Special Issue "Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jihoon Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electronics and Information, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-gu Seoul 01897, South Korea
Interests: understanding physical, chemical, and biological materials of various compositions and morphologies, including carbon nanotubes, graphene, oxide materials, polymer, molecules, nanoparticles, nanowires, quantum, dots, etc.
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Ming-Yu Li
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), 308, West No. 7 Building, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China
Interests: nanomaterials synthesis; optical thin films; photodetectors; pyroelectric thin films; nanocomposites for pyroelectric energy harvesting, etc.
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials research, the science and technologies for the generation, processing, and fabrication of materials, is where disciplines merge and where they diverge into a remarkable range of applications, from electronics to health care, which touch, or will soon touch, the lives of millions. The collaborative conference on materials research (CCMR) series aims to enable technological developments in the various fields of materials and to further the goal of unifying nanomaterials research in engineering, physics, biology, materials science, as well as chemistry and neuroscience.

This Special Issue, “Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR”, will contain the accepted papers presented during the CCMR series, related to ‘nanotechnologies and nanomaterials’. The selected papers will include nanomaterials preparation, modification, characterization, properties, and the applications of any compositions and morphologies, including carbon nanotubes, graphene, metal, oxide materials, polymer, molecules, nanoparticles, nanowires, quantum dots, etc.

Prof. Dr. Jihoon Lee
Dr. Ming-Yu Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Advanced alloy materials
  • Biomaterials and applications
  • Catalytic materials and applications
  • Electronic materials and applications
  • Energy materials
  • Graphene and applications
  • Light emitting materials
  • Magnetism and magnetic materials
  • Materials synthesis and characterizations
  • Materials theory and principles
  • Molecular systems and applications
  • Nanostructures and nanomaterials
  • Optoelectronic materials
  • Oxide materials 
  • Photovoltaics photocatalysis materials
  • Plasmonics and applications
  • Polymers and applications
  • Quantum matters and applications
  • Sensors and applications

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Research

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Article
Extensive Broadband Near-Infrared Emissions from GexSi1−x Alloys on Micro-Hole Patterned Si(001) Substrates
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2545; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102545 (registering DOI) - 28 Sep 2021
Abstract
Broadband near-infrared (NIR) luminescent materials have been continuously pursued as promising candidates for optoelectronic devices crucial for wide applications in night vision, environment monitoring, biological imaging, etc. Here, graded GexSi1−x (x = 0.1–0.3) alloys are grown on micro-hole patterned Si(001) [...] Read more.
Broadband near-infrared (NIR) luminescent materials have been continuously pursued as promising candidates for optoelectronic devices crucial for wide applications in night vision, environment monitoring, biological imaging, etc. Here, graded GexSi1−x (x = 0.1–0.3) alloys are grown on micro-hole patterned Si(001) substrates. Barn-like islands and branch-like nanostructures appear at regions in-between micro-holes and the sidewalls of micro-holes, respectively. The former is driven by the efficient strain relation. The latter is induced by the dislocations originating from defects at sidewalls after etching. An extensive broadband photoluminescence (PL) spectrum is observed in the NIR wavelength range of 1200–2200 nm. Moreover, the integrated intensity of the PL can be enhanced by over six times in comparison with that from the reference sample on a flat substrate. Such an extensively broad and strong PL spectrum is attributed to the coupling between the emissions of GeSi alloys and the guided resonant modes in ordered micro-holes and the strain-enhanced decomposition of alloys during growth on the micro-hole patterned substrate. These results demonstrate that the graded GexSi1−x alloys on micro-hole pattered Si substrates may have great potential for the development of innovative broadband NIR optoelectronic devices, particularly to realize entire systems on a Si chip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
Article
Nitrogen-Containing Gas Sensing Properties of 2-D Ti2N and Its Derivative Nanosheets: Electronic Structures Insight
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092459 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 272
Abstract
In this work, the potentials of two-dimensional Ti2N and its derivative nanosheets Ti2NT2(T=O, F, OH) for some harmful nitrogen-containing gas (NCG) adsorption and sensing applications have been unveiled based on the quantum-mechanical Density Functional Theory calculations. It [...] Read more.
