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Special Issue "Plant Proteomic Research 3.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jesus V. Jorrin Novo
Website
Guest Editor
Agroforestry and Plant Biochemistry, Proteomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Cordoba, UCO-CeiA3, 14014 Cordoba, Spain
Interests: forest species; biotic and abiotic stresses; molecular markers; omics approaches; systems biology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is the continuation of our 2016 Special Issue, "Plant Proteomic Research" (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms/special_issues/plant-proteomic) and “Plant Proteomic Research 2.0” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms/special_issues/plant-proteomic_2)

Advancement in high-throughput “Omics” techniques has revolutionized plant molecular biology research. Proteomics offer one of the best options for the functional analysis of the genome, generating detailed information that integrated with that obtained by other classic and -omics approaches will provided a deeper knowledge of the different plant processes Up to six different generations of proteomics platforms (gel, label, gel free/label free, targeted) have appeared in the last twenty years which are being exploited in describing protein profiles, PTMs and interactions. Nevertheless, the ultimate success of any proteomic strategy lies in the various factors including isolation of full component of proteins, separation, visualization and their accurate identification. Despite recent advancements, more emphasis needs to be given to the protein extraction protocols, especially for very low-abundant, hydrophobic, and large molecular weight. Thus, amalgamation of diverse MS techniques, complemented with genome-sequence data and modern bioinformatics analysis with improved sample preparation and fractionation strategies, offer a powerful tool to identify and characterize novel proteins and to follow temporal changes in protein relative abundances under different environmental conditions. Furthermore, post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions provide deeper insight into protein molecular function. Authors are welcome to submit original research articles and reviews addressing recent advancements, as well as limitations of current proteomic techniques and their diverse applications to get new insights of plant molecular responses to various biotic and abiotic stressors and the molecular bases of other processes. Proteomics focus is also related to translational purposes, including food traceability and allergen detection. In addition, bioinformatic techniques are needed for a more confident identification, quantitation, data analysis and networking, especially with non-model, orphan, plants, including medicinal, and meditational plants as well as forest tree species.

Prof. Dr. Setsuko Komatsu
Prof. Dr. Jesus V. Jorrin-Novo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plant proteomic research
  • methods, techniques and protocols of plant proteomics
  • applications of plant proteomics

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Plant Proteomic Research 3.0: Challenges and Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020766 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Advancements in high-throughput “Omics” techniques have revolutionized plant molecular biology research [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Hypoxia-Responsive Class III Peroxidases in Maize Roots: Soluble and Membrane-Bound Isoenzymes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228872 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 603
Abstract
Flooding induces low-oxygen environments (hypoxia or anoxia) that lead to energy disruption and an imbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging enzymes in plants. The influence of hypoxia on roots of hydroponically grown maize (Zea mays L.) plants was investigated. [...] Read more.
Flooding induces low-oxygen environments (hypoxia or anoxia) that lead to energy disruption and an imbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging enzymes in plants. The influence of hypoxia on roots of hydroponically grown maize (Zea mays L.) plants was investigated. Gene expression (RNA Seq and RT-qPCR) and proteome (LC–MS/MS and 2D-PAGE) analyses were used to determine the alterations in soluble and membrane-bound class III peroxidases under hypoxia. Gel-free peroxidase analyses of plasma membrane-bound proteins showed an increased abundance of ZmPrx03, ZmPrx24, ZmPrx81, and ZmPr85 in stressed samples. Furthermore, RT-qPCR analyses of the corresponding peroxidase genes revealed an increased expression. These peroxidases could be separated with 2D-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. An increased abundance of ZmPrx03 and ZmPrx85 was determined. Further peroxidases were identified in detergent-insoluble membranes. Co-regulation with a respiratory burst oxidase homolog (Rboh) and key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway indicates a function of the peroxidases in membrane protection, aerenchyma formation, and cell wall remodeling under hypoxia. This hypothesis was supported by the following: (i) an elevated level of hydrogen peroxide and aerenchyma formation; (ii) an increased guaiacol peroxidase activity in membrane fractions of stressed samples, whereas a decrease was observed in soluble fractions; and (iii) alterations in lignified cells, cellulose, and suberin in root cross-sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Excess Manganese on the Xylem Sap Protein Profile of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as Revealed by Shotgun Proteomic Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8863; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228863 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 389
Abstract
Metal toxicity is a common problem in crop species worldwide. Some metals are naturally toxic, whereas others such as manganese (Mn) are essential micro-nutrients for plant growth but can become toxic when in excess. Changes in the composition of the xylem sap, which [...] Read more.
