydroxyl radicals under visible irradiation was 51.3 kJ/mol. Finally, anthraquinone was the main byproduct generated after oxidation of anthracene by TPP-Fe under visible irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of FGFR2-Signaling Attenuates a Homology-Mediated DNA Repair in GIST and Sensitizes Them to DNA-Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010352 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Deregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-signaling is frequently observed in many human malignancies, making activated RTKs the promising therapeutic targets. In particular, activated RTK-signaling has a strong impact on tumor resistance to various DNA damaging agents, e.g., ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs. We [...] Read more.
Deregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-signaling is frequently observed in many human malignancies, making activated RTKs the promising therapeutic targets. In particular, activated RTK-signaling has a strong impact on tumor resistance to various DNA damaging agents, e.g., ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs. We showed recently that fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-signaling might be hyperactivated in imatinib (IM)-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and inhibition of this pathway sensitized tumor cells to the low doses of chemotherapeutic agents, such as topoisomerase II inhibitors. Here, we report that inhibition of FGFR-signaling in GISTs attenuates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which was evidenced by the delay in γ-H2AX decline after doxorubicin (Dox)-induced DNA damage. A single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) data showed an increase of tail moment in Dox-treated GIST cells cultured in presence of BGJ398, a selective FGFR1-4 inhibitor, thereby revealing the attenuated DNA repair. By utilizing GFP-based reporter constructs to assess the efficiency of DSBs repair via homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), we found for the first time that FGFR inhibition in GISTs attenuated the homology-mediated DNA repair. Of note, FGFR inhibition/depletion did not reduce the number of BrdU and phospho-RPA foci in Dox-treated cells, suggesting that inhibition of FGFR-signaling has no impact on the processing of DSBs. In contrast, the number of Dox-induced Rad51 foci were decreased when FGFR2-mediated signaling was interrupted/inhibited by siRNA FGFR2 or BGJ398. Moreover, Rad51 and -H2AX foci were mislocalized in FGFR-inhibited GIST and the amount of Rad51 was substantially decreased in -H2AX-immunoprecipitated complexes, thereby illustrating the defect of Rad51 recombinase loading to the Dox-induced DSBs. Finally, as a result of the impaired homology-mediated DNA repair, the increased numbers of hypodiploid (i.e., apoptotic) cells were observed in FGFR2-inhibited GISTs after Dox treatment. Collectively, our data illustrates for the first time that inhibition of FGF-signaling in IM-resistant GIST interferes with the efficiency of DDR signaling and attenuates the homology-mediated DNA repair, thus providing the molecular mechanism of GIST’s sensitization to DNA damaging agents, e.g., DNA-topoisomerase II inhibitors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Systematic Analysis of the Maize OSCA Genes Revealing ZmOSCA Family Members Involved in Osmotic Stress and ZmOSCA2.4 Confers Enhanced Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010351 - 05 Jan 2020
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Abstract
OSCAs are hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel proteins. In this study, two co-expression modules, which are strongly associated with maize proline content, were screened by weighted correlation network analysis, including three ZmOSCA family members. Phylogenetic and protein domain analyses revealed that 12 ZmOSCA members were [...] Read more.
OSCAs are hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel proteins. In this study, two co-expression modules, which are strongly associated with maize proline content, were screened by weighted correlation network analysis, including three ZmOSCA family members. Phylogenetic and protein domain analyses revealed that 12 ZmOSCA members were classified into four classes, which all contained DUF221 domain. The promoter region contained multiple core elements responsive to abiotic stresses and hormones. Colinear analysis revealed that ZmOSCAs had diversified prior to maize divergence. Most ZmOSCAs responded positively to ABA, PEG, and NaCl treatments. ZmOSCA2.3 and ZmOSCA2.4 were up-regulated by more than 200-fold under the three stresses, and showed significant positive correlations with proline content. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation indicated that ZmOSCA2.3 and ZmOSCA2.4 proteins interacted with ZmEREB198. Over-expression of ZmOSCA2.4 in Arabidopsis remarkably improved drought resistance. Moreover, over-expression of ZmOSCA2.4 enhanced the expression of drought tolerance-associated genes and reduced the expression of senescence-associated genes. We also found that perhaps ZmOSCA2.4 was regulated by miR5054.The results provide a high-quality molecular resource for selecting resistant breeding, and lay a foundation for elucidating regulatory mechanism of ZmOSCA under abiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Genetics and Molecular Breeding in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Mechanisms of Bortezomib Action: Novel Evidence for the miRNA–mRNA Interaction Involvement
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010350 - 05 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Bortezomib is an anti-tumor agent, which inhibits 26S proteasome degrading ubiquitinated proteins. While apoptotic transcription-associated activation in response to bortezomib has been suggested, mechanisms related to its influence on post-transcriptional gene silencing mediated regulation by non-coding RNAs remain not fully elucidated. In the [...] Read more.
