Special Issue "Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jihoon Lee

Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electronics and Information, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-gu Seoul 01897, South Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: understanding physical, chemical, and biological materials of various compositions and morphologies, including carbon nanotubes, graphene, oxide materials, polymer, molecules, nanoparticles, nanowires, quantum, dots, etc.
Guest Editor
Dr. Ming-Yu Li

Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), 308, West No. 7 Building, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanomaterials synthesis; optical thin films; photodetectors; pyroelectric thin films; nanocomposites for pyroelectric energy harvesting, etc.
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sui Mao

National Center of International Research for Hybrid Materials Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanomaterials and nanotechnology; material characterizations; photoelectronics; crystal and nanocrystals; bio-sensors; hybrid materials; photovoltaics; surface physics and chemistry; plasmonics, etc.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 2019 Collaborative Conference on Materials Research (CCMR) will take place in Goyang Gyeonggi (South Korea), 3–7 June, 2019. Materials research, the science and technologies for the generation, processing and fabrication of materials, is where the disciplines merge and where they diverge into a remarkable range of applications, from electronics to health care that touch, or will soon touch, the lives of millions. The CCMR series aims to enable the technological developments in the various fields of materials and to further the goal of unifying materials research in engineering, physics, biology, materials science, as well as chemistry and neuroscience.

This Special Issue, “Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019”, will contain the accepted papers presented during 2019 CCMR, related to ‘nanotechnologies and nanomaterials.’ The selected papers will include nano-materials preparation, modification, characterization, properties and the applications of any compositions and morphologies, including carbon nanotubes, graphene, metal, oxide materials, polymer, molecules, nanoparticles, nanowires, quantum dots, etc.

Prof. Dr. Jihoon Lee
Dr. Ming-Yu Li
Prof. Dr. Sui Mao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Advanced Alloy Materials
  • Biomaterials and Applications
  • Catalytic Materials and Applications
  • Electronic Materials & Applications
  • Energy Materials (fuel cells & batteries)
  • Graphene and Applications
  • Light Emitting Materials
  • Magnetism and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Synthesis & Characterizations
  • Materials Theory and Principles
  • Molecular Systems & Applications
  • Nanostructures & Nanomaterials
  • Optoelectronic Materials
  • Oxide Materials
  • Photovoltaics Photocatalysis Materials
  • Plasmonics and Applications
  • Polymers and Applications
  • Quantum Matters & Applications
  • Sensors and Applications

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Electro-Exfoliation of Graphite to Graphene in an Aqueous Solution of Inorganic Salt and the Stabilization of Its Sponge Structure with Poly(Furfuryl Alcohol)
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9070971
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
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Abstract
We demonstrate an accessible and effective technique for exfoliating graphite foil and graphite powder into graphene in a water solution of inorganic salt. In our research, we report an electrochemical cathodic exfoliation in an aqueous solution of Na2SO4. After [...] Read more.
We demonstrate an accessible and effective technique for exfoliating graphite foil and graphite powder into graphene in a water solution of inorganic salt. In our research, we report an electrochemical cathodic exfoliation in an aqueous solution of Na2SO4. After electro-exfoliation, the resulting graphene was premixed with furfuryl alcohol (FA) and an inorganic template (CaCO3 and Na2CO3). Once FA was polymerized to poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA), the mixture was carbonized. Carbon bridges originating in thermally-decomposed PFA joined exfoliated graphene flakes and stabilized the whole sponge-type structure after the nano-template was removed. Gases evolved at the graphite electrode (cathode) played an important role in the process of graphene-flake splitting and accelerated the change of graphite into graphene flakes. Starting graphite materials and graphene sponges were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, SEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), elemental analysis, and low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen to determine their structure, morphology, and chemical composition. The discovered manufacturing protocol had a positive influence on the specific surface area and porosity of the sponges. The SEM and HRTEM studies confirmed a high separation degree of graphite and different agglomeration pathways. Raman spectra were analyzed with particular focus on the intensities of ID and IG peaks; the graphene-type nature of the sponges was confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
A Model for Non-Arrhenius Ionic Conductivity
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060911
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
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Abstract
Non-Arrhenius ionic conductivity is observed in various solid electrolytes. The behavior is intriguing, because it limits the magnitude of ionic conductivity at high temperatures. Understanding the nature of this behavior is of fundamental interest and deserves attention. In the present study, the temperature [...] Read more.