Metal toxicity is a common problem in crop species worldwide. Some metals are naturally toxic, whereas others such as manganese (Mn) are essential micro-nutrients for plant growth but can become toxic when in excess. Changes in the composition of the xylem sap, which is the main pathway for ion transport within the plant, is therefore vital to understanding the plant’s response(s) to metal toxicity. In this study we have assessed the effects of exposure of tomato roots to excess Mn on the protein profile of the xylem sap, using a shotgun proteomics approach. Plants were grown in nutrient solution using 4.6 and 300 µM MnCl2 as control and excess Mn treatments, respectively. This approach yielded 668 proteins reliably identified and quantified. Excess Mn caused statistically significant (at p ≤ 0.05) and biologically relevant changes in relative abundance (≥2-fold increases or ≥50% decreases) in 322 proteins, with 82% of them predicted to be secretory using three different prediction tools, with more decreasing than increasing (181 and 82, respectively), suggesting that this metal stress causes an overall deactivation of metabolic pathways. Processes most affected by excess Mn were in the oxido-reductase, polysaccharide and protein metabolism classes. Excess Mn induced changes in hydrolases and peroxidases involved in cell wall degradation and lignin formation, respectively, consistent with the existence of alterations in the cell wall. Protein turnover was also affected, as indicated by the decrease in proteolytic enzymes and protein synthesis-related proteins. Excess Mn modified the redox environment of the xylem sap, with changes in the abundance of oxido-reductase and defense protein classes indicating a stress scenario. Finally, results indicate that excess Mn decreased the amounts of proteins associated with several signaling pathways, including fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-proteins and lipids, as well as proteases, which may be involved in the release of signaling peptides and protein maturation. The comparison of the proteins changing in abundance in xylem sap and roots indicate the existence of tissue-specific and systemic responses to excess Mn. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD021973. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic and Transcriptomic Patterns during Lipid Remodeling in Nannochloropsis gaditana
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186946 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
Nutrient limited conditions are common in natural phytoplankton communities and are often used to increase the yield of lipids from industrial microalgae cultivations. Here we studied the effects of bioavailable nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deprivation on the proteome and transcriptome of the [...] Read more.
Nutrient limited conditions are common in natural phytoplankton communities and are often used to increase the yield of lipids from industrial microalgae cultivations. Here we studied the effects of bioavailable nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deprivation on the proteome and transcriptome of the oleaginous marine microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana. Turbidostat cultures were used to selectively apply either N or P deprivation, controlling for variables including the light intensity. Global (cell-wide) changes in the proteome were measured using Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) and LC-MS/MS, whilst gene transcript expression of the same samples was quantified by Illumina RNA-sequencing. We detected 3423 proteins, where 1543 and 113 proteins showed significant changes in abundance in N and P treatments, respectively. The analysis includes the global correlation between proteomic and transcriptomic data, the regulation of subcellular proteomes in different compartments, gene/protein functional groups, and metabolic pathways. The results show that triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation under nitrogen deprivation was associated with substantial downregulation of protein synthesis and photosynthetic activity. Oil accumulation was also accompanied by a diverse set of responses including the upregulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), lipase, and lipid body associated proteins. Deprivation of phosphorus had comparatively fewer, weaker effects, some of which were linked to the remodeling of respiratory metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
CRISPR/Cas9 Directed Mutagenesis of OsGA20ox2 in High Yielding Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Line and Comparative Proteome Profiling of Unveiled Changes Triggered by Mutations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6170; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176170 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
In rice, semi-dwarfism is among the most required characteristics, as it facilitates better yields and offers lodging resistance. Here, semi-dwarf rice lines lacking any residual transgene-DNA and off-target effects were generated through CRISPR/Cas9-guided mutagenesis of the OsGA20ox2 gene in a high yielding Basmati [...] Read more.
In rice, semi-dwarfism is among the most required characteristics, as it facilitates better yields and offers lodging resistance. Here, semi-dwarf rice lines lacking any residual transgene-DNA and off-target effects were generated through CRISPR/Cas9-guided mutagenesis of the OsGA20ox2 gene in a high yielding Basmati rice line, and the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) strategy was utilized to elucidate the proteomic changes in mutants. The results indicated the reduced gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) levels, plant height (28.72%), and flag leaf length, while all the other traits remained unchanged. The OsGA20ox2 expression was highly suppressed, and the mutants exhibited decreased cell length, width, and restored their plant height by exogenous GA3 treatment. Comparative proteomics of the wild-type and homozygous mutant line (GXU43_9) showed an altered level of 588 proteins, 273 upregulated and 315 downregulated, respectively. The identified differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were mainly enriched in the carbon metabolism and fixation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, photosynthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. The proteins (Q6AWY7, Q6AWY2, Q9FRG8, Q6EPP9, Q6AWX8) associated with growth-regulating factors (GRF2, GRF7, GRF9, GRF10, and GRF11) and GA (Q8RZ73, Q9AS97, Q69VG1, Q8LNJ6, Q0JH50, and Q5MQ85) were downregulated, while the abscisic stress-ripening protein 5 (ASR5) and abscisic acid receptor (PYL5) were upregulated in mutant lines. We integrated CRISPR/Cas9 with proteomic screening as the most reliable strategy for rapid assessment of the CRISPR experiments outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduction of Allergenic Potential in Bread Wheat RNAi Transgenic Lines Silenced for CM3, CM16 and 0.28 ATI Genes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165817 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
Although wheat is used worldwide as a staple food, it can give rise to adverse reactions, for which the triggering factors have not been identified yet. These reactions can be caused mainly by kernel proteins, both gluten and non-gluten proteins. Among these latter [...] Read more.
