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Special Issue "Extraction, Purification and Application of Antioxidants from Food Matrices, Wastes and By-Products"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Francisco J. Barba
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Ciencias de la Alimentación, Toxicología y Medicina Legal, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Spain
Interests: nutrients; bioactive compounds; food preservation; thermal treatment; innovative processing; high-pressure processing; compressed fluids; pulsed electric fields; ultrasound; microwaves; phytochemical purification; phytochemical analysis; compound isolation; bioaccessibility; bioavailability
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Zhenzhou Zhu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, 430023Wuhan, China
Interests: extraction, separation, purification, pulsed electric fields, ultrasounds, compressed fluids, bioactive compounds, antioxidants
Prof. Dr. Fabienne Remize
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of La Réunion, UMR QualiSud, F-34398 Montpellier, France
Interests: fermentation; non-conventional processing; lactic acid bacteria; aquaculture; waste recovery; bioactive compounds; antioxidants
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Naturally bioactive compounds occur in various plant, algal, and animal matrices, which are always believed to possess antioxidant activities and have the potential to be applied in the food and cosmetic industries. Research focused on the extraction, purification, and application of antioxidants from plant, algal, and animal matrices has been a scientific hotspot in recent decades, as more and more new resources, wastes, and by-products have matters of interest.

Green extraction technologies involving pulsed electric fields, high pressure processing, supercritical carbon dioxide, acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation, microwaves, and ball milling are increasingly applied in the extraction of antioxidant compounds from natural sources. Nonconventional strategies such as membrane separation (nanofiltration and ultrafiltration) and molecular distillation can be also successfully used to purify typical bioactive components, being more technically feasible and cost-effective than conventional techniques.

In addition, numerous cell and animal models have been established to evaluate the absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of antioxidants in vivo and in vitro. Various biological functions of natural products have proved to be closely associated with their bioefficiency.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to highlight new challenges in the preparation and application of natural antioxidants from matters of different origin using recent technological advances and innovative evaluation systems. The incorporation of these antioxidants into new matrices as well as the evaluation of bioaccessibility and bioavailability of isolated antioxidants, in extracts or in new complex matrices, will be also a matter of interest.

Dr. Francisco J. Barba
Dr. Zhenzhou Zhu
Dr. Jose Manuel Lorenzo
Dr. Fabienne Remize
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Bioactive compounds
  • Innovative and non-conventional
  • Extraction
  • Separation
  • Purification
  • High-pressure processing
  • Compressed fluids
  • Pulsed electric fields
  • Ultrasound; microwaves
  • Analysis
  • Compound isolation

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Ultrasound and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Opuntia Fruit Peels Biocompounds: Optimization and Comparison Using RSM-CCD
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3618; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193618 - 08 Oct 2019
Abstract
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive compounds, peels from Opuntia engelmannii cultivar (cv.) Valencia were optimized by response surface methodology. Randomized extraction runs were performed for each of the technologies employed in order to build effective models with maximum (bioactive [...] Read more.
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive compounds, peels from Opuntia engelmannii cultivar (cv.) Valencia were optimized by response surface methodology. Randomized extraction runs were performed for each of the technologies employed in order to build effective models with maximum (bioactive molecules content and yield) and minimum (antioxidant activity) responses. A 5-level, 4-factor central composite design was used to obtain target responses as a function of extraction time (t), solid to liquid ratio (S/L), methanol concentration (metOH), and temperature (T). Specific response optimization for each technology was analyzed, discussed, and general optimization from all the responses together was also gather. The optimum values for each factor were: t = 2.5 and 1.4 min, S/L = 5 and 5 g/L, metOH = 34.6 and 0% of methanol and T = 30 and 36.6 °C, achieving maximum responses of 201.6 and 132.9 mg of betalains/g, 13.9 and 8.0 mg of phenolic acids/g, 2.4 and 1.5 mg of flavonoids/g, 71.8% and 79.1% of extractable solid and IC50 values for the antioxidant activity of 2.9 and 3.6, for UAE and MAE, respectively. The present study suggested UAE as the best extraction system, in order to maximize recovery of bioactive compounds with a high antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Polyphenols during Syrah Grapes Maceration: Time versus Temperature Effect
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2845; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152845 - 05 Aug 2019
Abstract
The effect of maceration time and temperature on the phenolic compounds of Syrah grape musts was studied. Pre-fermentation cold (10 °C) and heat maceration (60, 70 and 80 °C) were applied and compared to traditional maceration (control, 25 °C). The macerations were monitored [...] Read more.