Non-Arrhenius ionic conductivity is observed in various solid electrolytes. The behavior is intriguing, because it limits the magnitude of ionic conductivity at high temperatures. Understanding the nature of this behavior is of fundamental interest and deserves attention. In the present study, the temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity in solids and liquids is analyzed using the Bond Strength–Coordination Number Fluctuation (BSCNF) model developed by ourselves. It is shown that our model describes well the temperature dependence of ionic conductivity that varies from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius-type behavior. According to our model, the non-Arrhenius behavior is controlled by the degree of binding energy fluctuation between the mobile species and the surroundings. A brief discussion on a possible size effect in non-Arrhenius behavior is also given. Within the available data, the BSCNF model suggests that the size effect in the degree of the non-Arrhenius mass transport behavior in a poly (methyl ethyl ether)/polystyrene (PVME/PS) blend is different from that in a-polystyrene and polyamide copolymer PA66/6I. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Soliton Fractional Charges in Graphene Nanoribbon and Polyacetylene: Similarities and Differences
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060885
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
An introductory overview of current research developments regarding solitons and fractional boundary charges in graphene nanoribbons is presented. Graphene nanoribbons and polyacetylene have chiral symmetry and share numerous similar properties, e.g., the bulk-edge correspondence between the Zak phase and the existence of edge [...] Read more.
An introductory overview of current research developments regarding solitons and fractional boundary charges in graphene nanoribbons is presented. Graphene nanoribbons and polyacetylene have chiral symmetry and share numerous similar properties, e.g., the bulk-edge correspondence between the Zak phase and the existence of edge states, along with the presence of chiral boundary states, which are important for charge fractionalization. In polyacetylene, a fermion mass potential in the Dirac equation produces an excitation gap, and a twist in this scalar potential produces a zero-energy chiral soliton. Similarly, in a gapful armchair graphene nanoribbon, a distortion in the chiral gauge field can produce soliton states. In polyacetylene, a soliton is bound to a domain wall connecting two different dimerized phases. In graphene nanoribbons, a domain-wall soliton connects two topological zigzag edges with different chiralities. However, such a soliton does not display spin-charge separation. The existence of a soliton in finite-length polyacetylene can induce formation of fractional charges on the opposite ends. In contrast, for gapful graphene nanoribbons, the antiferromagnetic coupling between the opposite zigzag edges induces integer boundary charges. The presence of disorder in graphene nanoribbons partly mitigates antiferromagnetic coupling effect. Hence, the average edge charge of gap states with energies within a small interval is e / 2 , with significant charge fluctuations. However, midgap states exhibit a well-defined charge fractionalization between the opposite zigzag edges in the weak-disorder regime. Numerous occupied soliton states in a disorder-free and doped zigzag graphene nanoribbon form a solitonic phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Bio-Based Benzoxazine/Epoxy Composites with NIR-Laser Stimulated Shape Memory Effects
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060881
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Smart materials with light-actuated shape memory effects are developed from renewable resources in this work. Bio-based benzoxazine resin is prepared from vanillin, furfurylamine, and paraformaldehyde by utilizing the Mannich-like condensation. Vanillin-furfurylamine-containing benzoxazine resin (V-fa) is subsequently copolymerized with epoxidized castor oil (ECO). When [...] Read more.