Although wheat is used worldwide as a staple food, it can give rise to adverse reactions, for which the triggering factors have not been identified yet. These reactions can be caused mainly by kernel proteins, both gluten and non-gluten proteins. Among these latter proteins, α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) are involved in baker’s asthma and realistically in Non Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS). In this paper, we report characterization of three transgenic lines obtained from the bread wheat cultivar Bobwhite silenced by RNAi in the three ATI genes CM3, CM16 and 0.28. We have obtained transgenic lines showing an effective decrease in the activity of target genes that, although showing a higher trypsin inhibition as a pleiotropic effect, generate a lower reaction when tested with sera of patients allergic to wheat, accounting for the important role of the three target proteins in wheat allergies. Finally, these lines show unintended differences in high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) accumulation, involved in technological performances, but do not show differences in terms of yield. The development of new genotypes accumulating a lower amount of proteins potentially or effectively involved in allergies to wheat and NCWS, not only offers the possibility to use them as a basis for the production of varieties with a lower impact on adverse reaction, but also to test if these proteins are actually implicated in those pathologies for which the triggering factor has not been established yet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenylpropanoids Are Connected to Cell Wall Fortification and Stress Tolerance in Avocado Somatic Embryogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165679 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a valuable model for understanding the mechanism of plant embryogenesis and a tool for the mass production of plants. However, establishing SE in avocado has been complicated due to the very low efficiency of embryo induction and plant regeneration. [...] Read more.
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a valuable model for understanding the mechanism of plant embryogenesis and a tool for the mass production of plants. However, establishing SE in avocado has been complicated due to the very low efficiency of embryo induction and plant regeneration. To understand the molecular foundation of the SE induction and development in avocado, we compared embryogenic (EC) and non-embryogenic (NEC) cultures of two avocado varieties using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Although Criollo and Hass EC exhibited similarities in the proteome and metabolome profile, in general, we observed a more active phenylpropanoid pathway in EC than NEC. This pathway is associated with the tolerance of stress responses, probably through the reinforcement of the cell wall and flavonoid production. We could corroborate that particular polyphenolics compounds, including p-coumaric acid and t-ferulic acid, stimulated the production of somatic embryos in avocado. Exogen phenolic compounds were associated with the modification of the content of endogenous polyphenolic and the induction of the production of the putative auxin-a, adenosine, cellulose and 1,26-hexacosanediol-diferulate. We suggest that in EC of avocado, there is an enhanced phenylpropanoid metabolism for the production of the building blocks of lignin and flavonoid compounds having a role in cell wall reinforcement for tolerating stress response. Data are available at ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD019705. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Proteome-Wide Analyses Provide New Insights into the Compatible Interaction of Rice with the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne graminicola
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5640; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165640 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 683
Abstract
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is an important pathogen in rice, causing huge yield losses annually worldwide. Details of the interaction between rice and M. graminicola and the resistance genes in rice still remain unclear. In this study, proteome-wide analyses of the compatible [...] Read more.
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is an important pathogen in rice, causing huge yield losses annually worldwide. Details of the interaction between rice and M. graminicola and the resistance genes in rice still remain unclear. In this study, proteome-wide analyses of the compatible interaction of the japonica rice cultivar “Nipponbare” (NPB) with M. graminicola were performed. In total, 6072 proteins were identified in NPB roots with and without infection of M. graminicola by label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. Of these, 513 specifically or significantly differentially expressed proteins were identified to be uniquely caused by nematode infection. Among these unique proteins, 99 proteins were enriched on seven Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. By comparison of protein expression and gene transcription, LOC_Os01g06600 (ACX, a glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase), LOC_Os09g23560 (CAD, a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase), LOC_Os03g39850 (GST, a glutathione S-transferase) and LOC_Os11g11960 (RPM1, a disease resistance protein) on the alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism and plant–pathogen interaction pathways, respectively, were all associated with disease defense and identified to be significantly down-regulated in the compatible interaction of NPB with nematodes, while the corresponding genes were remarkably up-regulated in the roots of a resistant rice accession “Khao Pahk Maw” with infection of nematodes. These four genes likely played important roles in the compatible interaction of rice with M. graminicola. Conversely, these disease defense-related genes were hypothesized to be likely involved in the resistance of resistant rice lines to this nematode. The proteome-wide analyses provided many new insights into the interaction of rice with M. graminicola. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification and Characterization of Glycoproteins and Their Responsive Patterns upon Ethylene Stimulation in the Rubber Latex
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5282; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155282 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 573
Abstract
Natural rubber is an important industrial material, which is obtained from the only commercially cultivated rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. In rubber latex production, ethylene has been extensively used as a stimulant. Recent research showed that post-translational modifications (PTMs) of latex proteins, such [...] Read more.