The effect of maceration time and temperature on the phenolic compounds of Syrah grape musts was studied. Pre-fermentation cold (10 °C) and heat maceration (60, 70 and 80 °C) were applied and compared to traditional maceration (control, 25 °C). The macerations were monitored and the kinetic profile of the maceration was studied by taking samples at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h. The results showed that heat treatment had the most significant effect on the extraction of total polyphenol. A significant loss of anthocyanin content was observed when the maceration was extended beyond eight hours at high temperatures, while longer maceration times seemed to favor the extraction of tannins. A principal component analysis showed that independently of the vinification technique, and for the same grape varieties, different winegrowing regions and harvest years affected the phenolic composition of the grape skin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Recovery of Polyphenols from Grape Pomace Using Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Grafted Silica Particles and PEG-Assisted Cosolvent Elution
Molecules 2019, 24(12), 2199; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24122199 - 12 Jun 2019
Abstract
Adsorption on a functionalized surface can be an effective way of purifying polyphenols from complex plant extracts. Polymeric resins that rely on hydrophobic interactions suffer from low selectivity, weak affinity towards polyphenols, and lack tunability therefore making the purification of polyphenols less efficient. [...] Read more.
Adsorption on a functionalized surface can be an effective way of purifying polyphenols from complex plant extracts. Polymeric resins that rely on hydrophobic interactions suffer from low selectivity, weak affinity towards polyphenols, and lack tunability therefore making the purification of polyphenols less efficient. In this study, a purification process for the recovery of polyphenols from grape pomace extract was successfully developed using hydrogen bonding affinity ligands grafted on silica particles and PEG-assisted elution solvents. Bare silica (SiO2) and polyethylene glycol (mPEG)-grafted silica microparticles with molecular weights of 2000 and 5000 were tested to determine their polyphenol binding and release characteristics. Functionalizing the surface of bare silica with mPEG ligands increased the adsorption capacity by 7.1- and 11.4-fold for mPEG-2000 and mPEG-5000 compared to bare silica particles, respectively. This was likely due to the introduction of more polyphenol binding sites with mPEG functionalization. Altering the molecular weight (MW) of mPEG grafted on silica surfaces provided tunability in the adsorption capacity. A complete recovery of polyphenols (~99.9%) from mPEG-grafted silica particles was achieved by utilizing PEG–ethanol or PEG–water cosolvent systems. Recovered polyphenols showed up to ~12-fold antioxidant activity compared to grape pomace extract. This study demonstrates that mPEG-grafted silica particles and elution of polyphenols with PEG cosolvents can potentially be used for large-scale purification of polyphenols from complex plant extracts and simplify the use of polyphenols, as PEG facilitates remarkable solvation and is an ideal medium for the final formulation of polyphenols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Feruloylated Arabinoxylans from Nixtamalized Maize Bran Byproduct: A Functional Ingredient in Frankfurter Sausages
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112056 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Feruloylated arabinoxylans obtained from nixtamalized maize bran were evaluated in terms of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity when incorporated in frankfurter sausages. Concentrations of 0.15% and 0.30% of feruloylated arabinoxylans were incorporated in frankfurter sausages formulations and a control without feruloylated arabinoxylans was [...] Read more.
Feruloylated arabinoxylans obtained from nixtamalized maize bran were evaluated in terms of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity when incorporated in frankfurter sausages. Concentrations of 0.15% and 0.30% of feruloylated arabinoxylans were incorporated in frankfurter sausages formulations and a control without feruloylated arabinoxylans was also prepared. Shear force, hardness, color measurement, proximate analysis, pH, titratable acidity, water-holding capacity, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in all treatments, sausages containing feruloylated arabinoxylans compared to the control. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.0001) in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity with all feruloylated arabinoxylans sausages treatments higher than control. Additionally, significant differences (P < 0.0001) were obtained in the physicochemical parameters. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effects on Clinical Isolated Bacteria and Simultaneous HPLC Quantitative Analysis of Flavone Contents in Extracts from Oroxylum indicum
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101937 - 20 May 2019
Abstract
Oroxylum indicum is a medicinal plant in Thailand, which has been used as a tonic and for the treatment of various diseases. Extracts from various parts of O. indicum were reported as promoting in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Phytochemical analysis suggested that [...] Read more.
Oroxylum indicum is a medicinal plant in Thailand, which has been used as a tonic and for the treatment of various diseases. Extracts from various parts of O. indicum were reported as promoting in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Phytochemical analysis suggested that this plant contained some flavones. O. indicum fruit and seed water and ethanol extracts and their major flavonoids including baicalein, baicalin, and chrysin were tested for in vitro antibacterial activities on four clinical isolated bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus intermedius, Streptococcus suis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and β-Escherichia coli, using a broth micro-dilution assay. The amounts of these three major flavonoids were also quantitatively analyzed using the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. O. indicum fruit ethanol extract from Nakhon Pathom province (OFNE) promoted the strongest antimicrobial activity against four clinical pathogenic bacteria, including S. intermedius (IC50 = 1.30 mg/mL), S. suis (13.59% inhibition at 7.81 mg/mL), P. aeruginosa (IC50 = 39.20 mg/mL), and β-E. coli (IC50 = 66.85 mg/mL). Baicalin showed high in vitro antibacterial effect to all tested bacteria. From the optimized and validated HPLC method, baicalin, baicalein, and chrysin contents in O. indicum extracts were 0.19 ± 0.00 − 9.45 ± 0.13, 0.14 ± 0.00 − 1.27 ± 0.02, and 0.02 ± 0.00 − 0.96 ± 0.02 g/100 g extract, respectively. Baicalin was found to be the major compound in O. indicum seed extract followed by baicalein, whereas chrysin was found in lower amounts than the amounts of the other two flavonoids in all O. indicum extracts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Spray-Drying Process of Jerusalem artichoke Extract for Inulin Production
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1674; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091674 - 29 Apr 2019
Abstract
Jerusalem artichoke is an important natural matrix for inulin production. In this experiment, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the spray-drying parameters in order to determine the maximal inulin yield. For this study, three independent variables (heating temperature (Tª, 110–120 °C), [...] Read more.