In this work, the potentials of two-dimensional Ti2N and its derivative nanosheets Ti2NT2(T=O, F, OH) for some harmful nitrogen-containing gas (NCG) adsorption and sensing applications have been unveiled based on the quantum-mechanical Density Functional Theory calculations. It is found that the interactions between pure Ti2N and NCGs (including NO, NO2, and NH3 in this study) are very strong, in which NO and NO2 can even be dissociated, and this would poison the substrate of Ti2N monolayer and affect the stability of the sensing material. For the monolayer of Ti2NT2(T=O, F, OH) that is terminated by functional groups on surface, the adsorption energies of NCGs are greatly reduced, and a large amount of charges are transferred to the functional group, which is beneficial to the reversibility of the sensing material. The significant changes in work function imply the good sensitivity of the above mentioned materials. In addition, the fast response time further consolidates the prospect of two-dimensional Ti2NT2 as efficient NCGs’ sensing materials. This theoretical study would supply physical insight into the NCGs’ sensing mechanism of Ti2N based nanosheets and help experimentalists to design better 2-D materials for gas adsorption or sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Communication
Photocatalytic Degradation of Tobacco Tar Using CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots Modified Bi2WO6 Composite Photocatalyst
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092422 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tobacco tar are regarded as a significant threat to human health. PAHs are formed due to the incomplete combustion of organics in tobacco and cigarette paper. Herein, for the first time, we extended the application of CsPbBr3 [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tobacco tar are regarded as a significant threat to human health. PAHs are formed due to the incomplete combustion of organics in tobacco and cigarette paper. Herein, for the first time, we extended the application of CsPbBr3 quantum dots (CsPbBr3) to the photocatalytic degradation of tobacco tar, which was collected from used cigarette filters. To optimize the photoactivity, CsPbBr3 was coupled with Bi2WO6 for the construction of a type-II photocatalyst. The photocatalytic performance of the CsPbBr3/Bi2WO6 composite was evaluated by the degradation rate of PAHs from tobacco tar under simulated solar irradiation. The results revealed that CsPbBr3/Bi2WO6 possesses a large specific surface area, outstanding absorption ability, good light absorption and rapid charge separation. As a result, in addition to good stability, the composite photocatalyst performed remarkably well in degrading PAHs (over 96% were removed in 50 mins of irradiation by AM 1.5 G). This study sheds light on promising novel applications of halide perovskite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Evaluating a Human Ear-Inspired Sound Pressure Amplification Structure with Fabry–Perot Acoustic Sensor Using Graphene Diaphragm
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092284 - 02 Sep 2021
Viewed by 355
Abstract
In order to enhance the sensitivity of a Fabry–Perot (F-P) acoustic sensor without the need of fabricating complicated structures of the acoustic-sensitive diaphragm, a mini-type external sound pressure amplification structure (SPAS) with double 10 μm thickness E-shaped diaphragms of different sizes interconnected with [...] Read more.
In order to enhance the sensitivity of a Fabry–Perot (F-P) acoustic sensor without the need of fabricating complicated structures of the acoustic-sensitive diaphragm, a mini-type external sound pressure amplification structure (SPAS) with double 10 μm thickness E-shaped diaphragms of different sizes interconnected with a 5 mm length tapered circular rod was developed based on the acoustic sensitive mechanism of the ossicular chain in the human middle ear. The influence of thickness and Young’s modulus of the two diaphragms with the diameters of 15 mm and 3 mm, respectively, on the amplification ratio and frequency response were investigated via COMSOL acoustic field simulation, thereby confirming the dominated effect. Then, three kinds of dual-diaphragm schemes relating to steel and thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) materials were introduced to fabricate the corresponding SPASs. The acoustic test showed that the first scheme achieved a high resonant response frequency with lower acoustic amplification due to strong equivalent stiffness; in contrast, the second scheme offered a high acoustic amplification but reduced frequency range. As a result of sensitivity enhancement, adapted with the steel/TPU diaphragm structure, an optical fiber Fabry–Perot sensor using a multilayer graphene diaphragm with a diameter of 125 μm demonstrated a remarkable sensitivity of 565.3 mV/Pa @1.2 kHz due to the amplification ratio of up to ~29.9 in the range of 0.2–2.3 kHz, which can be further improved by miniaturizing structure dimension, along with the use of microstructure packaging technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
In-Sn-Zn Oxide Nanocomposite Films with Enhanced Electrical Properties Deposited by High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2016; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082016 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 430
Abstract
In-Sn-Zn oxide (ITZO) nanocomposite films have been investigated extensively as a potential material in thin-film transistors due to their good electrical properties. In this work, ITZO thin films were deposited on glass substrates by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at room temperature. The [...] Read more.