Natural rubber is an important industrial material, which is obtained from the only commercially cultivated rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. In rubber latex production, ethylene has been extensively used as a stimulant. Recent research showed that post-translational modifications (PTMs) of latex proteins, such as phosphorylation, glycosylation and ubiquitination, are crucial in natural rubber biosynthesis. In this study, comparative proteomics was performed to identify the glycosylated proteins in rubber latex treated with ethylene for different days. Combined with Pro-Q Glycoprotein gel staining and mass spectrometry techniques, we provided the first visual profiling of glycoproteomics of rubber latex and finally identified 144 glycosylated protein species, including 65 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) after treating with ethylene for three and/or five days. Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation showed that these ethylene-responsive glycoproteins are mainly involved in cell parts, membrane components and metabolism. Pathway analysis demonstrated that these glycosylated rubber latex proteins are mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, degradation function and cellular processes in rubber latex metabolism. Protein–protein interaction analysis revealed that these DAPs are mainly centered on acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS) in the mevalonate pathway for natural rubber biosynthesis. In our glycoproteomics, three protein isoforms of HMGS2 were identified from rubber latex, and only one HMGS2 isoform was sharply increased in rubber latex by ethylene treatment for five days. Furthermore, the HbHMGS2 gene was over-expressed in a model rubber-producing grass Taraxacum Kok-saghyz and rubber content in the roots of transgenic rubber grass was significantly increased over that in the wild type plant, indicating HMGS2 is the key component for natural rubber production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated Omics Analyses Identify Key Pathways Involved in Petiole Rigidity Formation in Sacred Lotus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145087 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 602
Abstract
Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is a relic aquatic plant with two types of leaves, which have distinct rigidity of petioles. Here we assess the difference from anatomic structure to the expression of genes and proteins in two petioles types, and identify [...] Read more.
Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is a relic aquatic plant with two types of leaves, which have distinct rigidity of petioles. Here we assess the difference from anatomic structure to the expression of genes and proteins in two petioles types, and identify key pathways involved in petiole rigidity formation in sacred lotus. Anatomically, great variation between the petioles of floating and vertical leaves were observed. The number of collenchyma cells and thickness of xylem vessel cell wall was higher in the initial vertical leaves’ petiole (IVP) compared to the initial floating leaves’ petiole (IFP). Among quantified transcripts and proteins, 1021 and 401 transcripts presented 2-fold expression increment (named DEGs, genes differentially expressed between IFP and IVP) in IFP and IVP, 421 and 483 proteins exhibited 1.5-fold expression increment (named DEPs, proteins differentially expressed between IFP and IVP) in IFP and IVP, respectively. Gene function and pathway enrichment analysis displayed that DEGs and DEPs were significantly enriched in cell wall biosynthesis and lignin biosynthesis. In consistent with genes and proteins expressions in lignin biosynthesis, the contents of lignin monomers precursors were significantly different in IFP and IVP. These results enable us to understand lotus petioles rigidity formation better and provide valuable candidate genes information on further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Dissecting the Seed Maturation and Germination Processes in the Non-Orthodox Quercus ilex Species Based on Protein Signatures as Revealed by 2-DE Coupled to MALDI-TOF/TOF Proteomics Strategy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 4870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144870 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 616
Abstract
Unlike orthodox species, seed recalcitrance is poorly understood, especially at the molecular level. In this regard, seed maturation and germination were studied in the non-orthodox Quercus ilex by using a proteomics strategy based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time [...] Read more.
Unlike orthodox species, seed recalcitrance is poorly understood, especially at the molecular level. In this regard, seed maturation and germination were studied in the non-orthodox Quercus ilex by using a proteomics strategy based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight (2-DE-MALDI-TOF).Cotyledons and embryo/radicle were sampled at different developmental stages, including early (M1–M3), middle (M4–M7), and late (M8–M9) seed maturation, and early (G1–G3) and late (G4–G5) germination. Samples corresponding to non-germinating, inviable, seeds were also included. Protein extracts were subjected to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and changes in the protein profiles were analyzed. Identified variable proteins were grouped according to their function, being the energy, carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolisms, together with protein fate, redox homeostasis, and response to stress are the most represented groups. Beyond the visual aspect, morphometry, weight, and water content, each stage had a specific protein signature. Clear tendencies for the different protein groups throughout the maturation and germination stages were observed for, respectively, cotyledon and the embryo axis. Proteins related to metabolism, translation, legumins, proteases, proteasome, and those stress related were less abundant in non-germinating seeds, it related to the loss of viability. Cotyledons were enriched with reserve proteins and protein-degrading enzymes, while the embryo axis was enriched with proteins of cell defense and rescue, including heat-shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidants. The peaks of enzyme proteins occurred at the middle stages (M6–M7) in cotyledons and at late ones (M8–M9) in the embryo axis. Unlike orthodox seeds, proteins associated with glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, carbohydrate, amino acid and lipid metabolism are present at high levels in the mature seed and were maintained throughout the germination stages. The lack of desiccation tolerance in Q. ilex seeds may be associated with the repression of some genes, late embryogenesis abundant proteins being one of the candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrastructural and Photosynthetic Responses of Pod Walls in Alfalfa to Drought Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124457 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 510
Abstract
Increasing photosynthetic ability as a whole is essential for acquiring higher crop yields. Nonleaf green organs (NLGOs) make important contributions to photosynthate formation, especially under stress conditions. However, there is little information on the pod wall in legume forage related to seed development [...] Read more.
