Special Issue "Aquaculture Wastes and By-products as Source of High Added Value Compounds: Extraction, and Health Aspects"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Francisco J. Barba
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Ciencias de la Alimentación, Toxicología y Medicina Legal, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Spain
Interests: nutrients; bioactive compounds; food preservation; thermal treatment; innovative processing; high-pressure processing; compressed fluids; pulsed electric fields; ultrasound; microwaves; phytochemical purification; phytochemical analysis; compound isolation; bioaccessibility; bioavailability
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Jose M. Lorenzo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, rúa Galicia n° 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain
Interests: food processin; meat scienc; fermented products; volatile compounds; lipolysis and proteolysis; bioactive compounds; development of healthier food products; emerging processing technologies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Fabienne Remize
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of La Réunion, UMR QualiSud, F-34398 Montpellier, France
Interests: fermentation; non-conventional processing; lactic acid bacteria; aquaculture; waste recovery; bioactive compounds; antioxidants
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aquaculture farming produces fish, crustaceans, mollusks, plants, algae and other organisms. Due to its growing economic importance, aquaculture farming must be managed in a sustainable way. Apart from environmental issues, sustainable aquaculture will have improved competitivity and contribute to food security.

Aquaculture waste results from the incomplete use of nutrients in farming, whereas by-products are generated from edible and non-edible parts left-over after product preparation. From these two sources, potential beneficial reuses are being investigated. Among the numerous reuse applications, the recovery of nutrients such as proteins, peptides, lipids, vitamins, oligosaccharides, as well as other bioactive compounds (e.g. polyphenols) can be cited. For this purpose, several conventional and innovative processes (e.g. ultrasound, pressurized liquids, high pressure processing, pulsed electric fields, microwaves, etc.) can be used.

In order to evaluate the potential use of the extracts and/or isolated compounds, several in vitro and in vivo assays are needed prior to its commercialization.

Therefore, this Special Issue covers high value-added compounds that can be obtained from aquaculture waste or by-products. It aims to provide insight into processing and health aspects related to these compounds. It covers all kinds of compounds and fields of utilization.

Dr. Francisco J. Barba
Dr. Jose M. Lorenzo
Dr. Fabienne Remize
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aquaculture
  • Algae
  • Nutrients
  • Bioactive Compounds
  • Innovative Extraction
  • Fermentation
  • Health Aspects
  • Waste Recovery
  • By-Products

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Profiling and the Value of Processing By-Products from Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020101 - 04 Feb 2020
Abstract
Fish processing industries generate a large volume of discards. In order to fulfil with the principles of a sustainable circular economy, it is necessary to maintain aquaculture by-products in the food chain through the production of high-value biomolecules that can be used as [...] Read more.
Fish processing industries generate a large volume of discards. In order to fulfil with the principles of a sustainable circular economy, it is necessary to maintain aquaculture by-products in the food chain through the production of high-value biomolecules that can be used as novel ingredients. In this study, we try to give value to the gilthead sea bream by-products, evaluating the composition and the nutritional value of the muscle and six discards commonly obtained from the fish processing industry (fishbone, gills, guts, heads, liver, and skin), which represent ≈ 61% of the whole fish. Significant differences were detected among muscle and by-products for fatty acid and amino acid profile, as well as mineral content. The discards studied were rich in protein (10%–25%), showing skin and fishbone to have the highest contents. The amino acid profile reflected the high quality of its protein, with 41%–49% being essential amino acids—lysine, leucine, and arginine were the most abundant amino acids. Guts, liver, and skin were the fattiest by-products (25%–35%). High contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (31%–34%), n-3 fatty acids (12%–14%), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (6%–8%) characterized these discards. The head displayed by far the highest ash content (9.14%), which was reflected in the mineral content, especially in calcium and phosphorous. These results revealed that gilthead sea bream by-products can be used as source of value-added products such as protein, oils, and mineral supplements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protein Hydrolysates from Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) Waste: In Vitro and In Vivo Biological Activities
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020086 - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Fish waste utilization to obtain protein hydrolysates has been demonstrated to be a useful strategy to face both environmental and economic impacts while obtaining high-value products with remarkable biological and nutritional properties. In the present study, protein hydrolysates obtained from anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus [...] Read more.
