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Special Issue "Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Francisco Rivero
Website
Guest Editor
Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, UK
Interests: actin cytoskeleton; actin-binding proteins; Rho GTPases; cyclase-associated protein; coronin; plastin; cell motility; platelet biology; endothelial cell biology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The actin cytoskeleton is of fundamental importance for eukaryotic cell homeostasis. It contributes to developing and maintaining cell shape and tissue integrity and is crucial for cell migration, movement of organelles, vesicle trafficking, and the completion of cell division. Elaborate structures like the sarcomere, the inner ear cell streocilia, and the brush border microvilli are built on actin filaments scaffolds. Dozens of actin-binding proteins orchestrate the dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and integrate it with cell signaling machinery. Impressive advances have been made in recent years towards understanding the intricacies of the microfilament system’s organization and function. This Special Issue of IJMS will cover a broad range of cutting-edge aspects related to the actin cytoskeleton, like the dynamics of remodelling, actin-binding proteins, biomechanics, visualisation techniques, actin-specific drugs, and diseases related to components of the microfilament system.

Dr. Francisco Rivero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • actin dynamics
  • motility
  • cell migration
  • actin-specific drugs
  • actin probes
  • actin-binding proteins

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Arf6 Can Trigger Wave Regulatory Complex-Dependent Actin Assembly Independent of Arno
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072457 - 02 Apr 2020
Abstract
The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) anchors at the plasma membrane to orchestrate key functions, such as membrane trafficking and regulating cortical actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. A number of studies have identified key players that interact with Arf6 to regulate actin dynamics in [...] Read more.
The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) anchors at the plasma membrane to orchestrate key functions, such as membrane trafficking and regulating cortical actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. A number of studies have identified key players that interact with Arf6 to regulate actin dynamics in diverse cell processes, yet it is still unknown whether Arf6 can directly signal to the wave regulatory complex to mediate actin assembly. By reconstituting actin dynamics on supported lipid bilayers, we found that Arf6 in co-ordination with Rac1(Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) can directly trigger actin polymerization by recruiting wave regulatory complex components. Interestingly, we demonstrated that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane directly without recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (ARF nucleotide-binding site opener), which is able to activate Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. Furthermore, using labelled E. coli, we demonstrated that actin assembly by Arf6 also contributes towards efficient phagocytosis in THP-1 macrophages. Taken together, this study reveals a mechanism for Arf6-driven actin polymerization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessArticle
Interactome and F-Actin Interaction Analysis of Dictyostelium discoideum Coronin A
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041469 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Coronin proteins are evolutionary conserved WD repeat containing proteins that have been proposed to carry out different functions. In Dictyostelium, the short coronin isoform, coronin A, has been implicated in cytoskeletal reorganization, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and the initiation of multicellular development. Generally thought [...] Read more.
Coronin proteins are evolutionary conserved WD repeat containing proteins that have been proposed to carry out different functions. In Dictyostelium, the short coronin isoform, coronin A, has been implicated in cytoskeletal reorganization, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and the initiation of multicellular development. Generally thought of as modulators of F-actin, coronin A and its mammalian homologs have also been shown to mediate cellular processes in an F-actin-independent manner. Therefore, it remains unclear whether or not coronin A carries out its functions through its capacity to interact with F-actin. Moreover, the interacting partners of coronin A are not known. Here, we analyzed the interactome of coronin A as well as its interaction with F-actin within cells and in vitro. Interactome analysis showed the association with a diverse set of interaction partners, including fimbrin, talin and myosin subunits, with only a transient interaction with the minor actin10 isoform, but not the major form of actin, actin8, which was consistent with the absence of a coronin A-actin interaction as analyzed by co-sedimentation from cells and lysates. In vitro, however, purified coronin A co-precipitated with rabbit muscle F-actin in a coiled-coil-dependent manner. Our results suggest that an in vitro interaction of coronin A and rabbit muscle actin may not reflect the cellular interaction state of coronin A with actin, and that coronin A interacts with diverse proteins in a time-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of F-actin and Microtubules on Cellular Mechanical Behavior Studied Using Atomic Force Microscope and an Image Recognition-Based Cytoskeleton Quantification Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020392 - 08 Jan 2020
Abstract
Cytoskeleton morphology plays a key role in regulating cell mechanics. Particularly, cellular mechanical properties are directly regulated by the highly cross-linked and dynamic cytoskeletal structure of F-actin and microtubules presented in the cytoplasm. Although great efforts have been devoted to investigating the qualitative [...] Read more.