Increasing photosynthetic ability as a whole is essential for acquiring higher crop yields. Nonleaf green organs (NLGOs) make important contributions to photosynthate formation, especially under stress conditions. However, there is little information on the pod wall in legume forage related to seed development and yield. This experiment is designed for alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under drought stress to explore the photosynthetic responses of pod walls after 5, 10, 15, and 20 days of pollination (DAP5, DAP10, DAP15, and DAP20) based on ultrastructural, physiological and proteomic analyses. Stomata were evidently observed on the outer epidermis of the pod wall. Chloroplasts had intact structures arranged alongside the cell wall, which on DAP5 were already capable of producing photosynthate. The pod wall at the late stage (DAP20) still had photosynthetic ability under well-watered (WW) treatments, while under water-stress (WS), the structure of the chloroplast membrane was damaged and the grana lamella of thylakoids were blurry. The chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentrations both decreased with the development of pod walls, and drought stress impeded the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments. Although the activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) decreased in the pod wall under drought stress, the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) increased higher than that of RuBisCo. The proteomic analysis showed that the absorption of light is limited due to the suppression of the synthesis of chlorophyll a/b binding proteins by drought stress. Moreover, proteins involved in photosystem I and photosystem II were downregulated under WW compared with WS. Although the expression of some proteins participating in the regeneration period of RuBisCo was suppressed in the pod wall subjected to drought stress, the synthesis of PEPC was induced. In addition, some proteins, which were involved in the reduction period of RuBisCo, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy metabolism, and related to resistance, including chitinase, heat shock protein 81-2 (Hsp81-2), and lipoxygenases (LOXs), were highly expressed for the protective response to drought stress. It could be suggested that the pod wall in alfalfa is capable of operating photosynthesis and reducing the photosynthetic loss from drought stress through the promotion of the C4 pathway, ATP synthesis, and resistance ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Comparison of Clinically Relevant Grain Proteins in Modern and Traditional Bread Wheat Cultivars
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103445 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most valuable cereal crops for human consumption. Its grain storage proteins define bread quality, though they may cause food intolerances or allergies in susceptible individuals. Herein, we discovered a diversity of grain proteins [...] Read more.
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most valuable cereal crops for human consumption. Its grain storage proteins define bread quality, though they may cause food intolerances or allergies in susceptible individuals. Herein, we discovered a diversity of grain proteins in three Ukrainian wheat cultivars: Sotnytsia, Panna (both modern selection), and Ukrainka (landrace). Firstly, proteins were isolated with a detergent-containing buffer that allowed extraction of various groups of storage proteins (glutenins, gliadins, globulins, and albumins); secondly, the proteome was profiled by the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Using multi-enzymatic digestion, we identified 49 differentially accumulated proteins. Parallel ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography separation followed by direct mass spectrometry quantification complemented the results. Principal component analysis confirmed that differences among genotypes were a major source of variation. Non-gluten fraction better discriminated bread wheat cultivars. Various accumulation of clinically relevant plant proteins highlighted one of the modern genotypes as a promising donor for the breeding of hypoallergenic cereals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Proteomic Analysis by iTRAQ Reveals that Plastid Pigment Metabolism Contributes to Leaf Color Changes in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) during Curing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072394 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), is a world’s major non-food agricultural crop widely cultivated for its economic value. Among several color change associated biological processes, plastid pigment metabolism is of trivial importance in postharvest plant organs during curing and storage. However, the molecular [...] Read more.
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), is a world’s major non-food agricultural crop widely cultivated for its economic value. Among several color change associated biological processes, plastid pigment metabolism is of trivial importance in postharvest plant organs during curing and storage. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid and chlorophyll metabolism, as well as color change in tobacco leaves during curing, need further elaboration. Here, proteomic analysis at different curing stages (0 h, 48 h, 72 h) was performed in tobacco cv. Bi’na1 with an aim to investigate the molecular mechanisms of pigment metabolism in tobacco leaves as revealed by the iTRAQ proteomic approach. Our results displayed significant differences in leaf color parameters and ultrastructural fingerprints that indicate an acceleration of chloroplast disintegration and promotion of pigment degradation in tobacco leaves due to curing. In total, 5931 proteins were identified, of which 923 (450 up-regulated, 452 down-regulated, and 21 common) differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were obtained from tobacco leaves. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pigment metabolism and color change, 19 DEPs involved in carotenoid metabolism and 12 DEPs related to chlorophyll metabolism were screened. The results exhibited the complex regulation of DEPs in carotenoid metabolism, a negative regulation in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and a positive regulation in chlorophyll breakdown, which delayed the degradation of xanthophylls and accelerated the breakdown of chlorophylls, promoting the formation of yellow color during curing. Particularly, the up-regulation of the chlorophyllase-1-like isoform X2 was the key protein regulatory mechanism responsible for chlorophyll metabolism and color change. The expression pattern of 8 genes was consistent with the iTRAQ data. These results not only provide new insights into pigment metabolism and color change underlying the postharvest physiological regulatory networks in plants, but also a broader perspective, which prompts us to pay attention to further screen key proteins in tobacco leaves during curing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
