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Special Issue "Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2020) | Viewed by 42775

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Krystian Marszałek
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Fruit and Vegetable Product Technology, Prof. Wacław Dąbrowski Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, Rakowiecka 36, 02-532 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: fruits; vegetables; emerging techniques; food processing and preservation; bioaccessibility and bioavailability; high-pressure processing; high-pressure homogenization; high-pressure carbon dioxide; ultrasounds; microwaves; food chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Shuyi Li
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, China
Interests: purification and characterization of polyphenols; bioactivity and bioavailability of procyanidins; interactions of polyphenols; polysaccharides and proteins in food
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Ireneusz Kapusta
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of General Technology of Food and Human Nutrition, Rzeszow University, Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: food fortification; antioxidant properties; food quality; composition analysis; secondary metabolites; food technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jose Lorenzo Rodriguez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, 32900 Orense, Spain
Interests: meat quality; genetic influences in meat quality; genetic improvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms are attractive raw materials for the designing of innovative as well as traditional food products rich in bioactive compounds and high antioxidant capacity. It is currently recommended that at least 500 grams of high nutritional value fruit and vegetables (F&V) should be consumed daily, in five portions, for the maintenance of good health and wellbeing. Taking into account that nowadays consumers are looking for low-processed high-quality, and safe food products, the big challenge for scientists is in the development and optimization of new innovative techniques for food processing and/or preservation with minimal degradation of nutrients. Moreover, research focused on the extraction, purification, and isolation of bioactive compounds from plant matrices, the application of innovative techniques for the preservation as well as determination of the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of nutrients of food from plant origins have been a scientific hotspot in recent years.

Innovative technologies involving high-pressure processing (HPP), high-pressure homogenization (HPH), high-pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD), pulsed electric fields (PEF), ultrasounds (US), and microwaves (MV), among others, as well as traditional methods of food treatment like heating, fermentation, and drying or smoking are increasingly applied in food preservation and the modification of selected physicochemical or sensory properties.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to highlight new challenges in the treatment of F&V products for obtaining traditional or new, safe products, including functional food, with high or modified nutritional and sensory values. High residual concentrations of nutritional compounds in food during their whole shelf-life is a key factor for improving the health and quality of human life.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Krystian Marszałek
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ireneusz Kapusta
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jose Manuel Lorenzo
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Shuyi Li
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • anthocyanins
  • polyphenols
  • carotenoids
  • betalains
  • chlorophylls
  • innovative and nonconventional techniques
  • bioaccessibility
  • bioavailability
  • extraction
  • preservation
  • food safety

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Research

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Article
Isolation, Characterization, and Medicinal Potential of Polysaccharides of Morchella esculenta
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051459 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Mushroom polysaccharides are active medicinal compounds that possess immune-modulatory and anticancer properties. Currently, the mushroom polysaccharides krestin, lentinan, and polysaccharopeptides are used as anticancer drugs. They are an unexplored source of natural products with huge potential in both the medicinal and nutraceutical industries. [...] Read more.
Mushroom polysaccharides are active medicinal compounds that possess immune-modulatory and anticancer properties. Currently, the mushroom polysaccharides krestin, lentinan, and polysaccharopeptides are used as anticancer drugs. They are an unexplored source of natural products with huge potential in both the medicinal and nutraceutical industries. The northern parts of Pakistan have a rich biodiversity of mushrooms that grow during different seasons of the year. Here we selected an edible Morchella esculenta (true morels) of the Ascomycota group for polysaccharide isolation and characterization. Polysaccharopeptides and polysaccharides from this mushroom were isolated using the green chemistry, hot water treatment method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the sugar nature and possible beta-glucan type structure of these polysaccharides. Antioxidant assays showed that the deproteinized polysaccharides have moderate free radical scavenging activity. These isolated polysaccharides exhibited good acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyryl cholinesterase (BChE) inhibition activities. Therefore, these polysaccharides may be valuable for the treatment of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Further bioassays are needed to discover the true potential of M. esculenta polysaccharides for medicinal purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Content of Phenolic Acids in the Grain of Selected Polish Triticale Cultivars and Its Products
Molecules 2021, 26(3), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030562 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
The triticale grain has high nutritive value and good technological suitability. Triticale flour can be a valuable raw material for bread-making. The aim of this work was to determine the profile of phenolic acids in triticale grain of selected Polish cultivars and its [...] Read more.