Bortezomib is an anti-tumor agent, which inhibits 26S proteasome degrading ubiquitinated proteins. While apoptotic transcription-associated activation in response to bortezomib has been suggested, mechanisms related to its influence on post-transcriptional gene silencing mediated regulation by non-coding RNAs remain not fully elucidated. In the present study, we examined changes in global gene and miRNA expression and analyzed the identified miRNA–mRNA interactions after bortezomib exposure in human neuroblastoma cells to define pathways affected by this agent in this type of cells. Cell viability assays were performed to assess cytotoxicity of bortezomib. Global gene and miRNA expression profiles of neuroblastoma cells after 24-h incubation with bortezomib were determined using genome-wide RNA and miRNA microarray technology. Obtained results were then confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Further bioinformatical analysis was performed to identify affected biological processes and pathways. In total, 719 genes and 28 miRNAs were downregulated, and 319 genes and 61 miRNAs were upregulated in neuroblastoma cells treated with bortezomib. Possible interactions between dysregulated miRNA/mRNA, which could be linked to bortezomib-induced neurotoxicity, affect neurogenesis, cellular calcium transport, and neuron death. Bortezomib might exert toxic effects on neuroblastoma cells and regulate miRNA–mRNA interactions influencing vital cellular functions. Further studies on the role of specific miRNA–mRNA interactions are needed to elucidate mechanisms of bortezomib action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Targets and Toxicity)
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Open AccessReview
Senile Osteoporosis: The Involvement of Differentiation and Senescence of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010349 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 226
Abstract
Senile osteoporosis has become a worldwide bone disease with the aging of the world population. It increases the risk of bone fracture and seriously affects human health. Unlike postmenopausal osteoporosis which is linked to menopause in women, senile osteoporosis is due to aging, [...] Read more.
Senile osteoporosis has become a worldwide bone disease with the aging of the world population. It increases the risk of bone fracture and seriously affects human health. Unlike postmenopausal osteoporosis which is linked to menopause in women, senile osteoporosis is due to aging, hence, affecting both men and women. It is commonly found in people with more than their 70s. Evidence has shown that with age increase, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) differentiate into more adipocytes rather than osteoblasts and undergo senescence, which leads to decreased bone formation and contributes to senile osteoporosis. Therefore, it is necessary to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the functional changes of BMSCs. It will benefit not only for understanding the senile osteoporosis development, but also for finding new therapies to treat senile osteoporosis. Here, we review the recent advances of the functional alterations of BMSCs and the related mechanisms during senile osteoporosis development. Moreover, the treatment of senile osteoporosis by aiming at BMSCs is introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Arabidopsis Class II Formins AtFH13 and AtFH14 Can Form Heterodimers but Exhibit Distinct Patterns of Cellular Localization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010348 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 212
Abstract
Formins are evolutionarily conserved multi-domain proteins participating in the control of both actin and microtubule dynamics. Angiosperm formins form two evolutionarily distinct families, Class I and Class II, with class-specific domain layouts. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has 21 formin-encoding loci, including 10 [...] Read more.