S-Nitroso-Proteome Revealed in Stomatal Guard Cell Response to Flg22
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051688 - 01 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in stomata closure induced by environmental stimuli including pathogens. During pathogen challenge, nitric oxide (NO) acts as a second messenger in guard cell signaling networks to activate downstream responses leading to stomata closure. One means by [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in stomata closure induced by environmental stimuli including pathogens. During pathogen challenge, nitric oxide (NO) acts as a second messenger in guard cell signaling networks to activate downstream responses leading to stomata closure. One means by which NO’s action is achieved is through the posttranslational modification of cysteine residue(s) of target proteins. Although the roles of NO have been well studied in plant tissues and seedlings, far less is known about NO signaling and, more specifically, protein S-nitrosylation (SNO) in stomatal guard cells. In this study, using iodoTMTRAQ quantitative proteomics technology, we analyzed changes in protein SNO modification in guard cells of reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana in response to flg22, an elicitor-active peptide derived from bacterial flagellin. A total of 41 SNO-modified peptides corresponding to 35 proteins were identified. The proteins cover a wide range of functions, including energy metabolism, transport, stress response, photosynthesis, and cell–cell communication. This study creates the first inventory of previously unknown NO responsive proteins in guard cell immune responses and establishes a foundation for future research toward understanding the molecular mechanisms and regulatory roles of SNO in stomata immunity against bacterial pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Wild-Type Physcomitrella Patens and an OPDA-Deficient Physcomitrella Patens Mutant with Disrupted PpAOS1 and PpAOS2 Genes after Wounding
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041417 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 844
Abstract
Wounding is a serious environmental stress in plants. Oxylipins such as jasmonic acid play an important role in defense against wounding. Mechanisms to adapt to wounding have been investigated in vascular plants; however, those mechanisms in nonvascular plants remain elusive. To examine the [...] Read more.
Wounding is a serious environmental stress in plants. Oxylipins such as jasmonic acid play an important role in defense against wounding. Mechanisms to adapt to wounding have been investigated in vascular plants; however, those mechanisms in nonvascular plants remain elusive. To examine the response to wounding in Physcomitrella patens, a model moss, a proteomic analysis of wounded P. patens was conducted. Proteomic analysis showed that wounding increased the abundance of proteins related to protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, protein folding, photosystem, glycolysis, and energy synthesis. 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was induced by wounding and inhibited growth. Therefore, OPDA is considered a signaling molecule in this plant. Proteomic analysis of a P. patens mutant in which the PpAOS1 and PpAOS2 genes, which are involved in OPDA biosynthesis, are disrupted showed accumulation of proteins involved in protein synthesis in response to wounding in a similar way to the wild-type plant. In contrast, the fold-changes of the proteins in the wild-type plant were significantly different from those in the aos mutant. This study suggests that PpAOS gene expression enhances photosynthesis and effective energy utilization in response to wounding in P. patens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Label-Free Comparative Proteomic Analysis Combined with Laser-Capture Microdissection Suggests Important Roles of Stress Responses in the Black Layer of Maize Kernels
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041369 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
The black layer (BL) is traditionally used as an indicator for kernel harvesting in maize, as it turns visibly dark when the kernel reaches physiological maturity. However, the molecular roles of BL in kernel development have not been fully elucidated. In this work, [...] Read more.
The black layer (BL) is traditionally used as an indicator for kernel harvesting in maize, as it turns visibly dark when the kernel reaches physiological maturity. However, the molecular roles of BL in kernel development have not been fully elucidated. In this work, microscopy images showed that BL began to appear at a growth stage earlier than 10 days after pollination (DAP), and its color gradually deepened to become dark as the development period progressed. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that BL is a tissue structure composed of several layers of cells that are gradually squeezed and compressed during kernel development. Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) was used to sample BL and its neighboring inner tissue, basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL), and outer tissue, inner epidermis (IEP), from 20 DAP of kernels. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiling (MALDI-TOF MS profiling) detected 41, 104, and 120 proteins from LCM-sampled BL, BETL, and IEP, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the 41 BL proteins were primarily involved in the response to stress and stimuli. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis found that the BL proteins were enriched in several defense pathways, such as the ascorbate and aldarate metabolic pathways. Among the 41 BL proteins, six were BL-specific proteins that were only detected from BL. Annotations of five BL-specific proteins were related to stress responses. During kernel development, transcriptional expression of most BL proteins showed an increase, followed by a decrease, and reached a maximum zero to 20 DAP. These results suggest a role for BL in stress responses for protecting filial tissue against threats from maternal sides, which helps to elucidate the biological functions of BL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of the Effect of Inorganic and Organic Chemicals with Silver Nanoparticles on Soybean under Flooding Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041300 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
Extensive utilization of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in agricultural products results in their interaction with other chemicals in the environment. To study the combined effects of silver NPs with nicotinic acid and potassium nitrate (KNO3), a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used. Root [...] Read more.