The triticale grain has high nutritive value and good technological suitability. Triticale flour can be a valuable raw material for bread-making. The aim of this work was to determine the profile of phenolic acids in triticale grain of selected Polish cultivars and its products. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-PDA-MS/MS) was applied for separation and identification of these constituents. The grain of the examined triticale cultivars contained 13 phenolic acids, of which ferulic acid was determined in the largest amount and was constituted from 42–44% of the total content of phenolic acids in the grain. In addition, due to the large amounts of ferulic, di-ferulic, and sinapic acids, composition of the phenolic acids fraction in triticale grain of the tested cultivars varied in comparison with that of wheat and rye cultivars. In triticale flour, the number of phenolic acids was nearly 4 times lower than in the grain, as phenolic acids were removed along with bran, in which their proportion was almost 9 times higher than in the grain intended for grinding. The application of bran in the bread recipe resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in the fraction of phenolic acids compared to the bread produced from triticale flour without bran addition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Pleurotus spp. Mycelia Enriched in Magnesium and Zinc Salts as a Potential Functional Food
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010162 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
Worldwide, mushrooms belonging to the Pleurotus spp. such as P. citrinopileatus, P. djamor, and P. pulmonarius are highly valued not only for their taste and aroma but also for their health-promoting properties. These species are rich in bioelements, vitamins, and above [...] Read more.
Worldwide, mushrooms belonging to the Pleurotus spp. such as P. citrinopileatus, P. djamor, and P. pulmonarius are highly valued not only for their taste and aroma but also for their health-promoting properties. These species are rich in bioelements, vitamins, and above all, compounds that exhibit immunostimulatory activity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of the supplementation of culture media using inorganic Mg and Zn salts. This is the first study to establish the bioavailability of the selected elements (Mg and Zn) and anions (Cl, SO42−) from the enriched biomass by means of the extraction of lyophilized mycelium into artificial digestive juices. The following salts were added to the liquid Oddoux medium: ZnSO4·7H2O, ZnCl2, MgSO4·7H2O or MgCl2·6H2O. The bioelements, anions and organic compounds in the obtained biomass were determined. The addition of Zn and Mg salts to the media increased the production of biomass by 30% and increased the bioaccumulation of the inorganic salts. Maintaining in vitro cultures under optimized and controlled conditions produced mycelium with a better composition and health properties than otherwise. Such enriched biomass may be classified as potential functional foods, aiding in overcoming deficiencies of elements and organic compounds with biological activity in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Obtaining Bioactive Compounds from the Coffee Husk (Coffea arabica L.) Using Different Extraction Methods
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010046 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Coffee husks (Coffea arabica L.) are characterized by exhibiting secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, which can be used as raw material for obtaining bioactive compounds of interest in food. The objective of this study is to evaluate different methods for obtaining [...] Read more.
Coffee husks (Coffea arabica L.) are characterized by exhibiting secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, which can be used as raw material for obtaining bioactive compounds of interest in food. The objective of this study is to evaluate different methods for obtaining the raw material and extracting solutions of bioactive compounds from coffee husks. Water bath and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods were used, using water (100%) or ethanol (100%) or a mixture of both (1:1) as extracting solutions and the form of the raw material was in natura and dehydrated. The extracts were evaluated by their antioxidant potential using DPPH radicals, ABTS, and iron reduction (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)), and later total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins were quantified the phenolic majority compounds were identified. It was verified that the mixture of water and ethanol (1:1) showed better extraction capacity of the compounds with antioxidant activity and that both conventional (water bath) or unconventional (ultrasound) methods showed satisfactory results. Finally, a satisfactory amount of bioactive compounds was observed in evaluating the chemical composition (total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, condensed tannins, as well as the analysis of the phenolic profile) of these extracts. Corroborating with the results of the antioxidant activities, the best extracting solution was generally the water and ethanol mixture (1:1) using a dehydrated husk and water bath as the best method, presenting higher levels of the bioactive compounds in question, with an emphasis on chlorogenic acid. Thus, it can be concluded that the use of coffee husk as raw material to obtain extracts of bioactive compounds is promising. Last, the conventional method (water bath) and the water and ethanol mixture (1:1) stood out among the methods and extracting solutions used for the dehydrated coffee husk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Effect of CO2 Preservation Treatments on the Sensory Quality of Pomegranate Juice
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5598; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235598 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Due to the interest in identifying cost-effective techniques that can guarantee the microbiological, nutritional, and sensorial aspects of food products, this study investigates the effect of CO2 preservation treatment on the sensory quality of pomegranate juice at t0 and after a [...] Read more.