Cytoskeleton morphology plays a key role in regulating cell mechanics. Particularly, cellular mechanical properties are directly regulated by the highly cross-linked and dynamic cytoskeletal structure of F-actin and microtubules presented in the cytoplasm. Although great efforts have been devoted to investigating the qualitative relation between the cellular cytoskeleton state and cell mechanical properties, comprehensive quantification results of how the states of F-actin and microtubules affect mechanical behavior are still lacking. In this study, the effect of both F-actin and microtubules morphology on cellular mechanical properties was quantified using atomic force microscope indentation experiments together with the proposed image recognition-based cytoskeleton quantification approach. Young’s modulus and diffusion coefficient of NIH/3T3 cells with different cytoskeleton states were quantified at different length scales. It was found that the living NIH/3T3 cells sense and adapt to the F-actin and microtubules states: both the cellular elasticity and poroelasticity are closely correlated to the depolymerization degree of F-actin and microtubules at all measured indentation depths. Moreover, the significance of the quantitative effects of F-actin and microtubules in affecting cellular mechanical behavior is depth-dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessArticle
Coronin 1 Is Required for Integrin β2 Translocation in Platelets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010356 - 05 Jan 2020
Abstract
Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is one of the critical events that allows platelets to undergo morphological and functional changes in response to receptor-mediated signaling cascades. Coronins are a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, represented [...] Read more.
Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is one of the critical events that allows platelets to undergo morphological and functional changes in response to receptor-mediated signaling cascades. Coronins are a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, represented by the abundant coronins 1, 2, and 3 and the less abundant coronin 7 in platelets, but their functions in these cells are poorly understood. A recent report revealed impaired agonist-induced actin polymerization and cofilin phosphoregulation and altered thrombus formation in vivo as salient phenotypes in the absence of an overt hemostasis defect in vivo in a knockout mouse model of coronin 1. Here we show that the absence of coronin 1 is associated with impaired translocation of integrin β2 to the platelet surface upon stimulation with thrombin while morphological and functional alterations, including defects in Arp2/3 complex localization and cAMP-dependent signaling, are absent. Our results suggest a large extent of functional overlap among coronins 1, 2, and 3 in platelets, while aspects like integrin β2 translocation are specifically or predominantly dependent on coronin 1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessArticle
Arabidopsis Class II Formins AtFH13 and AtFH14 Can Form Heterodimers but Exhibit Distinct Patterns of Cellular Localization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010348 - 05 Jan 2020
Abstract
Formins are evolutionarily conserved multi-domain proteins participating in the control of both actin and microtubule dynamics. Angiosperm formins form two evolutionarily distinct families, Class I and Class II, with class-specific domain layouts. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has 21 formin-encoding loci, including 10 [...] Read more.
Formins are evolutionarily conserved multi-domain proteins participating in the control of both actin and microtubule dynamics. Angiosperm formins form two evolutionarily distinct families, Class I and Class II, with class-specific domain layouts. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has 21 formin-encoding loci, including 10 Class II members. In this study, we analyze the subcellular localization of two A. thaliana Class II formins exhibiting typical domain organization, the so far uncharacterized formin AtFH13 (At5g58160) and its distant homolog AtFH14 (At1g31810), previously reported to bind microtubules. Fluorescent protein-tagged full length formins and their individual domains were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves under the control of a constitutive promoter and their subcellular localization (including co-localization with cytoskeletal structures and the endoplasmic reticulum) was examined using confocal microscopy. While the two formins exhibit distinct and only partially overlapping localization patterns, they both associate with microtubules via the conserved formin homology 2 (FH2) domain and with the periphery of the endoplasmic reticulum, at least in part via the N-terminal PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin)-like domain. Surprisingly, FH2 domains of AtFH13 and AtFH14 can form heterodimers in the yeast two-hybrid assay—a first case of potentially biologically relevant formin heterodimerization mediated solely by the FH2 domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessArticle
Defects in G-Actin Incorporation into Filaments in Myoblasts Derived from Dysferlinopathy Patients Are Restored by Dysferlin C2 Domains
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010037 - 19 Dec 2019
Abstract
Dysferlin is a transmembrane C-2 domain-containing protein involved in vesicle trafficking and membrane remodeling in skeletal muscle cells. However, the mechanism by which dysferlin regulates these cellular processes remains unclear. Since actin dynamics is critical for vesicle trafficking and membrane remodeling, we studied [...] Read more.