Extensive utilization of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in agricultural products results in their interaction with other chemicals in the environment. To study the combined effects of silver NPs with nicotinic acid and potassium nitrate (KNO3), a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used. Root length/weight and hypocotyl length/weight of soybean were enhanced by silver NPs mixed with nicotinic acid and KNO3. Out of a total 6340 identified proteins, 351 proteins were significantly changed, out of which 247 and 104 proteins increased and decreased, respectively. Differentially changed proteins were predominantly associated with protein degradation and synthesis according to the functional categorization. Protein-degradation-related proteins mainly consisted of the proteasome degradation pathway. The cell death was significantly higher in the root tips of soybean under the combined treatment compared to flooding stress. Accumulation of calnexin/calreticulin and glycoproteins was significantly increased under flooding with silver NPs, nicotinic acid, and KNO3. Growth of soybean seedlings with silver NPs, nicotinic acid, and KNO3 was improved under flooding stress. These results suggest that the combined mixture of silver NPs, nicotinic acid, and KNO3 causes positive effects on soybean seedling by regulating the protein quality control for the mis-folded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, it might improve the growth of soybean under flooding stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Proteomics Profiling Illuminates the Fruitlet Abscission Mechanism of Sweet Cherry as Induced by Embryo Abortion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041200 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 759
Abstract
Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a delicious nutrient-rich fruit widely cultivated in countries such as China, America, Chile, and Italy. However, the yield often drops severely due to the frequently-abnormal fruitlet abscission, and few studies on the metabolism during its ripening [...] Read more.
Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a delicious nutrient-rich fruit widely cultivated in countries such as China, America, Chile, and Italy. However, the yield often drops severely due to the frequently-abnormal fruitlet abscission, and few studies on the metabolism during its ripening process at the proteomic level have been executed so far. To get a better understanding regarding the sweet cherry abscission mechanism, proteomic analysis between the abscising carpopodium and non-abscising carpopodium of sweet cherry was accomplished using a newly developed Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry with Tandem Mass Tag (TMT-LC-MS/MS) methodology. The embryo viability experiments showed that the vigor of the abscission embryos was significantly lower than that of retention embryo. The activity of cell wall degrading enzymes in abscising carpopodium was significantly higher than that in non-abscising carpopodium. The anatomy results suggested that cells in the abscission zone were small and separated. In total, 6280 proteins were identified, among which 5681 were quantified. It has been observed that differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) influenced several biological functions and various subcellular localizations. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that plenty of metabolic pathways were notably enriched, particularly those involved in phytohormone biosynthesis, cell wall metabolism, and cytoskeletal metabolism, including 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase proteins which promote ethylene synthesis, and proteins promoting cell wall degradation, such as endoglucanases, pectinase, and polygalacturonase. Differential expression of proteins concerning phytohormone biosynthesis might activate the shedding regulation signals. Up-regulation of several cell wall degradation-related proteins possibly regulated the shedding of plant organs. Variations of the phytohormone biosynthesis and cell wall degradation-related proteins were explored during the abscission process. Furthermore, changes in cytoskeleton-associated proteins might contribute to the abscission of carpopodium. The current work represented the first study using comparative proteomics between abscising carpopodium and non-abscising carpopodium. These results indicated that embryo abortion might lead to phytohormone synthesis disorder, which effected signal transduction pathways, and hereby controlled genes involved in cell wall degradation and then caused the abscission of fruitlet. Overall, our data may give an intrinsic explanation of the variations in metabolism during the abscission of carpopodium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrative Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Molecular Mechanism Responding to Salt Stress during Seed Germination in Hulless Barley
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010359 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) is one of the most important crops in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Soil salinity seriously affects its cultivation. To investigate the mechanism of salt stress response during seed germination, two contrasting hulless barley genotypes were [...] Read more.
Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) is one of the most important crops in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Soil salinity seriously affects its cultivation. To investigate the mechanism of salt stress response during seed germination, two contrasting hulless barley genotypes were selected to first investigate the molecular mechanism of seed salinity response during the germination stage using RNA-sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation technologies. Compared to the salt-sensitive landrace lk621, the salt-tolerant one lk573 germinated normally under salt stress. The changes in hormone contents also differed between lk621 and lk573. In lk573, 1597 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 171 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were specifically detected at 4 h after salt stress, and correspondingly, 2748 and 328 specifically detected at 16 h. Most specific DEGs in lk573 were involved in response to oxidative stress, biosynthetic process, protein localization, and vesicle-mediated transport, and most specific DEPs were assigned to an oxidation-reduction process, carbohydrate metabolic process, and protein phosphorylation. There were 96 genes specifically differentially expressed at both transcriptomic and proteomic levels in lk573. These results revealed the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance and provided candidate genes for further study and salt-tolerant improvement in hulless barley. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Bringing New Methods to the Seed Proteomics Platform: Challenges and Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239162 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 585
Abstract
For centuries, crop plants have represented the basis of the daily human diet. Among them, cereals and legumes, accumulating oils, proteins, and carbohydrates in their seeds, distinctly dominate modern agriculture, thus play an essential role in food industry and fuel production. Therefore, seeds [...] Read more.
