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Special Issue "Crosstalk between MicroRNA and Oxidative Stress in Physiology and Pathology 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Antonella Fioravanti
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Guest Editor
Rheumatology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena, Italy
Tel. ++39 0577 233345
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Prof. Dr. Francesco Dotta
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Guest Editor
Diabetes Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Antonio Giordano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Biology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, PA, USA 2. Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Italy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Luigi Pirtoli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Biology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, PA, USA 2. Radiation Oncology Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Italy (Retired)
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

MicroRNAs (miRNAs)—small noncoding RNAs 19–24 nucleotides long—have emerged as important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, by binding specific sequences within target messenger RNA (mRNA). The importance of epigenetic miRNA regulation in cellular function is becoming increasingly clear as novel targets are discovered. These targets have been associated with controlling important cellular processes, such as lipid metabolism, apoptosis, differentiation, and organ development. Importantly, miRNAs have recently been addressed as novel mediators of cell–cell communication, being secreted from cells, and are found in many different biological fluids. Such characteristics also make miRNA potential disease biomarkers.

Alterations in miRNA expression have been linked to pathological features, such as inflammatory, degenerative, or autoimmune processes, and are involved in several disease outcomes, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatic and neurological disorders.

Despite these processes having been extensively studied, their detailed mechanisms are not yet fully understood.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are free radicals containing oxygen molecules derived from cellular oxidative metabolism, including enzyme activities and mitochondrial respiration, and which play a pivotal role in many cellular functions. Whereas ROS are essential for normal cellular processes, the aberrant production of ROS or the failure of the capacity to scavenge excessive ROS determines an altered redox status with an excessive synthesis of free radicals, leading to an imbalance in the redox environment of the cell.

The loss of normal ROS levels can result in damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA, all of which contribute to the development of various pathologies such as neurological disorders, rheumatic and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer.

Recent research highlights conditions where there is crosstalk between miRNA and oxidative stress, even if this complex and mutual interaction needs further elucidation.

In this regard, we invite investigators to contribute original research articles and review articles that will stimulate the continuing efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying the interaction between miRNA and oxidative stress under normal and diseased processes, toward developing strategies to treat these pathological conditions as well as to identify novel biomarkers of disease.

Dr. Antonella Fioravanti
Prof. Dr. Francesco Dotta
Prof. Dr. Antonio Giordano
Prof. Dr. Luigi Pirtoli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microRNA
  • oxidative stress
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • rheumatic diseases
  • cancer
  • diabetes
  • neurological disorders
  • multiple sclerosis

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Chemotherapeutic Stress Influences Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Stemness in Cancer Stem Cells of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020404 - 08 Jan 2020
Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer characterized by the absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR) and lacking an overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Apart from this lack of therapeutic targets, TNBC also shows [...] Read more.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer characterized by the absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR) and lacking an overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Apart from this lack of therapeutic targets, TNBC also shows an increased capacity for early metastasis and therapy resistance. Currently, many TNBC patients receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) upon detection of the disease. With TNBC likely being driven at least in part by a cancer stem-like cell type, we wanted to evaluate the response of primary cancer stem cells (CSCs) to standard chemotherapeutics. Therefore, we set up a survival model using primary CSCs to mimic tumor cells in patients under chemotherapy. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) were exposed to chemotherapeutics with a sublethal dose for six days. Surviving cells were allowed to recover in culture medium without chemotherapeutics. Surviving and recovered cells were examined in regard to proliferation, migratory capacity, sphere forming capacity, epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) factor expression at the mRNA level, and cancer-related microRNA (miRNA) profile. Our results indicate that chemotherapeutic stress enhanced sphere forming capacity of BCSCs, and changed cell morphology and EMT-related gene expression at the mRNA level, whereas the migratory capacity was unaffected. Six miRNAs were identified as potential regulators in this process. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Oxidative Stress-Responsive MicroRNAs in Heart Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010358 - 05 Jan 2020
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important molecules in the living organisms as a part of many signaling pathways. However, if overproduced, they also play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, ischemia/reperfusion injury (e.g., myocardial infarction and [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important molecules in the living organisms as a part of many signaling pathways. However, if overproduced, they also play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, ischemia/reperfusion injury (e.g., myocardial infarction and heart transplantation), and heart failure. As a result of oxidative stress action, apoptosis, hypertrophy, and fibrosis may occur. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent important endogenous nucleotides that regulate many biological processes, including those involved in heart damage caused by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can alter the expression level of many miRNAs. These changes in miRNA expression occur mainly via modulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), sirtuins, calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT), or nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Up until now, several circulating miRNAs have been reported to be potential biomarkers of ROS-related cardiac diseases, including myocardial infarction, hypertrophy, ischemia/reperfusion, and heart failure, such as miRNA-499, miRNA-199, miRNA-21, miRNA-144, miRNA-208a, miRNA-34a, etc. On the other hand, a lot of studies are aimed at using miRNAs for therapeutic purposes. This review points to the need for studying the role of redox-sensitive miRNAs, to identify more effective biomarkers and develop better therapeutic targets for oxidative-stress-related heart diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Targeting microRNAs as a Therapeutic Strategy to Reduce Oxidative Stress in Diabetes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6358; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246358 - 17 Dec 2019
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a group of heterogeneous metabolic disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia as a consequence of pancreatic β cell loss and/or dysfunction, also caused by oxidative stress. The molecular mechanisms involved inβ cell dysfunction and in response to oxidative stress are also [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of heterogeneous metabolic disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia as a consequence of pancreatic β cell loss and/or dysfunction, also caused by oxidative stress. The molecular mechanisms involved inβ cell dysfunction and in response to oxidative stress are also regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are a class of negative gene regulators, which modulate pathologic mechanisms occurring in diabetes and its complications. Although several pharmacological therapies specifically targeting miRNAs have already been developed and brought to the clinic, most previous miRNA-based drug delivery methods were unable to target a specific miRNA in a single cell type or tissue, leading to important off-target effects. In order to overcome these issues, aptamers and nanoparticles have been described as non-cytotoxic vehicles for miRNA-based drug delivery. These approaches could represent an innovative way to specifically target and modulate miRNAs involved in oxidative stress in diabetes and its complications. Therefore, the aims of this review are: (i) to report the role of miRNAs involved in oxidative stress in diabetes as promising therapeutic targets; (ii) to shed light onto the new delivery strategies developed to modulate the expression of miRNAs in diseases. Full article
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