Dysferlin is a transmembrane C-2 domain-containing protein involved in vesicle trafficking and membrane remodeling in skeletal muscle cells. However, the mechanism by which dysferlin regulates these cellular processes remains unclear. Since actin dynamics is critical for vesicle trafficking and membrane remodeling, we studied the role of dysferlin in Ca2+-induced G-actin incorporation into filaments in four different immortalized myoblast cell lines (DYSF2, DYSF3, AB320, and ER) derived from patients harboring mutations in the dysferlin gene. As compared with immortalized myoblasts obtained from a control subject, dysferlin expression and G-actin incorporation were significantly decreased in myoblasts from dysferlinopathy patients. Stable knockdown of dysferlin with specific shRNA in control myoblasts also significantly reduced G-actin incorporation. The impaired G-actin incorporation was restored by the expression of full-length dysferlin as well as dysferlin N-terminal or C-terminal regions, both of which contain three C2 domains. DYSF3 myoblasts also exhibited altered distribution of annexin A2, a dysferlin partner involved in actin remodeling. However, dysferlin N-terminal and C-terminal regions appeared to not fully restore such annexin A2 mislocation. Then, our results suggest that dysferlin regulates actin remodeling by a mechanism that does to not involve annexin A2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessArticle
Oligomerization Affects the Ability of Human Cyclase-Associated Proteins 1 and 2 to Promote Actin Severing by Cofilins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225647 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins accelerate actin turnover by severing aged actin filaments and promoting the dissociation of actin subunits. In the cell, ADF/cofilins are assisted by other proteins, among which cyclase-associated proteins 1 and 2 (CAP1,2) are particularly important. The N-terminal half of CAP [...] Read more.
Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins accelerate actin turnover by severing aged actin filaments and promoting the dissociation of actin subunits. In the cell, ADF/cofilins are assisted by other proteins, among which cyclase-associated proteins 1 and 2 (CAP1,2) are particularly important. The N-terminal half of CAP has been shown to promote actin filament dynamics by enhancing ADF-/cofilin-mediated actin severing, while the central and C-terminal domains are involved in recharging the depolymerized ADP–G-actin/cofilin complexes with ATP and profilin. We analyzed the ability of the N-terminal fragments of human CAP1 and CAP2 to assist human isoforms of “muscle” (CFL2) and “non-muscle” (CFL1) cofilins in accelerating actin dynamics. By conducting bulk actin depolymerization assays and monitoring single-filament severing by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we found that the N-terminal domains of both isoforms enhanced cofilin-mediated severing and depolymerization at similar rates. According to our analytical sedimentation and native mass spectrometry data, the N-terminal recombinant fragments of both human CAP isoforms form tetramers. Replacement of the original oligomerization domain of CAPs with artificial coiled-coil sequences of known oligomerization patterns showed that the activity of the proteins is directly proportional to the stoichiometry of their oligomerization; i.e., tetramers and trimers are more potent than dimers, which are more effective than monomers. Along with higher binding affinities of the higher-order oligomers to actin, this observation suggests that the mechanism of actin severing and depolymerization involves simultaneous or consequent and coordinated binding of more than one N-CAP domain to F-actin/cofilin complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Roles of Actin in the Morphogenesis of the Early Caenorhabditis elegans Embryo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103652 - 21 May 2020
Abstract
The cell shape changes that ensure asymmetric cell divisions are crucial for correct development, as asymmetric divisions allow for the formation of different cell types and therefore different tissues. The first division of the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo has emerged as a powerful model [...] Read more.
The cell shape changes that ensure asymmetric cell divisions are crucial for correct development, as asymmetric divisions allow for the formation of different cell types and therefore different tissues. The first division of the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo has emerged as a powerful model for understanding asymmetric cell division. The dynamics of microtubules, polarity proteins, and the actin cytoskeleton are all key for this process. In this review, we highlight studies from the last five years revealing new insights about the role of actin dynamics in the first asymmetric cell division of the early C. elegans embryo. Recent results concerning the roles of actin and actin binding proteins in symmetry breaking, cortical flows, cortical integrity, and cleavage furrow formation are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessReview
Actin Mutations and Their Role in Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093371 - 10 May 2020
Abstract
Actin is a widely expressed protein found in almost all eukaryotic cells. In humans, there are six different genes, which encode specific actin isoforms. Disease-causing mutations have been described for each of these, most of which are missense. Analysis of the position of [...] Read more.