Fish waste utilization to obtain protein hydrolysates has been demonstrated to be a useful strategy to face both environmental and economic impacts while obtaining high-value products with remarkable biological and nutritional properties. In the present study, protein hydrolysates obtained from anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (APH) by-products were assessed for their potential biological activities in both in vitro and in vivo models. The treatment with APH exerted a significant protection against LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells, decreasing the protein expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., COX-2) and inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NF-κB through IκB-α. Moreover, APH modulated the expression of iNOS, MnSOD and HO-1, thus decreasing the severity of oxidative stress. The supplementation of APH in the diet of ApoE knockout mice down-regulated the proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6) in both aorta and heart tissues, and modulated the expression of oxidative stress-related genes (Cu/ZnSod, MnSod, Cat, Gpx and Ho), indicating that APH can exert a beneficial role, having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The nutritional properties of APH, together with their biological activities herein reported, highlight the possibility of obtaining bioactive molecules from fish waste and encourage their use as potential nutraceuticals in food and pharmaceutical industries in the next future. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture By-Products with Added Value: The Polychaete Sabella spallanzanii and the Seaweed Chaetomorpha linum as Potential Dietary Ingredients
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(12), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17120677 - 30 Nov 2019
Abstract
Aquaculture expansion is limited by the negative environmental impact of the waste and the need for alternative sources in the diet of reared fish. In this framework, for the first time, the survival rates, biomass gain, and fatty acid profiles of the polychaete [...] Read more.
Aquaculture expansion is limited by the negative environmental impact of the waste and the need for alternative sources in the diet of reared fish. In this framework, for the first time, the survival rates, biomass gain, and fatty acid profiles of the polychaete Sabella spallanzanii and the macroalga Chaetomorpha linum, reared/cultivated as bioremediators in an integrated multitrophic aquaculture system (IMTA), were evaluated for their potential reuse applications. Results showed that these organisms represent a natural source of omega-3 and omega-6. On account of the overall results and the high biomass obtained as by-products, a preliminary study was performed employing both S. spallanzanii and C. linum as new dietary ingredients to feed different sized Dicentrarchus labrax. Fish survival rate, biomass growth, and specific growth rate were determined resulting in no significant differences between control and treated fishes. Histological analyses showed no alterations of the stomach tunica mucosa and submucosa in treated fishes. The eco-friendly approaches applied in the here-realized IMTA system could guarantee the achievement of sustainable by-products represented by the bioremediators S. spallanzanii and C. linum, as well as their reliability as a natural source of compounds beneficial to fish and human health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Valorization of Aquaculture By-Products of Salmonids to Produce Enzymatic Hydrolysates: Process Optimization, Chemical Characterization and Evaluation of Bioactives
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(12), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17120676 - 30 Nov 2019
Abstract
In the present manuscript, various by-products (heads, trimmings, and frames) generated from salmonids (rainbow trout and salmon) processing were evaluated as substrates for the production of fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs), potentially adequate as protein ingredients of aquaculture feeds. Initially, enzymatic conditions of hydrolysis [...] Read more.