In-Sn-Zn oxide (ITZO) nanocomposite films have been investigated extensively as a potential material in thin-film transistors due to their good electrical properties. In this work, ITZO thin films were deposited on glass substrates by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at room temperature. The influence of the duty cycle (pulse off-time) on the microstructures and electrical performance of the films was investigated. The results showed that ITZO thin films prepared by HiPIMS were dense and smooth compared to thin films prepared by direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). With the pulse off-time increasing from 0 μs (DCMS) to 2000 μs, the films’ crystallinity enhanced. When the pulse off-time was longer than 1000 μs, In2O3 structure could be detected in the films. The films’ electrical resistivity reduced as the pulse off-time extended. Most notably, the optimal resistivity of as low as 4.07 × 10−3 Ω·cm could be achieved when the pulse off-time was 2000 μs. Its corresponding carrier mobility and carrier concentration were 12.88 cm2V−1s−1 and 1.25 × 1020 cm−3, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Multi-Angular Colorimetric Responses of Uni- and Omni-Directional Femtosecond Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures on Metals
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082010 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 493
Abstract
We investigated the colorimetric behaviors of metal surfaces with unidirectional low-spatial-frequency laser-induced periodic surface structures (UD-LSFLs) and omnidirectional LSFLs (OD-LSFLs) fabricated using femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. With the CIE standard illuminant D65, incident at −45°, we show that UD-LSFLs on metals transform polished [...] Read more.
We investigated the colorimetric behaviors of metal surfaces with unidirectional low-spatial-frequency laser-induced periodic surface structures (UD-LSFLs) and omnidirectional LSFLs (OD-LSFLs) fabricated using femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. With the CIE standard illuminant D65, incident at −45°, we show that UD-LSFLs on metals transform polished metals to gonio-apparent materials with a unique behavior of colorimetric responses, depending on both the detection and rotation angles, whereas OD-LSFLs have nearly uniform gonio-apparent colors at each detection angle, regardless of their rotation. These colorimetric behaviors can be observed not only at the angles of diffraction but also near the angle of reflection, and we find that the power redistribution due to Rayleigh anomalies also plays an important role in the colorimetric responses of UD- and OD-LSFLs, in addition to diffraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Effect of Water and Glycerol in Deoxygenation of Coconut Oil over Bimetallic NiCo/SAPO-11 Nanocatalyst under N2 Atmosphere
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122548 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
The catalytic deoxygenation of coconut oil was performed in a continuous-flow reactor over bimetallic NiCo/silicoaluminophosphate-11 (SAPO-11) nanocatalysts for hydrocarbon fuel production. The conversion and product distribution were investigated over NiCo/SAPO-11 with different applied co-reactants, i.e., water (H2O) or glycerol solution, performed [...] Read more.
The catalytic deoxygenation of coconut oil was performed in a continuous-flow reactor over bimetallic NiCo/silicoaluminophosphate-11 (SAPO-11) nanocatalysts for hydrocarbon fuel production. The conversion and product distribution were investigated over NiCo/SAPO-11 with different applied co-reactants, i.e., water (H2O) or glycerol solution, performed under nitrogen (N2) atmosphere. The hydrogen-containing co-reactants were proposed here as in-situ hydrogen sources for the deoxygenation, while the reaction tests under hydrogen (H2) atmosphere were also applied as a reference set of experiments. The results showed that applying co-reactants to the reaction enhanced the oil conversion as the following order: N2 (no co-reactant) < N2 (H2O) < N2 (aqueous glycerol) < H2 (reference). The main products formed under the existence of H2O or glycerol solution were free fatty acids (FFAs) and their corresponding Cn−1 alkanes. The addition of H2O aids the triglyceride breakdown into FFAs, whereas the glycerol acts as hydrogen donor which is favourable to initiate hydrogenolysis of triglycerides, causing higher amount of FFAs than the former case. Consequently, those FFAs can be deoxygenated via decarbonylation/decarboxylation to their corresponding Cn−1 alkanes, showing the promising capability of the NiCo/SAPO-11 to produce hydrocarbon fuels even in the absence of external H2 source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Low-Temperature Synthesis of Monolithic Titanium Carbide/Carbon Composite Aerogel
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2527; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122527 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Resorcinol-formaldehyde/titanium dioxide composite (RF/TiO2) gel was prepared simultaneously by acid catalysis and then dried to aerogel with supercritical fluid CO2. The carbon/titanium dioxide aerogel was obtained by carbonization and then converted to nanoporous titanium carbide/carbon composite aerogel via 800 [...] Read more.
Resorcinol-formaldehyde/titanium dioxide composite (RF/TiO2) gel was prepared simultaneously by acid catalysis and then dried to aerogel with supercritical fluid CO2. The carbon/titanium dioxide aerogel was obtained by carbonization and then converted to nanoporous titanium carbide/carbon composite aerogel via 800 °C magnesiothermic catalysis. Meanwhile, the evolution of the samples in different stages was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and specific surface area analysis (BET). The results showed that the final product was nanoporous TiC/C composite aerogel with a low apparent density of 339.5 mg/cm3 and a high specific surface area of 459.5 m2/g. Comparing to C aerogel, it could also be considered as one type of highly potential material with efficient photothermal conversion. The idea of converting oxide–carbon composite into titanium carbide via the confining template and low-temperature magnesiothermic catalysis may provide new sight to the synthesis of novel nanoscale carbide materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Improved Pulse-Controlled Conductance Adjustment in Trilayer Resistors by Suppressing Current Overshoot
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122462 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 467
Abstract
In this work, we demonstrate the enhanced synaptic behaviors in trilayer dielectrics (HfO2/Si3N4/SiO2) on highly doped n-type silicon substrate. First, the three dielectric layers were subjected to material and chemical analyses and thoroughly investigated via [...] Read more.