Due to the interest in identifying cost-effective techniques that can guarantee the microbiological, nutritional, and sensorial aspects of food products, this study investigates the effect of CO2 preservation treatment on the sensory quality of pomegranate juice at t0 and after a conservation period of four weeks at 4 °C (t28). The same initial batch of freshly squeezed non-treated (NT) juice was subjected to non-thermal preservation treatments with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2), and with a combination of supercritical carbon dioxide and ultrasound (CO2-US). As control samples, two other juices were produced from the same NT batch: A juice stabilized with high pressure treatment (HPP) and a juice pasteurized at high temperature (HT), which represent an already established non-thermal preservation technique and the conventional thermal treatment. Projective mapping and check-all-that-apply methodologies were performed to determine the sensory qualitative differences between the juices. The volatile profile of the juices was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that juices treated with supercritical CO2 could be differentiated from NT, mainly by the perceived odor and volatile compound concentration, with a depletion of alcohols, esters, ketones, and terpenes and an increase in aldehydes. For example, in relation to the NT juice, limonene decreased by 95% and 90%, 1-hexanol decreased by 9% and 17%, and camphene decreased by 94% and 85% in the CO2 and CO2-US treated juices, respectively. Regarding perceived flavor, the CO2-treated juice was not clearly differentiated from NT. Changes in the volatile profile induced by storage at 4 °C led to perceivable differences in the odor quality of all juices, especially the juice treated with CO2-US, which underwent a significant depletion of all major volatile compounds during storage. The results suggest that the supercritical CO2 process conditions need to be optimized to minimize impacts on sensory quality and the volatile profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Retention of Bioactive Compounds, On-Line Antioxidant Capacity and Color of the Novel Snack from Red-Fleshed Apples
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5521; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235521 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different drying methods: convective (at 50, 60, 70 °C), vacuum-microwave (at 120, 240, 360, 480 W and 360 W with reduction to 120 W) and hybrid (convective pre-drying at 50, 60, 70 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different drying methods: convective (at 50, 60, 70 °C), vacuum-microwave (at 120, 240, 360, 480 W and 360 W with reduction to 120 W) and hybrid (convective pre-drying at 50, 60, 70 °C followed by vacuum-microwave drying at 120 W) on the quality parameters of novel red-fleshed apple fruit snacks (RFAs), such as phenolics, on-line antioxidant capacity, water activity and color. Drying kinetics, including a temperature profile of dried material, and modified Page model were determined. Freeze-drying was used as a control method. The highest content of bioactive compounds in the samples was retained following freeze-drying, then hybrid, vacuum-microwave and finally convection drying. The antioxidant capacity measured by on-line 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), identified anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and phenolic acid as the main compounds responsible for this activity. Unfavorable changes in color, formation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and degradation of polyphenolics were noted along with increasing drying temperature and magnetron power. The red-fleshed apple snacks are a promising high-quality dehydrated food product belonging to functional foods category. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Betacyanins and Betaxanthins in Cultivated Varieties of Beta vulgaris L. Compared to Weed Beets
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5395; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225395 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
There are 11 different varieties of Beta vulgaris L. that are used in the food industry, including sugar beets, beetroots, Swiss chard, and fodder beets. The typical red coloration of their tissues is caused by the indole-derived glycosides known as betalains that were [...] Read more.
There are 11 different varieties of Beta vulgaris L. that are used in the food industry, including sugar beets, beetroots, Swiss chard, and fodder beets. The typical red coloration of their tissues is caused by the indole-derived glycosides known as betalains that were analyzed in hypocotyl extracts by UV/Vis spectrophotometry to determine the content of betacyanins (betanin) and of betaxanthins (vulgaxanthin I) as constituents of the total betalain content. Fields of beet crops use to be also infested by wild beets, hybrids related to B. vulgaris subsp. maritima or B. macrocarpa Guss., which significantly decrease the quality and quantity of sugar beet yield; additionally, these plants produce betalains at an early stage. All tested B. vulgaris varieties could be distinguished from weed beets according to betacyanins, betaxanthins or total betalain content. The highest values of betacyanins were found in beetroots ‘Monorubra’ (9.69 mg/100 mL) and ‘Libero’ (8.42 mg/100 mL). Other beet varieties contained less betacyanins: Sugar beet ‘Labonita’ 0.11 mg/100 mL; Swiss chard ‘Lucullus,’ 0.09 mg/100 mL; fodder beet ‘Monro’ 0.15 mg/100 mL. In contrast with weed beets and beetroots, these varieties have a ratio of betacyanins to betaxanthins under 1.0, but the betaxanthin content was higher in beetcrops than in wild beet and can be used as an alternative to non-red varieties. Stability tests of selected varieties showed that storage at 22 °C for 6 h, or at 7 °C for 24 h, did not significantly reduce the betalain content in the samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
6-Methoxymellein Isolated from Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Targets Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Regulating NF-κB Signaling
Molecules 2020, 25(19), 4374; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194374 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
The presence of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) induces the aggressive progression and recurrence of breast cancer. These cells are drug resistant, have the capacity to self-renew and differentiate and are involved in recurrence and metastasis, suggesting that targeting BCSCs may improve treatment [...] Read more.