In the present manuscript, various by-products (heads, trimmings, and frames) generated from salmonids (rainbow trout and salmon) processing were evaluated as substrates for the production of fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs), potentially adequate as protein ingredients of aquaculture feeds. Initially, enzymatic conditions of hydrolysis were optimized using second order rotatable designs and multivariable statistical analysis. The optimal conditions for the Alcalase hydrolysis of heads were 0.1% (v/w) of enzyme concentration, pH 8.27, 56.2°C, ratio (Solid:Liquid = 1:1), 3 h of hydrolysis, and agitation of 200 rpm for rainbow trout and 0.2% (v/w) of enzyme, pH 8.98, 64.2 °C, 200 rpm, 3 h of hydrolysis, and S:L = 1:1 for salmon. These conditions obtained at 100 mL-reactor scale were then validated at 5L-reactor scale. The hydrolytic capacity of Alcalase and the protein quality of FPHs were excellent in terms of digestion of wastes (Vdig > 84%), high degrees of hydrolysis (Hm > 30%), high concentration of soluble protein (Prs > 48 g/L), good balance of amino acids, and almost full in vitro digestibility (Dig > 93%). Fish oils were recovered from wastes jointly with FPHs and bioactive properties of hydrolysates (antioxidant and antihypertensive) were also determined. The salmon FPHs from trimmings + frames (TF) showed the higher protein content in comparison to the rest of FPHs from salmonids. Average molecular weights of salmonid-FPHs ranged from 1.4 to 2.0 kDa and the peptide sizes distribution indicated that hydrolysates of rainbow trout heads and salmon TF led to the highest percentages of small peptides (0–500 Da). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Gelatin and Antioxidant Peptides from Gelatin Hydrolysate of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Scales: Preparation, Identification and Activity Evaluation
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(10), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17100565 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
For full use of fish by-products, scale gelatin (TG) and antioxidant peptides (APs) of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) were prepared, and their properties were characterized using an amino acid analyzer, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), [...] Read more.
For full use of fish by-products, scale gelatin (TG) and antioxidant peptides (APs) of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) were prepared, and their properties were characterized using an amino acid analyzer, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometers (ESI-MS), and radical scavenging assays. The results indicate that TG with a yield of 3.46 ± 0.27% contained Gly (327.9 ± 5.2 residues/1000 residues) as the major amino acid and its imino acid content was 196.1 residues/1000 residues. The structure of TG was more unstable than that of type I collagen from scales of skipjack tuna (TC) and TG was more suitable for preparation of hydrolysate by protease than mammalian gelatins. Therefore, TG was separately hydrolyzed under five proteases (pepsin, papain, trypsin, neutrase, and alcalase) and ten APs (TGP1–TGP10) were isolated from the alcalase-hydrolysate. Among them, TGP5, TGP7, and TGP9 with high antioxidant activity were identified as His-Gly-Pro-Hyp-Gly-Glu (TGP5), Asp-Gly-Pro-Lys-Gly-His (TGP7) and Met-Leu-Gly-Pro-Phe-Gly-Pro-Ser (TGP9), respectively. Furthermore, TGP5, TGP7, and TGP9 exhibited a high radical scavenging capability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (EC50 values of 1.34, 0.54, and 0.67 mg/mL, respectively), hydroxyl radical (EC50 values of 1.03, 0.41, and 0.74 mg/mL, respectively), and superoxide anion radical (EC50 values of 1.19, 0.71, and 1.59 mg/mL, respectively). These results suggest that three APs (TGP5, TGP7, and TGP9), especially TGP7, have a strong antioxidant activity and could act as potential antioxidant ingredients applied in functional products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Eight Collagen Peptides from Hydrolysate Fraction of Spanish Mackerel Skins: Isolation, Identification, and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity Evaluation
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040224 - 13 Apr 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
A previous report indicated that collagen hydrolysate fraction (F7) from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius) skins showed high reducing power and radical scavenging activities on 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 value of 1.57 mg/mL) and hydroxyl (EC50 value of 1.20 mg/mL). In [...] Read more.