In this work, we demonstrate the enhanced synaptic behaviors in trilayer dielectrics (HfO2/Si3N4/SiO2) on highly doped n-type silicon substrate. First, the three dielectric layers were subjected to material and chemical analyses and thoroughly investigated via transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The resistive switching and synaptic behaviors were improved by inserting a Si3N4 layer between the HfO2 and SiO2 layers. The electric field within SiO2 was mitigated, thus reducing the current overshoot in the trilayer device. The reset current was considerably reduced in the trilayer device compared to the bilayer device without a Si3N4 layer. Moreover, the nonlinear characteristics in the low-resistance state are helpful for implementing high-density memory. The higher array size in the trilayer device was verified by cross-point array simulation. Finally, the multiple conductance adjustment was demonstrated in the trilayer device by controlling the gradual set and reset switching behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Creation of Curved Nanostructures Using Soft-Materials-Derived Lithography
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122414 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 534
Abstract
In this study, curved nanostructures, which are difficult to obtain, were created on an Si substrate through the bonding, swelling, and breaking processes of the polymer and silicone substrate. This method can be utilized to obtain convex nanostructures over large areas. The method [...] Read more.
In this study, curved nanostructures, which are difficult to obtain, were created on an Si substrate through the bonding, swelling, and breaking processes of the polymer and silicone substrate. This method can be utilized to obtain convex nanostructures over large areas. The method is simpler than typical semiconductor processing with photolithography or compared to wet- or vacuum-based dry etching processes. The polymer bonding, swelling (or no swelling), and breaking processes that are performed in this process were theoretically analyzed through a numerical analysis of permeability and modeling. Through this process, we designed a convex nanostructure that can be produced experimentally in an accurate manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Influence of Oxygen Flow Rate on Channel Width Dependent Electrical Properties of Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122357 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
The effects of various oxygen flows on indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with different channel width sizes have been investigated. The IGZO nano-films exhibited amorphous phase while the bandgap energy and sheet resistance increased with increasing oxygen flow rate. [...] Read more.
The effects of various oxygen flows on indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with different channel width sizes have been investigated. The IGZO nano-films exhibited amorphous phase while the bandgap energy and sheet resistance increased with increasing oxygen flow rate. The electrical characteristics were evaluated with different sizes in channel width using fixed channel length. The distributions in terms of threshold voltage and current on–off level along the different channel width sizes have been discussed thoroughly. The minimum distribution of threshold voltage was observed at an oxygen flow rate of 1 sccm. The TFT electrical properties have been achieved, using an oxygen flow rate of 1 sccm with 500 µm channel width, the threshold voltage, ratio of on-current to off-current, sub-threshold swing voltage and field effect mobility to be 0.54 V, 106, 0.15 V/decade and 12.3 cm2/V·s, respectively. On the other hand, a larger channel width of 2000 µm could further improve the ratio of on-current to off-current and sub-threshold swing voltage to 107 and 0.11 V/decade. The optimized combination of oxygen flow and channel width showed improved electrical characteristics for TFT applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Manganese Ferrite Nanoparticles (MnFe2O4): Size Dependence for Hyperthermia and Negative/Positive Contrast Enhancement in MRI
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112297 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
We synthesized manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles of different sizes by varying pH during chemical co-precipitation procedure and modified their surfaces with polysaccharide chitosan (CS) to investigate characteristics of hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Structural features were analyzed by [...] Read more.
We synthesized manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles of different sizes by varying pH during chemical co-precipitation procedure and modified their surfaces with polysaccharide chitosan (CS) to investigate characteristics of hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Structural features were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction (SAED) patterns, and Mössbauer spectroscopy to confirm the formation of superparamagnetic MnFe2O4 nanoparticles with a size range of 5–15 nm for pH of 9–12. The hydrodynamic sizes of nanoparticles were less than 250 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.3, whereas the zeta potentials were higher than 30 mV to ensure electrostatic repulsion for stable colloidal suspension. MRI properties at 7T demonstrated that transverse relaxation (T2) doubled as the size of CS-coated MnFe2O4 nanoparticles tripled in vitro. However, longitudinal relaxation (T1) was strongest for the smallest CS-coated MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, as revealed by in vivo positive contrast MRI angiography. Cytotoxicity assay on HeLa cells showed CS-coated MnFe2O4 nanoparticles is viable regardless of ambient pH, whereas hyperthermia studies revealed that both the maximum temperature and specific loss power obtained by alternating magnetic field exposure depended on nanoparticle size and concentration. Overall, these results reveal the exciting potential of CS-coated MnFe2O4 nanoparticles in MRI and hyperthermia studies for biomedical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Adhesion of Escherichia Coli to Nanostructured Surfaces and the Role of Type 1 Fimbriae
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112247 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
Bacterial fimbriae are an important virulence factor mediating adhesion to both biotic and abiotic surfaces and facilitating biofilm formation. The expression of type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli is a key virulence factor for urinary tract infections and catheter-associated urinary tract infections, which [...] Read more.