The presence of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) induces the aggressive progression and recurrence of breast cancer. These cells are drug resistant, have the capacity to self-renew and differentiate and are involved in recurrence and metastasis, suggesting that targeting BCSCs may improve treatment efficacy. In this report, methanol extracts of carrot root were purified by means of silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography to isolate a compound targeting mammosphere formation. We isolated the compound 6-methoxymellein, which inhibits the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells, reduces mammosphere growth, decreases the proportion of CD44+/CD24 cells in breast cancer cells and decreases the expression of stemness-associated proteins c-Myc, Sox-2 and Oct4. 6-Methoxymellein reduces the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65 and p50. Subsequently, 6-methoxymellein decreases the mRNA transcription and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. Our data suggest that 6-methoxymellein may be an anticancer agent that inhibits BCSCs via NF-κB/IL-6 and IL-8 regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
The Effect of Traditional and Non-Thermal Treatments on the Bioactive Compounds and Sugars Content of Red Bell Pepper
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4287; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184287 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
The aim of the study was an investigation of the effect of traditional and non-thermal treatment on the bioactive compounds of red bell pepper. As a thermal process, blanching in water and in steam was studied, while for non-thermal the sonication, pulsed electric [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was an investigation of the effect of traditional and non-thermal treatment on the bioactive compounds of red bell pepper. As a thermal process, blanching in water and in steam was studied, while for non-thermal the sonication, pulsed electric field treatment and their combination were used in this experiment. The red bell peppers were evaluated based on quality attributes such as: total carotenoids content; polyphenols; vitamin C; antioxidant activity and sugars content. Vitamin C and sugar content were analyzed using liquid chromatography and other measurements were determined based on the spectrophotometric method. Results showed that the blanching in water or in steam reduced bioactive compounds concentration; whereas non-thermal treatments as pulsed electric field (PEF) applied separately or in combination with ultrasound (US + PEF) let to obtain similar or slightly lower content of bioactive compounds in comparison to untreated peppers. When sonication (US) and combined treatment as PEF + US were applied; in most cases reduction of bioactive compounds concentration occurred. This effect was probably related to the effect of relatively long (30 min) ultrasound treatment. The application of appropriate parameters of non-thermal processing is crucial for the high quality of processed material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
High Voltage Electrical Discharges as an Alternative Extraction Process of Phenolic and Volatile Compounds from Wild Thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.): In Silico and Experimental Approaches for Solubility Assessment
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4131; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184131 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4140
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of green solvents for extractions of bioactive compounds (BACs) and essential oils from wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) using theoretical and experimental procedures. Theoretical prediction was assessed by Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of green solvents for extractions of bioactive compounds (BACs) and essential oils from wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) using theoretical and experimental procedures. Theoretical prediction was assessed by Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) and conductor-like screening model for realistic solvents (COSMO-RS), to predict the most suitable solvents for extraction of BACs. An experimental procedure was performed by nonthermal technology high voltage electrical discharge (HVED) and it was compared with modified conventional extraction (CE). Obtained extracts were analyzed for chemical and physical changes during the treatment. Theoretical results for solution of BACs in ethanol and water, as green solvents, were confirmed by experimental results, while more accurate data was given by COSMO-RS assessment than HSPs. Results confirmed high potential of HVED for extraction of BACs and volatile compounds from wild thyme, in average, 2.03 times higher yield of extraction in terms of total phenolic content was found compared to CE. The main phenolic compound found in wild thyme extracts was rosmarinic acid, while the predominant volatile compound was carvacrol. Obtained extracts are considered safe and high-quality source reach in BACs that could be further used in functional food production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Improved Extraction Efficiency of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds from Tetraselmis chuii and Phaedoactylum tricornutum Using Pulsed Electric Fields
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3921; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173921 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a promising technology that allows the selective extraction of high-added value compounds by electroporation. Thus, PEF provides numerous opportunities for the energy efficient isolation of valuable microalgal bioactive substances (i.e., pigments and polyphenols). The efficiency of PEF-assisted extraction [...] Read more.
Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a promising technology that allows the selective extraction of high-added value compounds by electroporation. Thus, PEF provides numerous opportunities for the energy efficient isolation of valuable microalgal bioactive substances (i.e., pigments and polyphenols). The efficiency of PEF-assisted extraction combined with aqueous or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents in recovering pigments and polyphenols from microalgae Tetraselmis chuii (T. chuii) and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (P. tricornutum) was evaluated. Two PEF treatments were applied: (1 kV/cm/400 pulses, 3 kV/cm/45 pulses), with a specific energy input of 100 kJ/kg. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was positively influenced by the use of DMSO. The highest TAC in the T. chuii culture was achieved at a lower extraction time and electric field than for P. tricornutum. The use of DMSO only improved the polyphenols′ extraction for P. tricornutum, whereas the PEF and extraction time were more important for T. chuii. Carotenoids and chlorophyll a were more efficiently extracted using DMSO, while chlorophyll b levels were higher following aqueous extraction for both microalgae. In P. tricornutum, the TAC and pigment extraction efficiency were in general higher at lower extraction times. It can be concluded that PEF may be a promising alternative for the enhancement of the selective extraction of antioxidant bioactive compounds from microalgae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Photosensitizing Furocoumarins: Content in Plant Matrices and Kinetics of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3805; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173805 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Furocoumarins are a group of plant phytoalexins exhibiting various bioactive properties; the most important of which are photosensitization and alteration of P450 cytochrome activity. Supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide has been proposed as a green alternative for an organic solvent extraction of [...] Read more.