Smart materials with light-actuated shape memory effects are developed from renewable resources in this work. Bio-based benzoxazine resin is prepared from vanillin, furfurylamine, and paraformaldehyde by utilizing the Mannich-like condensation. Vanillin-furfurylamine-containing benzoxazine resin (V-fa) is subsequently copolymerized with epoxidized castor oil (ECO). When the copolymer is reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), the resulting composite exhibits shape memory effects. Molecular characteristics of V-fa resin, ECO, and V-fa/ECO copolymers are obtained from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Curing behavior of V-fa/ECO copolymers is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Dynamic mechanical properties of MWCNT reinforced V-fa/ECO composites are determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Morphological details and distribution of MWCNTs within the copolymer matrix are characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Shape memory performances of MWCNT reinforced V-fa/ECO composites are studied by shape memory tests performed with a universal testing machine. After a significant deformation to a temporary shape, the composites can be recovered to the original shape by near-infrared (NIR) laser actuation. The shape recovery process can be stimulated at a specific site of the composite simply by focusing NIR laser to that site. The shape recovery time of the composites under NIR actuation is four times faster than the shape recovery process under conventional thermal activation. Furthermore, the composites possess good shape fixity and good shape recovery under NIR actuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Flat-Band in Pyrochlore Oxides: A First-Principles Study
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060876
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
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Abstract
Using a first-principles electronic band calculation, we obtained a quasi flat-band near the Fermi level for the six pyrochlore oxides, A2B2O7. These quasi flat-bands are mostly characterized by the s-orbitals of the A-site. The band structures of [...] Read more.
Using a first-principles electronic band calculation, we obtained a quasi flat-band near the Fermi level for the six pyrochlore oxides, A2B2O7. These quasi flat-bands are mostly characterized by the s-orbitals of the A-site. The band structures of these oxides are well described by the non-interacting Mielke model. Spin-polarized calculations showed that the ground state of these compounds was ferromagnetic after appropriate carrier doping, despite the absence of the magnetic element. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Silicone Rubber with Periodic Micro/Nano-Suction Cup Structure by ArF Excimer Laser-Induced Photodissociation
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060870
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
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Abstract
A 193-nm ArF excimer laser was used to induce the photodissociation of Si–O bonds of silicone rubber in order to fabricate a periodic micro/nano-suction cup silicone structure, approximately 1 μm in diameter and 2 μm in height at regular intervals of 2.5 μm. [...] Read more.
A 193-nm ArF excimer laser was used to induce the photodissociation of Si–O bonds of silicone rubber in order to fabricate a periodic micro/nano-suction cup silicone structure, approximately 1 μm in diameter and 2 μm in height at regular intervals of 2.5 μm. The laser was focused on Al-coated silicone rubber by each silica glass microsphere 2.5 μm in diameter, which covered the entire surface of the silicone rubber. The silicone rubber underneath each microsphere photochemically swelled after laser-ablating the coated Al to limit the diameter of the swelling. Simultaneously, the coated Al was able to adjust the focal point to the surface of the silicone rubber to form a hole approximately 500 nm in diameter, centered at the swollen silicone. The dependences of the thickness of the coated-Al and the laser pulse number are discussed, based on the observations of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The superhydrophobic property of the fabricated micro/nano-suction cup structure was successfully found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
New Synthetic Methods of Novel Nanoporous Polycondensates and Excellent Oxygen Permselectivity of Their Composite Membranes
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060859
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
PDF Full-text (4124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two kinds of novel nanoporous polycondensates (sc(Rf)) have been synthesized by two new preparation methods consisting of polycondensation and highly selective photocyclicaromataization of 1/3 helical cis-cis polyphenylacetylenes with polymerizable groups. By the original methods, new well-defined sheet polymers having nanopores or [...] Read more.
Two kinds of novel nanoporous polycondensates (sc(Rf)) have been synthesized by two new preparation methods consisting of polycondensation and highly selective photocyclicaromataization of 1/3 helical cis-cis polyphenylacetylenes with polymerizable groups. By the original methods, new well-defined sheet polymers having nanopores or nanospaces have been synthesized for the first time. Their composite membranes, containing small amounts (1.0 wt%) of sc(Rf), had ultrahigh oxygen permeability (Po2 > 1000 barrer), and their plots were beyond the Robeson’s upper bound line in the graph of oxygen permselectivity (α = Po2/PN2) versus Po2. Both α and Po2 values were enhanced by adding only small amounts (1.0 wt%) of sc(Rf). One of the sc(Rf)s synthesized on the base membrane surface showed the best performance, i.e., Po2 = 5300 barrer and α = 2.5. The membrane surface was effectively covered by sc(Rf), judging from the contact angle values. It is thought that nanopores and nanospaces created in and between sc(Rf) molecules played an important role for the enhancement of both α and Po2/PN2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Various Plasmonic Pt Nanostructures via Indium Assisted Solid-State Dewetting: From Small Nanoparticles to Widely Connected Networks
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060831
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, the modified solid-state dewetting (MSSD) of well-defined and various uniform Pt nanostructures is demonstrated by the auxiliary diffusion enhancement. The MSSD utilizes the introduction of metallic indium (In) layers with high diffusivity in between sapphire and platinum (Pt) layer, through [...] Read more.