Bacterial fimbriae are an important virulence factor mediating adhesion to both biotic and abiotic surfaces and facilitating biofilm formation. The expression of type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli is a key virulence factor for urinary tract infections and catheter-associated urinary tract infections, which represent the most common nosocomial infections. New strategies to reduce adhesion of bacteria to surfaces is therefore warranted. The aim of the present study was to investigate how surfaces with different nanotopography-influenced fimbriae-mediated adhesion. Surfaces with three different nanopattern surface coverages made in polycarbonate were fabricated by injection molding from electron beam lithography nanopatterned templates. The surfaces were constructed with features of approximately 40 nm width and 25 nm height with 100 nm, 250 nm, and 500 nm interspace distance, respectively. The role of fimbriae type 1-mediated adhesion was investigated using the E. coli wild type BW25113 and ΔfimA (with a knockout of major pilus protein FimA) and ΔfimH (with a knockout of minor protein FimH) mutants. For the surfaces with nanotopography, all strains adhered least to areas with the largest interpillar distance (500 nm). For the E. coli wild type, no difference in adhesion between surfaces without pillars and the largest interpillar distance was observed. For the deletion mutants, increased adhesion was observed for surfaces without pillars compared to surfaces with the largest interpillar distance. The presence of a fully functional type 1 fimbria decreased the bacterial adhesion to the nanopatterned surfaces in comparison to the mutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance for Degradation of Rhodamine B of AgPt/Bi4Ti3O12 Composites
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2206; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112206 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Loading a noble metal on Bi4Ti3O12 could enable the formation of the Schottky barrier at the interface between the former and the latter, which causes electrons to be trapped and inhibits the recombination of photoelectrons and photoholes. In [...] Read more.
Loading a noble metal on Bi4Ti3O12 could enable the formation of the Schottky barrier at the interface between the former and the latter, which causes electrons to be trapped and inhibits the recombination of photoelectrons and photoholes. In this paper, AgPt/Bi4Ti3O12 composite photocatalysts were prepared using the photoreduction method, and the effects of the type and content of noble metal on the photocatalytic performance of the catalysts were investigated. The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) showed that the loading of AgPt bimetallic nanoparticles significantly improved the catalytic performance of Bi4Ti3O12. When 0.10 wt% noble metal was loaded, the degradation rate for RhB of Ag0.7Pt0.3/Bi4Ti3O12 was 0.027 min−1, which was respectively about 2, 1.7 and 3.7 times as that of Ag/Bi4Ti3O12, Pt/Bi3Ti4O12 and Bi4Ti3O12. The reasons may be attributed as follows: (i) the utilization of visible light was enhanced due to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag and Pt in the visible region; (ii) Ag nanoparticles mainly acted as electron acceptors to restrain the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs under visible light irradiation; and (iii) Pt nanoparticles acted as electron cocatalysts to further suppress the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic performance of Ag0.7Pt0.3/Bi4Ti3O12 was superior to that of Ag/Bi4Ti3O12 and Pt/Bi3Ti4O12 owing to the synergistic effect between Ag and Pt nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Hexagonal and Monoclinic Phases of La2O2CO3 Nanoparticles and Their Phase-Related CO2 Behavior
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102061 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 682
Abstract
In this study, we prepared hexagonal and monoclinic phases of La2O2CO3 nanoparticles by different wet preparation methods and investigated their phase-related CO2 behavior through field-emission scanning microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, CO [...] Read more.