Formins are evolutionarily conserved multi-domain proteins participating in the control of both actin and microtubule dynamics. Angiosperm formins form two evolutionarily distinct families, Class I and Class II, with class-specific domain layouts. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has 21 formin-encoding loci, including 10 Class II members. In this study, we analyze the subcellular localization of two A. thaliana Class II formins exhibiting typical domain organization, the so far uncharacterized formin AtFH13 (At5g58160) and its distant homolog AtFH14 (At1g31810), previously reported to bind microtubules. Fluorescent protein-tagged full length formins and their individual domains were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves under the control of a constitutive promoter and their subcellular localization (including co-localization with cytoskeletal structures and the endoplasmic reticulum) was examined using confocal microscopy. While the two formins exhibit distinct and only partially overlapping localization patterns, they both associate with microtubules via the conserved formin homology 2 (FH2) domain and with the periphery of the endoplasmic reticulum, at least in part via the N-terminal PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin)-like domain. Surprisingly, FH2 domains of AtFH13 and AtFH14 can form heterodimers in the yeast two-hybrid assay—a first case of potentially biologically relevant formin heterodimerization mediated solely by the FH2 domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessArticle
Codon Directional Asymmetry Suggests Swapped Prebiotic 1st and 2nd Codon Positions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010347 - 05 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Background: Codon directional asymmetry (CDA) classifies the 64 codons into palindromes (XYX, CDA = 0), and 5′- and 3′-dominant (YXX and XXY, CDA < 0 and CDA > 0, respectively). Previously, CDA was defined by the purine/pyrimidine divide (A,G/C,T), where X is [...] Read more.
Background: Codon directional asymmetry (CDA) classifies the 64 codons into palindromes (XYX, CDA = 0), and 5′- and 3′-dominant (YXX and XXY, CDA < 0 and CDA > 0, respectively). Previously, CDA was defined by the purine/pyrimidine divide (A,G/C,T), where X is either a purine or a pyrimidine. For the remaining codons with undefined CDA, CDA was defined by the 5′ or 3′ nucleotide complementary to Y. This CDA correlates with cognate amino acid tRNA synthetase classes, antiparallel beta sheet conformation index and the evolutionary order defined by the self-referential genetic code evolution model (CDA < 0: class I, high beta sheet index, late genetic code inclusion). Methods: We explore associations of CDAs defined by nucleotide classifications according to complementarity strengths (A:T, weak; C:G, strong) and keto-enol/amino-imino groupings (G,T/A,C), also after swapping 1st and 2nd codon positions with amino acid physicochemical and structural properties. Results: Here, analyses show that for the eight codons whose purine/pyrimidine-based CDA requires using the rule of complementarity with the midposition, using weak interactions to define CDA instead of complementarity increases associations with tRNA synthetase classes, antiparallel beta sheet index and genetic code evolutionary order. CDA defined by keto-enol/amino-imino groups, 1st and 2nd codon positions swapped, correlates with amino acid parallel beta sheet formation indices and Doolittle’s hydropathicities. Conclusions: Results suggest (a) prebiotic swaps from N2N1N3 to N1N2N3 codon structures, (b) that tRNA-mediated translation replaced direct codon-amino acid interactions, and (c) links between codon structures and cognate amino acid properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Origins of Protein Translation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Microarchitecture of Pancreatic Cancer as Measured by Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is Altered by T Cells with a Tumor Promoting Th17 Phenotype
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010346 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 203
Abstract
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is a diagnostic tool that is increasingly used for the detection and characterization of focal masses in the abdomen, among these, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). DW-MRI reflects the microarchitecture of the tissue, and changes in diffusion, which are [...] Read more.