In this paper, the modified solid-state dewetting (MSSD) of well-defined and various uniform Pt nanostructures is demonstrated by the auxiliary diffusion enhancement. The MSSD utilizes the introduction of metallic indium (In) layers with high diffusivity in between sapphire and platinum (Pt) layer, through which the global diffusion and dewetting of metallic atoms can be significantly enhanced. Subsequently, the In atoms can be sublimated from the NP matrix, resulting in the formation of pure Pt NPs. By the systematic control of In and Pt bi-layer thickness, various areal density, size and configuration of Pt NPs are demonstrated. The In2 nm/Pt2 nm bilayers establish very small and highly dense NPs throughout the temperature range due to the early maturation of growth. Intermediate size of NPs is demonstrated with the In45 nm/Pt15 nm bilayers with the much improved interparticle spacings by annealing between 650 and 900 °C for 450 s. Finally, the In30 nm/Pt30 nm bilayers demonstrate the widely connected network-like nanostructures. In addition, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation is employed to exploit the local electric field distributions at resonance wavelengths. The dewetting characteristics of In/Pt bilayers is systematically controlled by the modifications of layer thickness and annealing temperature and is systematically described based on the diffusion of atoms, Rayleigh instability and surface energy minimization mechanism. The optical properties demonstrate dynamic and widely tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) responses depending upon the various surface morphologies of Pt nanostructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Temperature-Dependent Accommodation of Two Lattices of Largely Different Size during Growth
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050710
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
If a material grows on another material with a largely different lattice constant, which of the two adapts for an energetically favorable growth? To tackle this question, we investigate the growth of Ag on Cu(111) by variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The structures [...] Read more.
If a material grows on another material with a largely different lattice constant, which of the two adapts for an energetically favorable growth? To tackle this question, we investigate the growth of Ag on Cu(111) by variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The structures grown between 120 and 170 K are remarkably different from those grown between 200 and 340 K. The low-temperature structure is rectangular-like and consists of stacked rods, 7 to 8 Ag atoms long, which form a superstructure without long-range order. This structure covers the whole surface prior to nucleation of further layers. The high-temperature structure is hexagonal and consists of misfit dislocations forming 8 × 8 to 10 × 10 superstructures. For this structure, second layer nucleation sets in far before the closure of the first monolayer. While both structures are driven by the large lattice misfit between the two materials, the growing Ag layer adapts to the Cu surface at low temperature, while the Cu surface adapts to the growing Ag layer at higher temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Si/graphene/Si Double Heterostructures by Semiconductor Wafer Bonding towards Future Applications in Optoelectronics
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121048
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Si/graphene/Si planar double heterostructure has been fabricated by means of semiconductor wafer bonding. The interfacial mechanical stability and interlayer electrical connection have been verified for the structure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first realization of a monolayer-cored double [...] Read more.
A Si/graphene/Si planar double heterostructure has been fabricated by means of semiconductor wafer bonding. The interfacial mechanical stability and interlayer electrical connection have been verified for the structure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first realization of a monolayer-cored double heterostructure. In addition, a double heterostructure with bilayer graphene has been prepared for bandgap generation and tuning by application of a bias voltage. These structures move towards the realization of versatile graphene optoelectronics, such as an electrically pumped graphene laser. Our Si/graphene/Si double heterostructure is positioned to form a new basis for next-generation nanophotonic devices with high photon and carrier confinements, earth abundance (C, Si), environmental safety (C, Si), and excellent optical and electrical controllability by silicon clads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR 2019)
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