In this study, we prepared hexagonal and monoclinic phases of La2O2CO3 nanoparticles by different wet preparation methods and investigated their phase-related CO2 behavior through field-emission scanning microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, CO2-temperature programmed desorption, and linear sweeping voltammetry of CO2 electrochemical reduction. The monoclinic La2O2CO3 phase was synthesized by a conventional precipitation method via La(OH)CO3 when the precipitation time was longer than 12 h. In contrast, the hydrothermal method produced only the hexagonal La2O2CO3 phase, irrespective of the hydrothermal reaction time. The La(OH)3 phase was determined to be the initial phase in both preparation methods. During the precipitation, the La(OH)3 phase was transformed into La(OH)CO3 owing to the continuous supply of CO2 from air whereas the hydrothermal method of a closed system crystallized only the La(OH)3 phase. Based on the CO2-temperature programmed desorption and thermogravimetric analysis, the hexagonal La2O2CO3 nanoparticles (HL-12h) showed a higher surface CO2 adsorption and thermal stability than those of the monoclinic La2O2CO3 (PL-12h). The crystalline structures of both La2O2CO3 phases predicted by the density functional theory calculation explained the difference in the CO2 behavior on each phase. Consequently, HL-12h showed a higher current density and a more positive onset potential than PL-12h in CO2 electrochemical reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Hydrogen Peroxide Detection by Super-Porous Hybrid CuO/Pt NP Platform: Improved Sensitivity and Selectivity
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2034; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102034 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 670
Abstract
A super-porous hybrid platform can offer significantly increased number of reaction sites for the analytes and thus can offer advantages in the biosensor applications. In this work, a significantly improved sensitivity and selectivity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection is [...] Read more.
A super-porous hybrid platform can offer significantly increased number of reaction sites for the analytes and thus can offer advantages in the biosensor applications. In this work, a significantly improved sensitivity and selectivity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection is demonstrated by a super-porous hybrid CuO/Pt nanoparticle (NP) platform on Si substrate as the first demonstration. The super-porous hybrid platform is fabricated by a physiochemical approach combining the physical vapor deposition of Pt NPs and electrochemical deposition of super-porous CuO structures by adopting a dynamic hydrogen bubble technique. Under an optimized condition, the hybrid CuO/Pt biosensor demonstrates a very high sensitivity of 2205 µA/mM·cm2 and a low limit of detection (LOD) of 140 nM with a wide detection range of H2O2. This is meaningfully improved performance as compared to the previously reported CuO-based H2O2 sensors as well as to the other metal oxide-based H2O2 sensors. The hybrid CuO/Pt platform exhibits an excellent selectivity against other interfering molecules such as glucose, fructose, dopamine, sodium chloride and ascorbic acid. Due to the synergetic effect of highly porous CuO structures and underlying Pt NPs, the CuO/Pt architecture offers extremely abundant active sites for the H2O2 reduction and electron transfer pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Investigation of Li(Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1)O2 Cathode Materials
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040759 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Herein, we report the soft X-ray absorption spectroscopic investigation for Li(Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1)O2 cathode material during charging and discharging. These measurements were carried out at the Mn L-, Co L-, and Ni L-edges during various [...] Read more.
Herein, we report the soft X-ray absorption spectroscopic investigation for Li(Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1)O2 cathode material during charging and discharging. These measurements were carried out at the Mn L-, Co L-, and Ni L-edges during various stages of charging and discharging. Both the Mn and Co L-edge spectroscopic measurements reflect the invariance in the oxidation states of Mn and Co ions. The Ni L-edge measurements show the modification of the oxidation state of Ni ions during the charging and discharging process. These studies show that eg states are affected dominantly in the case of Ni ions during the charging and discharging process. The O K-edge measurements reflect modulation of metal–oxygen hybridization as envisaged from the area-ratio variation of spectral features corresponding to t2g and eg states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Communication
Design of Heat-Conductive hBN–PMMA Composites by Electrostatic Nano-Assembly
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010134 - 12 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Micro/nanoscale design of composite materials enables alteration of their properties for advanced functional materials. One of the biggest challenges in material design is the controlled decoration of composite materials with the desired functional additives. This study reports on and demonstrates the homogeneous decoration [...] Read more.
Micro/nanoscale design of composite materials enables alteration of their properties for advanced functional materials. One of the biggest challenges in material design is the controlled decoration of composite materials with the desired functional additives. This study reports on and demonstrates the homogeneous decoration of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and vice versa. The formation of the composite materials was conducted via a low environmental load and a low-energy-consuming, electrostatic nano-assembly method which also enabled the efficient usage of nano-sized additives. The hBN/PMMA and PMMA/hBN composites were fabricated in various size combinations that exhibited percolated and layer-oriented structures, respectively. The thermal conductivity behaviors of hBN/PMMA and PMMA/hBN composites that exhibited good microstructure were compared. The results showed that microstructural design of the composites enabled the modification of their heat-conducting property. This novel work demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating heat-conductive PMMA matrix composites with controlled decoration of hBN sheets, which may provide a platform for further development of heat-conductive polymeric materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Recent Advances in Synthesis, Medical Applications and Challenges for Gold-Coated Iron Oxide: Comprehensive Study
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082147 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Combining iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in one nanostructure is a promising technique for various applications. Fe3O4 NPs have special supermagnetic attributes that allow them to be applied in different areas, and [...] Read more.