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is a diagnostic tool that is increasingly used for the detection and characterization of focal masses in the abdomen, among these, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). DW-MRI reflects the microarchitecture of the tissue, and changes in diffusion, which are reflected by changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), are mainly attributed to variations in cellular density, glandular formation, and fibrosis. When analyzing the T cell infiltrates, we found an association of a tumor-promoting subpopulation, characterized by the expression of interleukin (IL) 21 and IL26, with high ADC values. Moreover, the presence of IL21+ and IL26+ positive T cells was associated with poor prognosis. Pancreatic cancers—but not healthy pancreatic tissue—expressed receptors for IL21 and IL26, a finding that could be confirmed in pancreatic cell lines. The functionality of these receptors was demonstrated in pancreatic tumor cell lines, which showed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways in response to the respective recombinant interleukins. Moreover, in vitro data showed an increased colony formation of tumor cells. In summary, our data showed an association of IL21+ and IL26+ immune cell infiltration, increased ADC, and aggressive tumor disease, most likely due to the activation of the key cancer signaling pathways ERK1/2 and STAT3 and formation of tumor colonies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basic and Translational Models of Cooperative Oncogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Intermittent Hypoxic Conditioning Alleviates Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder-Induced Damage and Dysfunction of Rat Visceral Organs and Brain
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010345 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) causes mental and somatic diseases. Intermittent hypoxic conditioning (IHC) has cardio-, vaso-, and neuroprotective effects and alleviates experimental PTSD. IHC’s ability to alleviate harmful PTSD effects on rat heart, liver, and brain was examined. PTSD was induced by 10-day [...] Read more.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) causes mental and somatic diseases. Intermittent hypoxic conditioning (IHC) has cardio-, vaso-, and neuroprotective effects and alleviates experimental PTSD. IHC’s ability to alleviate harmful PTSD effects on rat heart, liver, and brain was examined. PTSD was induced by 10-day exposure to cat urine scent (PTSD rats). Some rats were then adapted to 14-day IHC (PTSD+IHC rats), while PTSD and untreated control rats were cage rested. PTSD rats had a higher anxiety index (AI, X-maze test), than control or PTSD+IHC rats. This higher AI was associated with reduced glycogen content and histological signs of metabolic and hypoxic damage and of impaired contractility. The livers of PTSD rats had reduced glycogen content. Liver and blood alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities of PTSD rats were significantly increased. PTSD rats had increased norepinephrine concentration and decreased monoamine oxidase A activity in cerebral cortex. The PTSD-induced elevation of carbonylated proteins and lipid peroxidation products in these organs reflects oxidative stress, a known cause of organ pathology. IHC alleviated PTSD-induced metabolic and structural injury and reduced oxidative stress. Therefore, IHC is a promising preventive treatment for PTSD-related morphological and functional damage to organs, due, in part, to IHC’s reduction of oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation to Hypoxia: A Chimera?)
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Open AccessArticle
Repurposing Potential of Riluzole as an ITAF Inhibitor in mTOR Therapy Resistant Glioblastoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010344 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated protein synthesis has been demonstrated to play an important role in resistance to mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) targeted therapies. Previously, we have demonstrated that the IRES trans-acting factor (ITAF), hnRNP A1 is required to promote IRES [...] Read more.
Internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated protein synthesis has been demonstrated to play an important role in resistance to mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) targeted therapies. Previously, we have demonstrated that the IRES trans-acting factor (ITAF), hnRNP A1 is required to promote IRES activity and small molecule inhibitors which bind specifically to this ITAF and curtail IRES activity, leading to mTOR inhibitor sensitivity. Here we report the identification of riluzole (Rilutek®), an FDA-approved drug for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), via an in silico docking analysis of FDA-approved compounds, as an inhibitor of hnRNP A1. In a riluzole-bead coupled binding assay and in surface plasmon resonance imaging analyses, riluzole was found to directly bind to hnRNP A1 and inhibited IRES activity via effects on ITAF/RNA-binding. Riluzole also demonstrated synergistic anti-glioblastoma (GBM) affects with mTOR inhibitors in vitro and in GBM xenografts in mice. These data suggest that repurposing riluzole, used in conjunction with mTOR inhibitors, may serve as an effective therapeutic option in glioblastoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Synthesis and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Derivation of Cell-Engineered Nanovesicles from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Protective Effect on the Senescence of Dermal Fibroblasts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010343 - 05 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Stem cells secrete numerous paracrine factors, such as cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular vesicles. As a kind of extracellular vesicle (EV), exosomes produced in the endosomal compartment of eukaryotic cells have recently emerged as a biomedical material for regenerative medicine, because they contain [...] Read more.