Actin is a widely expressed protein found in almost all eukaryotic cells. In humans, there are six different genes, which encode specific actin isoforms. Disease-causing mutations have been described for each of these, most of which are missense. Analysis of the position of the resulting mutated residues in the protein reveals mutational hotspots. Many of these occur in regions important for actin polymerization. We briefly discuss the challenges in characterizing the effects of these actin mutations, with a focus on cardiac actin mutations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessReview
Long-Range and Directional Allostery of Actin Filaments Plays Important Roles in Various Cellular Activities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093209 - 01 May 2020
Abstract
A wide variety of uniquely localized actin-binding proteins (ABPs) are involved in various cellular activities, such as cytokinesis, migration, adhesion, morphogenesis, and intracellular transport. In a micrometer-scale space such as the inside of cells, protein molecules diffuse throughout the cell interior within seconds. [...] Read more.
A wide variety of uniquely localized actin-binding proteins (ABPs) are involved in various cellular activities, such as cytokinesis, migration, adhesion, morphogenesis, and intracellular transport. In a micrometer-scale space such as the inside of cells, protein molecules diffuse throughout the cell interior within seconds. In this condition, how can ABPs selectively bind to particular actin filaments when there is an abundance of actin filaments in the cytoplasm? In recent years, several ABPs have been reported to induce cooperative conformational changes to actin filaments allowing structural changes to propagate along the filament cables uni- or bidirectionally, thereby regulating the subsequent binding of ABPs. Such propagation of ABP-induced cooperative conformational changes in actin filaments may be advantageous for the elaborate regulation of cellular activities driven by actin-based machineries in the intracellular space, which is dominated by diffusion. In this review, we focus on long-range allosteric regulation driven by cooperative conformational changes of actin filaments that are evoked by binding of ABPs, and discuss roles of allostery of actin filaments in narrow intracellular spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessReview
ERM Proteins at the Crossroad of Leukocyte Polarization, Migration and Intercellular Adhesion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041502 - 22 Feb 2020
Abstract
Ezrin, radixin and moesin proteins (ERMs) are plasma membrane (PM) organizers that link the actin cytoskeleton to the cytoplasmic tail of transmembrane proteins, many of which are adhesion receptors, in order to regulate the formation of F-actin-based structures (e.g., microspikes and microvilli). ERMs [...] Read more.
Ezrin, radixin and moesin proteins (ERMs) are plasma membrane (PM) organizers that link the actin cytoskeleton to the cytoplasmic tail of transmembrane proteins, many of which are adhesion receptors, in order to regulate the formation of F-actin-based structures (e.g., microspikes and microvilli). ERMs also effect transmission of signals from the PM into the cell, an action mainly exerted through the compartmentalized activation of the small Rho GTPases Rho, Rac and Cdc42. Ezrin and moesin are the ERMs more highly expressed in leukocytes, and although they do not always share functions, both are mainly regulated through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding to the N-terminal band 4.1 protein-ERM (FERM) domain and phosphorylation of a conserved Thr in the C-terminal ERM association domain (C-ERMAD), exerting their functions through a wide assortment of mechanisms. In this review we will discuss some of these mechanisms, focusing on how they regulate polarization and migration in leukocytes, and formation of actin-based cellular structures like the phagocytic cup-endosome and the immune synapse in macrophages/neutrophils and lymphocytes, respectively, which represent essential aspects of the effector immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessReview
Dendritic Spines in Alzheimer’s Disease: How the Actin Cytoskeleton Contributes to Synaptic Failure
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030908 - 30 Jan 2020
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by Aβ-driven synaptic dysfunction in the early phases of pathogenesis. In the synaptic context, the actin cytoskeleton is a crucial element to maintain the dendritic spine architecture and to orchestrate the spine’s morphology remodeling driven [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by Aβ-driven synaptic dysfunction in the early phases of pathogenesis. In the synaptic context, the actin cytoskeleton is a crucial element to maintain the dendritic spine architecture and to orchestrate the spine’s morphology remodeling driven by synaptic activity. Indeed, spine shape and synaptic strength are strictly correlated and precisely governed during plasticity phenomena in order to convert short-term alterations of synaptic strength into long-lasting changes that are embedded in stable structural modification. These functional and structural modifications are considered the biological basis of learning and memory processes. In this review we discussed the existing evidence regarding the role of the spine actin cytoskeleton in AD synaptic failure. We revised the physiological function of the actin cytoskeleton in the spine shaping and the contribution of actin dynamics in the endocytosis mechanism. The internalization process is implicated in different aspects of AD since it controls both glutamate receptor membrane levels and amyloid generation. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms controlling the actin cytoskeleton in a unique biological context as the dendritic spine could pave the way to the development of innovative synapse-tailored therapeutic interventions and to the identification of novel biomarkers to monitor synaptic loss in AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessReview
Stereocilia Rootlets: Actin-Based Structures That Are Essential for Structural Stability of the Hair Bundle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010324 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sensory hair cells of the inner ear rely on the hair bundle, a cluster of actin-filled stereocilia, to transduce auditory and vestibular stimuli into electrical impulses. Because they are long and thin projections, stereocilia are most prone to damage at the point where [...] Read more.