Combining iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in one nanostructure is a promising technique for various applications. Fe3O4 NPs have special supermagnetic attributes that allow them to be applied in different areas, and Au NPs stand out in biomaterials due to their oxidation resistance, chemical stability, and unique optical properties. Recent studies have generally defined the physicochemical properties of nanostructures without concentrating on a particular formation strategy. This detailed review provides a summary of the latest research on the formation strategy and applications of Fe3O4@Au. The diverse methods of synthesis of Fe3O4@Au NPs with different basic organic and inorganic improvements are introduced. The role and applicability of Au coating on the surface of Fe3O4 NPs schemes were explored. The 40 most relevant publications were identified and reviewed. The versatility of combining Fe3O4@Au NPs as an option for medical application is proven in catalysis, hyperthermia, biomedical imaging, drug delivery and protein separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Review
Metal-Based Nanomaterials: Work as Drugs and Carriers against Viral Infections
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082129 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Virus infection is one of the threats to the health of organisms, and finding suitable antiviral agents is one of the main tasks of current researchers. Metal ions participate in multiple key reaction stages of organisms and maintain the important homeostasis of organisms. [...] Read more.
Virus infection is one of the threats to the health of organisms, and finding suitable antiviral agents is one of the main tasks of current researchers. Metal ions participate in multiple key reaction stages of organisms and maintain the important homeostasis of organisms. The application of synthetic metal-based nanomaterials as an antiviral therapy is a promising new research direction. Based on the application of synthetic metal-based nanomaterials in antiviral therapy, we summarize the research progress of metal-based nanomaterials in recent years. This review analyzes the three inhibition pathways of metal nanomaterials as antiviral therapeutic materials against viral infections, including direct inactivation, inhibition of virus adsorption and entry, and intracellular virus suppression; it further classifies and summarizes them according to their inhibition mechanisms. In addition, the use of metal nanomaterials as antiviral drug carriers and vaccine adjuvants is summarized. The analysis clarifies the antiviral mechanism of metal nanomaterials and broadens the application in the field of antiviral therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Review
Metal Oxide Based Heterojunctions for Gas Sensors: A Review
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11041026 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 645
Abstract
The construction of heterojunctions has been widely applied to improve the gas sensing performance of composites composed of nanostructured metal oxides. This review summarises the recent progress on assembly methods and gas sensing behaviours of sensors based on nanostructured metal oxide heterojunctions. Various [...] Read more.
The construction of heterojunctions has been widely applied to improve the gas sensing performance of composites composed of nanostructured metal oxides. This review summarises the recent progress on assembly methods and gas sensing behaviours of sensors based on nanostructured metal oxide heterojunctions. Various methods, including the hydrothermal method, electrospinning and chemical vapour deposition, have been successfully employed to establish metal oxide heterojunctions in the sensing materials. The sensors composed with the built nanostructured heterojunctions were found to show enhanced gas sensing performance with higher sensor responses and shorter response times to the targeted reducing or oxidising gases compare with those of the pure metal oxides. Moreover, the enhanced gas sensing mechanisms of the metal oxide-based heterojunctions to the reducing or oxidising gases are also discussed, with the main emphasis on the important role of the potential barrier on the accumulation layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Review
Dendritic Polymers as Promising Additives for the Manufacturing of Hybrid Organoceramic Nanocomposites with Ameliorated Properties Suitable for an Extensive Diversity of Applications
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010019 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
As the field of nanoscience is rapidly evolving, interest in novel, upgraded nanomaterials with combinatory features is also inevitably increasing. Hybrid composites, offer simple, budget-conscious and environmental-friendly solutions that can cater multiple needs at the same time and be applicable in many nanotechnology-related [...] Read more.