Furocoumarins are a group of plant phytoalexins exhibiting various bioactive properties; the most important of which are photosensitization and alteration of P450 cytochrome activity. Supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide has been proposed as a green alternative for an organic solvent extraction of the furocoumarins. Four plant matrices rich in furocoumarins were extracted with CO2 at a temperature of 80 °C and pressure of 40 MPa, as these conditions were characterized by the highest solubility of furocoumarins. The extracts collected were analyzed using the HPLC method and the results obtained were used for the mathematical modeling of the observed phenomena. The total content of the furocoumarins in the matrices was 4.03–26.45 mg g−1 of dry weight. The impact of the process parameters on the solubility was consistent with the Chrastil equation. The broken plus intact cell model proved to be suitable to describe extraction curves obtained. The research proved the possibility of supercritical carbon dioxide utilization for the extraction of the furocoumarins from plant material and provided valuable data for prospective industrial-scale experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
The Study of Antioxidant Components in Grape Seeds
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3736; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163736 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
The paper deals with the study of antioxidant properties of extracts from vine seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) using spectrometric and chromatographic techniques. Ten vine varieties (Cerason, Laurot, Kofranka, Gewürztraminer, Hibernal, Blaufrankisch, Zweigeltrebe, Erilon, Palava, and Welschriesling) obtained from the years 2015, 2016, [...] Read more.
The paper deals with the study of antioxidant properties of extracts from vine seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) using spectrometric and chromatographic techniques. Ten vine varieties (Cerason, Laurot, Kofranka, Gewürztraminer, Hibernal, Blaufrankisch, Zweigeltrebe, Erilon, Palava, and Welschriesling) obtained from the years 2015, 2016, and 2017 were selected for the study. The antioxidant activity was determined spectrophotometrically using four fundamentally different methods; the content of total polyphenolic compounds was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. In 2015, the content of 14 antioxidants (gallic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, coutaric acid, ferulic acid, fertaric acid, trans-piceid, trans-piceatannol, rutin, quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside, quercitrin, myricetin, catechin, and epicatechin) were studied. The results of the study show the high content of antioxidant components in grape seeds and the differences in content in individual varieties and in individual years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
The Dynamic of Polyphenols Concentrations in Organic and Conventional Sour Cherry Fruits: Results of a 4-Year Field Study
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3729; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163729 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Sour cherry fruits are a perfect source of polyphenols, including flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins. According to the literature, organic fruits contain more bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, compared to conventional fruits. Given that only one two-year experiment on the status of polyphenols in [...] Read more.
Sour cherry fruits are a perfect source of polyphenols, including flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins. According to the literature, organic fruits contain more bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, compared to conventional fruits. Given that only one two-year experiment on the status of polyphenols in sour cherry fruits in an organic farm was previously conducted and found in the existing scientific literature, the aim of this study was to analyse and compare the concentration of bioactive compounds in organic and conventional sour cherries and to determine the effects of cultivation year and the proper cultivar. Four sour cherry cultivars (“Oblacińska”, “Kelleris 16”, “Pandy 103” and “Dobroceni Bötermo”) harvested in organic and conventional experimental orchards were assessed in this study. The dry matter and polyphenol contents in the fruits were determined. We observed a significantly higher concentration of dry matter in organic samples only in 2015 and 2017. In the case of total polyphenols, including phenolic acid (2015 and 2017–2018), and total flavonoids, including quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, the higher concentration was found in 2016 and 2018. Two individual anthocyanins were identified in sour cherry fruits. Cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside is the predominant form in the pool of total anthocyanins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
The Bioaccessibility of Antioxidants in Black Currant Puree after High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment
Molecules 2020, 25(15), 3544; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153544 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal processing (TP) on the bioaccessibility of vitamin C and anthocyanins as well as changes in the antioxidant capacity (AC) using ABTS+• and DPPH• tests on blackcurrant ( [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal processing (TP) on the bioaccessibility of vitamin C and anthocyanins as well as changes in the antioxidant capacity (AC) using ABTS+• and DPPH• tests on blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) puree during the steps in the digestive process. The puree was subjected to HPP at 200, 400, and 600 MPa for 5 min (room temperature) or TP at 85 °C for 10 min. The controls were untreated puree (P) and fruit crushed in a mortar (M). All the samples were digested in a static in vitro digestion model, including the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, and subjected to dialysis. The vitamin C, anthocyanin, and antioxidant capacity were monitored at each step of the digestion process. The potential bioaccessibility of the antioxidants studied was calculated in relation to the undigested sample. TP and HPP enabled a high content of vitamin C, anthocyanins, and AC to be maintained. After simulated digestion in the small intestine, a significant decrease was observed in the vitamin C and anthocyanins (approximately 98%) content. However, a high stability (approximately 70%) of both compounds was noted at the gastric stage. HPP and TP significantly affected the potential bioaccessibility of vitamin C and anthocyanins, although the bioaccessibility of both compounds in the samples treated using HPP was higher than when using TP. Moreover, the potential bioaccessibility of vitamin C after HPP treatment (400 and 600 MPa) was higher than the bioaccessibility calculated for the M and P control samples. TP and HPP treatment negatively affected anthocyanin bioaccessibility after dialysis. The most favorable pressure was 400 MPa, as it allowed maintaining the best antioxidant activity after digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Design of Healthy Snack Based on Kiwifruit
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3309; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143309 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
Kiwifruit is an excellent source of vitamin C and other bioactive compounds, which contribute to its high antioxidant activity. However, the fruits with small size and low weight are considered waste and are unprofitable; therefore, the production of healthy kiwifruit-based dried snacks, which [...] Read more.
Kiwifruit is an excellent source of vitamin C and other bioactive compounds, which contribute to its high antioxidant activity. However, the fruits with small size and low weight are considered waste and are unprofitable; therefore, the production of healthy kiwifruit-based dried snacks, which contain a lot of health-beneficial ingredients, could be a viable alternative for their use. The aim of this study was to develop formulations and methods to produce attractive and nutritionally valuable dried snacks based on yellow kiwifruit. Three different puree formulations (kiwifruit; fennel; and strawberry, lemon, or spinach) with or without addition of sugar were subjected to two drying methods: freeze-drying (fruit bars) and conventional hot air drying (fruit leathers). The obtained products were analysed for their content of total polyphenols (TPs), flavonoids, and vitamin C, as well as their antioxidant activity. The results showed that snacks prepared by freeze-drying (fruit bars) presented higher TP, vitamin C, and flavonoids content than those prepared by convective drying; however, the antioxidant activity did not always follow this trend. The amount of bioactive compounds depended on the formulation used for the preparation of snacks. The effect of the sugar addition seems to be strictly related to the mix used and specific bioactive compound investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Betavulgarin Isolated from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Suppresses Breast Cancer Stem Cells through Stat3 Signaling
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 2999; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25132999 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Breast cancer is a major health problem that affects lives worldwide. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are small subpopulations of cells with capacities for drug resistance, self-renewal, recurrence, metastasis, and differentiation. Herein, powder extracts of beetroot were subjected to silica gel, gel filtration, [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is a major health problem that affects lives worldwide. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are small subpopulations of cells with capacities for drug resistance, self-renewal, recurrence, metastasis, and differentiation. Herein, powder extracts of beetroot were subjected to silica gel, gel filtration, thin layer chromatography (TLC), and preparatory high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for isolation of one compound, based on activity-guided purification using tumorsphere formation assays. The purified compound was identified as betavulgarin, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry. Betavulgarin suppressed the proliferation, migration, colony formation, and mammosphere formation of breast cancer cells and reduced the size of the CD44+/CD24 subpopulation and the expression of the self-renewal-related genes, C-Myc, Nanog, and Oct4. This compound decreased the total level and phosphorylated nuclear level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and reduced the mRNA and protein levels of sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (SOX2), in mammospheres. These data suggest that betavulgarin inhibit the Stat3/Sox2 signaling pathway and induces BCSC death, indicating betavulgarin might be an anticancer agent against breast cancer cells and BCSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Potentially Bioaccessible Phenolics from Mung Bean and Adzuki Bean Sprouts Enriched with Probiotic—Antioxidant Properties and Effect on the Motility and Survival of AGS Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 2963; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25132963 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Gastric digests from mung (MBS) and adzuki (ABS) bean sprouts enriched with probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299v were tested for their antioxidant potential, as well as antiproliferative and antimotility properties, in human stomach cancer cells (AGS). The digest of ABS contained quercetin and kaempferol [...] Read more.