Sensory hair cells of the inner ear rely on the hair bundle, a cluster of actin-filled stereocilia, to transduce auditory and vestibular stimuli into electrical impulses. Because they are long and thin projections, stereocilia are most prone to damage at the point where they insert into the hair cell’s soma. Moreover, this is the site of stereocilia pivoting, the mechanical movement that induces transduction, which additionally weakens this area mechanically. To bolster this fragile area, hair cells construct a dense core called the rootlet at the base of each stereocilium, which extends down into the actin meshwork of the cuticular plate and firmly anchors the stereocilium. Rootlets are constructed with tightly packed actin filaments that extend from stereocilia actin filaments which are wrapped with TRIOBP; in addition, many other proteins contribute to the rootlet and its associated structures. Rootlets allow stereocilia to sustain innumerable deflections over their lifetimes and exemplify the unique manner in which sensory hair cells exploit actin and its associated proteins to carry out the function of mechanotransduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessReview
Actin and Actin-Associated Proteins in Extracellular Vesicles Shed by Osteoclasts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010158 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are shed by all eukaryotic cells and have emerged as important intercellular regulators. EVs released by osteoclasts were recently identified as important coupling factors in bone remodeling. They are shed as osteoclasts resorb bone and stimulate osteoblasts to form bone [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are shed by all eukaryotic cells and have emerged as important intercellular regulators. EVs released by osteoclasts were recently identified as important coupling factors in bone remodeling. They are shed as osteoclasts resorb bone and stimulate osteoblasts to form bone to replace the bone resorbed. We reported the proteomic content of osteoclast EVs with data from two-dimensional, high resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. In this article, we examine in detail the actin and actin-associated proteins found in osteoclast EVs. Like EVs from other cell types, actin and various actin-associated proteins were abundant. These include components of the polymerization machinery, myosin mechanoenzymes, proteins that stabilize or depolymerize microfilaments, and actin-associated proteins that are involved in regulating integrins. The selective incorporation of actin-associated proteins into osteoclast EVs suggests that they have roles in the formation of EVs and/or the regulatory signaling functions of the EVs. Regulating integrins so that they bind extracellular matrix tightly, in order to attach EVs to the extracellular matrix at specific locations in organs and tissues, is one potential active role for actin-associated proteins in EVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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Open AccessReview
Pathogenic Puppetry: Manipulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton by Chlamydia trachomatis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010090 - 21 Dec 2019
Abstract
The actin cytoskeleton is crucially important to maintenance of the cellular structure, cell motility, and endocytosis. Accordingly, bacterial pathogens often co-opt the actin-restructuring machinery of host cells to access or create a favorable environment for their own replication. The obligate intracellular organism Chlamydia [...] Read more.
The actin cytoskeleton is crucially important to maintenance of the cellular structure, cell motility, and endocytosis. Accordingly, bacterial pathogens often co-opt the actin-restructuring machinery of host cells to access or create a favorable environment for their own replication. The obligate intracellular organism Chlamydia trachomatis and related species exemplify this dynamic: by inducing actin polymerization at the site of pathogen-host attachment, Chlamydiae induce their own uptake by the typically non-phagocytic epithelium they infect. The interaction of chlamydial adhesins with host surface receptors has been implicated in this effect, as has the activity of the chlamydial effector TarP (translocated actin recruitment protein). Following invasion, C. trachomatis dynamically assembles and maintains an actin-rich cage around the pathogen’s membrane-bound replicative niche, known as the chlamydial inclusion. Through further induction of actin polymerization and modulation of the actin-crosslinking protein myosin II, C. trachomatis promotes egress from the host via extrusion of the inclusion. In this review, we present the experimental findings that can inform our understanding of actin-dependent chlamydial pathogenesis, discuss lingering questions, and identify potential avenues of future study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Actin Cytoskeleton)
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