For centuries, crop plants have represented the basis of the daily human diet. Among them, cereals and legumes, accumulating oils, proteins, and carbohydrates in their seeds, distinctly dominate modern agriculture, thus play an essential role in food industry and fuel production. Therefore, seeds of crop plants are intensively studied by food chemists, biologists, biochemists, and nutritional physiologists. Accordingly, seed development and germination as well as age- and stress-related alterations in seed vigor, longevity, nutritional value, and safety can be addressed by a broad panel of analytical, biochemical, and physiological methods. Currently, functional genomics is one of the most powerful tools, giving direct access to characteristic metabolic changes accompanying plant development, senescence, and response to biotic or abiotic stress. Among individual post-genomic methodological platforms, proteomics represents one of the most effective ones, giving access to cellular metabolism at the level of proteins. During the recent decades, multiple methodological advances were introduced in different branches of life science, although only some of them were established in seed proteomics so far. Therefore, here we discuss main methodological approaches already employed in seed proteomics, as well as those still waiting for implementation in this field of plant research, with a special emphasis on sample preparation, data acquisition, processing, and post-processing. Thereby, the overall goal of this review is to bring new methodologies emerging in different areas of proteomics research (clinical, food, ecological, microbial, and plant proteomics) to the broad society of seed biologists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessReview
Soil Metaproteomics for the Study of the Relationships Between Microorganisms and Plants: A Review of Extraction Protocols and Ecological Insights
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228455 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 397
Abstract
Soil is a complex matrix where biotic and abiotic components establish a still unclear network involving bacteria, fungi, archaea, protists, protozoa, and roots that are in constant communication with each other. Understanding these interactions has recently focused on metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and less on [...] Read more.
Soil is a complex matrix where biotic and abiotic components establish a still unclear network involving bacteria, fungi, archaea, protists, protozoa, and roots that are in constant communication with each other. Understanding these interactions has recently focused on metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and less on metaproteomics studies. Metaproteomic allows total extraction of intracellular and extracellular proteins from soil samples, providing a complete picture of the physiological and functional state of the “soil community”. The advancement of high-performance mass spectrometry technologies was more rapid than the development of ad hoc extraction techniques for soil proteins. The protein extraction from environmental samples is biased due to interfering substances and the lower amount of proteins in comparison to cell cultures. Soil sample preparation and extraction methodology are crucial steps to obtain high-quality resolution and yields of proteins. This review focuses on the several soil protein extraction protocols to date to highlight the methodological challenges and critical issues for the application of proteomics to soil samples. This review concludes that improvements in soil protein extraction, together with the employment of ad hoc metagenome database, may enhance the identification of proteins with low abundance or from non-dominant populations and increase our capacity to predict functional changes in soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessReview
Advances on Plant Ubiquitylome—From Mechanism to Application
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 7909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21217909 - 24 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 439
Abstract
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins enable modulation of their structure, function, localization and turnover. To date, over 660 PTMs have been reported, among which, reversible PTMs are regarded as the key players in cellular signaling. Signaling mediated by PTMs is faster than re-initiation [...] Read more.
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins enable modulation of their structure, function, localization and turnover. To date, over 660 PTMs have been reported, among which, reversible PTMs are regarded as the key players in cellular signaling. Signaling mediated by PTMs is faster than re-initiation of gene expression, which may result in a faster response that is particularly crucial for plants due to their sessile nature. Ubiquitylation has been widely reported to be involved in many aspects of plant growth and development and it is largely determined by its target protein. It is therefore of high interest to explore new ubiquitylated proteins/sites to obtain new insights into its mechanism and functions. In the last decades, extensive protein profiling of ubiquitylation has been achieved in different plants due to the advancement in ubiquitylated proteins (or peptides) affinity and mass spectrometry techniques. This obtained information on a large number of ubiquitylated proteins/sites helps crack the mechanism of ubiquitylation in plants. In this review, we have summarized the latest advances in protein ubiquitylation to gain comprehensive and updated knowledge in this field. Besides, the current and future challenges and barriers are also reviewed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessReview
Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Morphophysiological Effects, and Proteomic Responses of Crop Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3056; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093056 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
Plant cells are frequently challenged with a wide range of adverse environmental conditions that restrict plant growth and limit the productivity of agricultural crops. Rapid development of nanotechnology and unsystematic discharge of metal containing nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment pose a serious threat [...] Read more.
Plant cells are frequently challenged with a wide range of adverse environmental conditions that restrict plant growth and limit the productivity of agricultural crops. Rapid development of nanotechnology and unsystematic discharge of metal containing nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment pose a serious threat to the ecological receptors including plants. Engineered nanoparticles are synthesized by physical, chemical, biological, or hybrid methods. In addition, volcanic eruption, mechanical grinding of earthquake-generating faults in Earth’s crust, ocean spray, and ultrafine cosmic dust are the natural source of NPs in the atmosphere. Untying the nature of plant interactions with NPs is fundamental for assessing their uptake and distribution, as well as evaluating phytotoxicity. Modern mass spectrometry-based proteomic techniques allow precise identification of low abundant proteins, protein–protein interactions, and in-depth analyses of cellular signaling networks. The present review highlights current understanding of plant responses to NPs exploiting high-throughput proteomics techniques. Synthesis of NPs, their morphophysiological effects on crops, and applications of proteomic techniques, are discussed in details to comprehend the underlying mechanism of NPs stress acclimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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