Gastric digests from mung (MBS) and adzuki (ABS) bean sprouts enriched with probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299v were tested for their antioxidant potential, as well as antiproliferative and antimotility properties, in human stomach cancer cells (AGS). The digest of ABS contained quercetin and kaempferol derivates, while kaempferol and apigenin derivates were dominant in MBS. Compared to the controls, the probiotic-rich sprouts had a higher antioxidant potential—by 13% and 9%, respectively. Adzuki bean sprouts decreased the viability of AGS already at low concentrations (25% motility inhibitions). MBS and ABS displayed dose-independent cytostatic effects. The ABS extracts decreased the proliferation of AGS more effectively than the MBS extracts—0.2‰ ABS exerted c.a. 70% of inhibitions. Moreover, the phytochemicals from the probiotic-rich sprouts considerably reduced this activity. The increased vinculin level, the apoptotic shape of cell nuclei, and the reduced cell motility and proliferation indicate that the extracts exhibited cytostatic and cytotoxic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Plant Extracts Containing Saponins Affects the Stability and Biological Activity of Hempseed Oil Emulsion System
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2696; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112696 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1873
Abstract
In this study, two saponins-rich plant extracts, viz. Saponaria officinalis and Quillaja saponaria, were used as surfactants in an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion based on hempseed oil (HSO). This study focused on a low oil phase content of 2% v/v HSO [...] Read more.
In this study, two saponins-rich plant extracts, viz. Saponaria officinalis and Quillaja saponaria, were used as surfactants in an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion based on hempseed oil (HSO). This study focused on a low oil phase content of 2% v/v HSO to investigate stable emulsion systems under minimum oil phase conditions. Emulsion stability was characterized by the emulsification index (EI), centrifugation tests, droplet size distribution as well as microscopic imaging. The smallest droplets recorded by dynamic light scattering (droplets size v. number), one day after the preparation of the emulsion, were around 50–120 nm depending the on use of Saponaria and Quillaja as a surfactant and corresponding to critical micelle concentration (CMC) in the range 0–2 g/L. The surface and interfacial tension of the emulsion components were studied as well. The effect of emulsions on environmental bacteria strains was also investigated. It was observed that emulsions with Saponaria officinalis extract exhibited slight toxic activity (the cell metabolic activity reduced to 80%), in contrast to Quillaja emulsion, which induced Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 growth. The highest-stability samples were those with doubled CMC concentration. The presented results demonstrate a possible use of oil emulsions based on plant extract rich in saponins for the food industry, biomedical and cosmetics applications, and nanoemulsion preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Himalayan Nettle Girardinia diversifolia as a Candidate Ingredient for Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Applications—Phytochemical Analysis and In Vitro Bioassays
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071563 - 29 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3060
Abstract
Girardinia diversifolia, also known as Himalayan nettle, is a perennial herb used in Nepal to make fiber as well as in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. To date, phytochemical studies and biological assays on this plant are scarce. Thus, [...] Read more.
Girardinia diversifolia, also known as Himalayan nettle, is a perennial herb used in Nepal to make fiber as well as in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. To date, phytochemical studies and biological assays on this plant are scarce. Thus, in the present work, the G. diversifolia extracts have been evaluated for their potential pharmaceutical, cosmetic and nutraceutical uses. For this purpose, detailed phytochemical analyses were performed, evidencing the presence of phytosterols, fatty acids, carotenoids, polyphenols and saponins. The most abundant secondary metabolites were β- and γ-sitosterol (11 and 9% dw, respectively), and trans syringin (0.5 mg/g) was the most abundant phenolic. Fatty acids with an abundant portion of unsaturated derivatives (linoleic and linolenic acid at 22.0 and 9.7 mg/g respectively), vitamin C (2.9 mg/g) and vitamin B2 (0.12 mg/g) were also present. The antioxidant activity was moderate while a significant ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrilcholinesterase (BuChE), tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase was observed. A cytotoxic effect was observed on human ovarian, pancreatic and hepatic cancer cell lines. The effect in hepatocarcinoma cells was associated to a downregulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), a pivotal regulator of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. These data show the potential usefulness of this species for possible applications in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Article
Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Rose Fruits (Rosa rugosa)
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061365 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties in freeze-dried extracts of rose fruits (Rosa rugosa) obtained using various extraction techniques and to determine the effect of a selected extract on bacterial survival in model [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties in freeze-dried extracts of rose fruits (Rosa rugosa) obtained using various extraction techniques and to determine the effect of a selected extract on bacterial survival in model fluids imitating protein food. Ethanolic extracts from rose fruits showed higher antioxidant activity compared to other tested extracts. The rose fruits aqueous extract showed the highest inhibitory activity against most of the 10 bacterial strains tested. From the group of Gram-positive bacteria, the Bacillus cereus strain proved to be the most sensitive to the action of the rose extract. From the Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most sensitive. The reduction in the number of bacterial cells in matrices imitating protein food depended on the concentration of the aqueous extract used. However, at none of the concentrations used was a complete inhibition of bacterial growth observed. We have confirmed that the traditional extraction and freeze-drying of rose fruits is still suitable for the food industry due to obtaining extracts with good antibacterial and antioxidant properties and the use of bio-solvents, such as water or ethanol, which are easily available in high purity and completely biodegradable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Application of Pomegranate by-Products in Muscle Foods: Oxidative Indices, Colour Stability, Shelf Life and Health Benefits
Molecules 2021, 26(2), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020467 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
In recent years, considerable importance is given to the use of agrifood wastes as they contain several groups of substances that are useful for development of functional foods. As muscle foods are prone to lipid and protein oxidation and perishable in nature, the [...] Read more.