Stem cells secrete numerous paracrine factors, such as cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular vesicles. As a kind of extracellular vesicle (EV), exosomes produced in the endosomal compartment of eukaryotic cells have recently emerged as a biomedical material for regenerative medicine, because they contain many valuable contents that are derived from the host cells, and can stably deliver those contents to other recipient cells. Although we have previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of human induced potent stem cell-derived exosomes (iPSC-Exo) on the aging of skin fibroblasts, low production yield has remained an obstacle for clinical applications. In this study, we generated cell-engineered nanovesicles (CENVs) by serial extrusion of human iPSCs through membrane filters with diminishing pore sizes, and explored whether the iPSC-CENV ameliorates physiological alterations of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) that occur by natural senescence. The iPSC-CENV exhibited similar characteristics to the iPSC-Exo, while the production yield was drastically increased compared to that of iPSC-derived EVs, including exosomes. The proliferation and migration of both young and senescent HDFs were stimulated by the treatment with iPSC-CENVs. In addition, it was revealed that the iPSC-CNEV restored senescence-related alterations of gene expression. Treatment with iPSC-CENVs significantly reduced the activity of senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) in senescent HDFs, as well as suppressing the elevated expression of p53 and p21, key factors involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and cellular senescence signaling pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that iPSC-CENV could provide an excellent alternative to iPSC-exo, and be exploited as a resource for the treatment of signs of skin aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessReview
TRP Channels in the Focus of Trigeminal Nociceptor Sensitization Contributing to Primary Headaches
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010342 - 04 Jan 2020
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Pain in trigeminal areas is driven by nociceptive trigeminal afferents. Transduction molecules, among them the nonspecific cation channels transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), which are activated by endogenous and exogenous ligands, are expressed by a significant population of [...] Read more.
Pain in trigeminal areas is driven by nociceptive trigeminal afferents. Transduction molecules, among them the nonspecific cation channels transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), which are activated by endogenous and exogenous ligands, are expressed by a significant population of trigeminal nociceptors innervating meningeal tissues. Many of these nociceptors also contain vasoactive neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Release of neuropeptides and other functional properties are frequently examined using the cell bodies of trigeminal neurons as models of their sensory endings. Pathophysiological conditions cause phosphorylation, increased expression and trafficking of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, neuropeptides and other mediators, which accelerate activation of nociceptive pathways. Since nociceptor activation may be a significant pathophysiological mechanism involved in both peripheral and central sensitization of the trigeminal nociceptive pathway, its contribution to the pathophysiology of primary headaches is more than likely. Metabolic disorders and medication-induced painful states are frequently associated with TRP receptor activation and may increase the risk for primary headaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Capsaicin and TRPV1 in the Study of Pain and Organ Pathologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Nobiletin Delays Aging and Enhances Stress Resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010341 - 04 Jan 2020
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Nobiletin (NOB), one of polymethoxyflavone existing in citrus fruits, has been reported to exhibit a multitude of biological properties, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-atherosclerosis, neuroprotection, and anti-tumor activity. However, little is known about the anti-aging effect of NOB. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Nobiletin (NOB), one of polymethoxyflavone existing in citrus fruits, has been reported to exhibit a multitude of biological properties, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-atherosclerosis, neuroprotection, and anti-tumor activity. However, little is known about the anti-aging effect of NOB. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of NOB on lifespan, stress resistance, and its associated gene expression. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, an in vivo nematode model, we found that NOB remarkably extended the lifespan; slowed aging-related functional declines; and increased the resistance against various stressors, including heat shock and ultraviolet radiation. Also, NOB reduced the effects of paraquat stressor on nematodes and scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, gene expression revealed that NOB upregulated the expression of sod-3, hsp-16.2, gst-4, skn-1, sek-1, and sir-2.1, which was suggested that anti-aging activity of NOB was mediated most likely by activation of the target genes of the transcription factors including dauer formation (DAF)-16, heat-shock transcription factor (HSF)-1, and skinhead (SKN)-1. In summary, NOB has potential application in extension of lifespan, and its associated healthspan and stress resistances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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