A previous report indicated that collagen hydrolysate fraction (F7) from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius) skins showed high reducing power and radical scavenging activities on 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 value of 1.57 mg/mL) and hydroxyl (EC50 value of 1.20 mg/mL). In this work, eight peptides were isolated from F7 and identified as Gly-Pro-Tyr (GPY, 335.31 Da), Gly-Pro-Thr-Gly-Glu (GPTGE, 459.47 Da), Pro-Phe-Gly-Pro-Asp (PFGPD, 531.52 Da), Gly-Pro-Thr-Gly-Ala-Lys (GPTGAKG, 586.65 Da), Pro-Tyr-Gly-Ala-Lys-Gly (PYGAKG, 591.69 Da), Gly-Ala-Thr-Gly-Pro-Gln-Gly (GATGPQG, 586.61 Da), Gly-Pro-Phe-Gly-Pro-Met (GPFGPM, 604.73 Da), and Tyr-Gly-Pro-Met (YGPM, 466.50 Da), respectively. Among them, PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM exhibited strong radical scavenging activities on DPPH (EC50 values of 0.80, 3.02, and 0.72 mg/mL for PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM, respectively), hydroxyl (EC50 values of 0.81, 0.66, and 0.88 mg/mL for PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM, respectively), superoxide anion (EC50 values of 0.91, 0.80, and 0.73 mg/mL for PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM, respectively), and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) cation (EC50 values of 0.86, 1.07, and 0.82 mg/mL for PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM, respectively) in a positive concentration–activity relationship. Furthermore, PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM could effectively reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Hence, eight collagen peptides from hydrolysate of Spanish mackerel skins might be served as antioxidant candidates for various industrial applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structure and Neuroprotective Effect of Polysaccharide from Viscera Autolysates of Squid Ommastrephes bartrami
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17030188 - 22 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To explore bioactive polysaccharides from the byproducts of squid processing, a heteropolysaccharide, named SV2-1, was isolated from the viscera of squid Ommastrephes bartrami by autolysis, anion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography and measured for its neuroprotective activity. It was a homogeneous polysaccharide with a molecular [...] Read more.
To explore bioactive polysaccharides from the byproducts of squid processing, a heteropolysaccharide, named SV2-1, was isolated from the viscera of squid Ommastrephes bartrami by autolysis, anion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography and measured for its neuroprotective activity. It was a homogeneous polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 2.3 kDa by HPSEC analysis. SV2-1 contained glucuronic acid, galactosamine and fucose in the ratio of 1.0:1.1:1.2. Its structural characteristics were elucidated by methylation analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The backbone of SV2-1 was composed of alternant →4)-α-l-Fucp-(1→ and →3)-β-d-GlcUA-(1→ Most of →4)-α-l-Fucp-(1→ (90%) was substituted by single α-d-GlcNAc as the branches. SV2-1 can protect against the death of PC12 induced by 6-OHDA, and effectively improves cell viability and reduces extracellular LDH release in PC12 cells after injury. Moreover, SV2-1 significantly increases SOD activity but decreases MDA levels. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Innovative Green Technologies of Intensification for Valorization of Seafood and Their By-Products
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(12), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17120689 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The activities linked to the fishing sector generate substantial quantities of by-products, which are often discarded or used as low-value ingredients in animal feed. However, these marine by-products are a prominent potential good source of bioactive compounds, with important functional properties that can [...] Read more.
The activities linked to the fishing sector generate substantial quantities of by-products, which are often discarded or used as low-value ingredients in animal feed. However, these marine by-products are a prominent potential good source of bioactive compounds, with important functional properties that can be isolated or up-concentrated, giving them an added value in higher end markets, as for instance nutraceuticals and cosmetics. This valorization of fish by-products has been boosted by the increasing awareness of consumers regarding the relationship between diet and health, demanding new fish products with enhanced nutritional and functional properties. To obtain fish by-product-derived biocompounds with good, functional and acceptable organoleptic properties, the selection of appropriate extraction methods for each bioactive ingredient is of the outmost importance. In this regard, over the last years, innovative alternative technologies of intensification, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), have become an alternative to the conventional methods in the isolation of valuable compounds from fish and shellfish by-products. Innovative green technologies present great advantages to traditional methods, preserving and even enhancing the quality and the extraction efficiency, as well as minimizing functional properties’ losses of the bioactive compounds extracted from marine by-products. Besides their biological activities, bioactive compounds obtained by innovative alternative technologies can enhance several technological properties of food matrices, enabling their use as ingredients in novel foods. This review is focusing on analyzing the principles and the use of UAE and SFE as emerging technologies to valorize seafoods and their by-products. Full article
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