As the field of nanoscience is rapidly evolving, interest in novel, upgraded nanomaterials with combinatory features is also inevitably increasing. Hybrid composites, offer simple, budget-conscious and environmental-friendly solutions that can cater multiple needs at the same time and be applicable in many nanotechnology-related and interdisciplinary studies. The physicochemical idiocrasies of dendritic polymers have inspired their implementation as sorbents, active ingredient carriers and templates for complex composites. Ceramics are distinguished for their mechanical superiority and absorption potential that render them ideal substrates for separation and catalysis technologies. The integration of dendritic compounds to these inorganic hosts can be achieved through chemical attachment of the organic moiety onto functionalized surfaces, impregnation and absorption inside the pores, conventional sol-gel reactions or via biomimetic mediation of dendritic matrices, inducing the formation of usually spherical hybrid nanoparticles. Alternatively, dendritic polymers can propagate from ceramic scaffolds. All these variants are covered in detail. Optimization techniques as well as established and prospected applications are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Hexagonal and monoclinic phases of La2O2CO3 nanoparticles and their phase-related CO2 behavior
Authors: Hongyan Yu; Kaiming Jiang; Sung Gu Kang; Yong Men; Eun Woo Shin
Affiliation: 1. School of Chemical Engineering, University of Ulsan College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering and Science 2. School of Chemical Engineering, University of Ulsan
Abstract: In this study, we prepared hexagonal and monoclinic phases of La2O2CO3 nanoparticles by different wet preparation methods and investigated their phase-related CO2 behavior. The monoclinic La2O2CO3 phase was synthesized by a conventional precipitation method via La(OH)CO3 structure when the precipitation time was longer than 12 h. In contrast, the hydrothermal method produced only the hexagonal La2O2CO3 phase irrespective of the hydrothermal reaction time. The La(OH)3 phase was determined to be the initial phase in both preparation methods. During the precipitation, the La(OH)3 phase was transformed into La(OH)CO3 owing to the continuous supply of CO2 from air whereas the hydrothermal method of a closed system crystallized only the La(OH)3 phase. On the basis of the CO2-temperature programmed desorption and thermogravimetric analysis, the hexagonal La2O2CO3 nanoparticles (HL-12h) showed higher surface CO2 adsorption and thermal stability than those of the monoclinic La2O2CO3 (PL-12h). The crystalline structures of both La2O2CO3 phases predicted by the density functional theory calculation explained the difference in the CO2 behavior on each phase. Consequently, HL-12h generated higher current density than PL-12h in cyclic voltammograms of CO2 electrochemical reduction.

Title: The heterojunctions in nanostructured metal oxide-based composites for high-performance gas sensors and their enhanced gas sensing mechanisms: A review
Authors: Shulin Yang; Gui Lei; Huoxi Xu; Zhigao Lan; Zhao Wang; Haoshuang Gu
Affiliation: a. School of Physics and Electronic Information, Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000, P.R. China. b. Faculty of Physics and Electronic Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, P.R. China.
Abstract: The construction of the heterojunctions in the sensing materials has been widely applied to improve the gas sensing performances of the composites composed of nanostructured metal oxides. This review summarized the recent progress on the assemble methods and the gas sensing behaviors of the sensors based on the nanostructured metal oxide heterojunctions. Various methods, including the hydrothermal process, electrospinning and chemical vapor deposition, have been successfully to establish the metal oxide heterojunctions in the sensing materials. The sensor based on the built nanostructured heterojunctions were found to exhibit enhanced gas sensing performances with higher sensor responses and shorter response times to the targeted reducing or oxidizing gases compare with those of the pure metal oxides. Moreover, the enhanced gas sensing mechanisms of the metal oxide-based heterojunctions to the reducing or oxidizing gases were also discussed with mainly emphasizing the important role of the potential barrier or the accumulation layer.

Title: Dendritic polymers as promising additives for the manufacturing of hybrid organoceramic nanocomposites with ameliorated properties suitable for an extensive diversity of applications
Authors: Marilina Douloudi; Eleni Nikoli; Theodora Katsika; Michael Arkas
Affiliation: Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR "Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi/Attica, Greece
Abstract: The physicochemical idiocrasies of dendritic polymers have inspired their implementation as templates for complex structures. Ceramics are distinguished for their mechanical superiority and absorption potential that render them ideal substrates for separation and catalysis technologies. The integration of dendritic materials to the inorganic hosts can be achieved through chemical attachment of the organic moiety onto functionalized surfaces, impregnation and absorption inside the pores, conventional sol-gel reactions or via biomimetic mediation of dendritic matrices, inducing the formation of usually spherical hybrid nanoparticles. Alternatively, dendritic polymers can propagate from ceramic scaffolds. Optimization techniques as well as established and prospected applications are also discussed.

Title: Flexible and Wearable Zinc-Air Batteries
Authors: Yuan Yun; Zezhao Li; Han Liu; Hangyu Liu; Peng Gu
Affiliation: 1. Department of Light Chemcial Engineering, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi 214122 P.R.China 2. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, 230026, China
Abstract: As the fast development of fexible devices in recent years, great attention has been raised in flexible and stretchable energy storage/conversion devices, which may directly be put on with long stanby time and low safefy risk. Considering the features, such as cost, safety, volome energy density and environmental friendliness, Zinc–air batteries hold a good promise for portable and fexible applications. Here in this mini-review, we focused on the main challenges of the flexible and wearable Zinc–air batteries based on solid state and semi solid state electrolytes and the up-to-date progress from materials to technologies towards overcoming these technical issues. We first overviewed the design and working mechanism of the flexible batteries and classified the batteries into two types:fibre-shaped and stack-shaped. Then, detailed discussions have been offered on the latest progress to address these technical issues based on the nano/micro- materials. Finally, future perspectives are provided in the end, which may shed light on the coming research and design of wearable Zinc-air batteries.

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