In recent years, considerable importance is given to the use of agrifood wastes as they contain several groups of substances that are useful for development of functional foods. As muscle foods are prone to lipid and protein oxidation and perishable in nature, the industry is in constant search of synthetic free additives that help in retarding the oxidation process, leading to the development of healthier and shelf stable products. The by-products or residues of pomegranate fruit (seeds, pomace, and peel) are reported to contain bioactive compounds, including phenolic and polyphenolic compounds, dietary fibre, complex polysaccharides, minerals, vitamins, etc. Such compounds extracted from the by-products of pomegranate can be used as functional ingredients or food additives to harness the antioxidant, antimicrobial potential, or as substitutes for fat, and protein in various muscle food products. Besides, these natural additives are reported to improve the quality, safety, and extend the shelf life of different types of food products, including meat and fish. Although studies on application of pomegranate by-products on various foods are available, their effect on the physicochemical, oxidative changes, microbial, colour stabilizing, sensory acceptability, and shelf life of muscle foods are not comprehensively discussed previously. In this review, we vividly discuss these issues, and highlight the benefits of pomegranate by-products and their phenolic composition on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Review
Health Benefits of Plant-Derived Sulfur Compounds, Glucosinolates, and Organosulfur Compounds
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3804; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173804 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
The broad spectrum of the mechanism of action of immune-boosting natural compounds as well as the complex nature of the food matrices make researching the health benefits of various food products a complicated task. Moreover, many routes are involved in the action of [...] Read more.
The broad spectrum of the mechanism of action of immune-boosting natural compounds as well as the complex nature of the food matrices make researching the health benefits of various food products a complicated task. Moreover, many routes are involved in the action of most natural compounds that lead to the inhibition of chronic inflammation, which results in a decrease in the ability to remove a pathogen asymptomatically and is connected to various pathological events, such as cancer. A number of cancers have been associated with inflammatory processes. The current review strives to answer the question of whether plant-derived sulfur compounds could be beneficial in cancer prevention and therapy. This review focuses on the two main sources of natural sulfur compounds: alliaceous and cruciferous vegetables. Through the presentation of scientific data which deal with the study of the chosen compounds in cancer (cell lines, animal models, and human studies), the discussion of food processing’s influence on immune-boosting food content is presented. Additionally, it is demonstrated that there is still a need to precisely demonstrate the bioavailability of sulfur-containing compounds from various types of functional food, since the inappropriate preparation of vegetables can significantly reduce the content of beneficial sulfur compounds. Additionally, there is an urgent need to carry out more epidemiological studies to reveal the benefits of several natural compounds in cancer prevention and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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Review
Impact of the Physicochemical Composition and Microbial Diversity in Apple Juice Fermentation Process: A Review
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3698; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163698 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Fermented apple beverages are produced all over the world with diverse characteristics associated with each country. Despite the diversifications, cider producers are confronted with similar issues and risks. The nature of the raw material, also known as the fermentation medium, plays a key [...] Read more.
Fermented apple beverages are produced all over the world with diverse characteristics associated with each country. Despite the diversifications, cider producers are confronted with similar issues and risks. The nature of the raw material, also known as the fermentation medium, plays a key role in fermentation. A well-defined composition of apples is, therefore, required to produce cider with good quality. In addition, ferment and its metabolism are important factors in the fermentation process. The producers of cider and other alcoholic beverages are looking in general for novel yeast strains or for the use of native strains to produce “authentic” and diversified beverages that are distinct from each other, and that attract more and more consumers. Research articles on cider production are infrequent compared to wine production, especially on the impact of the chemical composition and microbial diversity of apples on fermentation. Even though the processing of fermented beverages is close in terms of microbial interactions and production, the study of the specific properties of apples and the production challenges of cider production is advantageous and meaningful for cider producers. This review summarizes the current knowledge on apple composition and the impact of the must composition on fermentation and yeast growth. In addition, the microbial diversity of cider, activities, and its influence on fermentation are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms)
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