Jerusalem artichoke is an important natural matrix for inulin production. In this experiment, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the spray-drying parameters in order to determine the maximal inulin yield. For this study, three independent variables (heating temperature (Tª, 110–120 °C), creep speed (V, 18–22 rpm) and pressure (P, 0.02–0.04 MPa)) were used in the experimental design. Using the Box–Behnken design, the optimal parameters obtained were: drying temperature 114.6 °C, creep speed 20.02 rpm, and pressure: 0.03 MPa. The inulin yield, water content and particle size of inulin obtained by spray-drying and freeze-drying were compared. In this regard, the spray-dried inulin consisted of a white powder having a fine particle size, and the freeze-dried inulin had a pale-yellow fluffy floc. On the other hand, the drying methods had a great influence on the appearance and internal structure of inulin powder, since the spray-dried inulin had a complete and uniform shape and size, whereas the freeze-dried inulin had a flocculated sheet structure. The analysis showed that the spray-drying led to a higher inulin yield, lower water content and better surface structure than freeze-drying. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Dietary Flavonoid Hyperoside Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae as a Model
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040788 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Oxidative stress leads to various diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and even cancer. The dietary flavonol glycoside, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside), exerts health benefits by preventing oxidative damage. To further understand its antioxidative defence mechanisms, we systemically investigated the regulation of [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress leads to various diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and even cancer. The dietary flavonol glycoside, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside), exerts health benefits by preventing oxidative damage. To further understand its antioxidative defence mechanisms, we systemically investigated the regulation of hyperoside on oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide, carbon tetrachloride, and cadmium in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hyperoside significantly increased cell viability, decreased lipid peroxidation, and lowered intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the wild-type strain (WT) and mutants gtt1∆ and gtt2∆. However, the strain with ctt1∆ showed variable cell viability and intracellular ROS-scavenging ability in response to the hyperoside treatment upon the stimulation of H2O2 and CCl4. In addition, hyperoside did not confer viability tolerance or intercellular ROS in CdSO4-induced stress to strains of sod1∆ and gsh1∆. The results suggest that the antioxidative reactions of hyperoside in S. cerevisiae depend on the intercellular ROS detoxification system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Pulsed Electric Field Treatment on Compression Properties and Solutes Diffusion Behaviors of Jerusalem artichoke
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030559 - 03 Feb 2019
Abstract
Jerusalem artichoke is widely used as raw material for industrial production of inulin. Pressing (compression) and diffusion are two effective technologies for bio-compounds’ recovery from plants. In this work, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at 400, 600, and 800 V/cm during 100 ms [...] Read more.
Jerusalem artichoke is widely used as raw material for industrial production of inulin. Pressing (compression) and diffusion are two effective technologies for bio-compounds’ recovery from plants. In this work, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at 400, 600, and 800 V/cm during 100 ms was applied to facilitate juice and solutes recovery from Jerusalem artichoke. The application of PEF led to electroporation of cell membranes and enhanced the tissue compression/juice expression and solutes diffusion. The consolidation coefficient (calculated by application of semi-empirical model) of PEF treated sample at 800 V/cm was 6.50 × 10−7 m2/s, which is significantly higher than that of untreated sample (5.02 × 10−9 m2/s) and close to that of freeze-thawed sample. Diffusion experiments with PEF treated samples were carried out at 25, 50, and 75 °C. A PEF treatment of Jerusalem artichoke at 800 V/cm led to a similar diffusion behavior at 25 °C, compared to diffusion behavior obtained from untreated sample at 75 °C. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Fruit Seeds as Sources of Bioactive Compounds: Sustainable Production of High Value-Added Ingredients from By-Products within Circular Economy
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3854; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213854 - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
The circular economy is an umbrella concept that applies different mechanisms aiming to minimize waste generation, thus decoupling economic growth from natural resources. Each year, an estimated one-third of all food produced is wasted; this is equivalent to 1.3 billion tons of food, [...] Read more.
The circular economy is an umbrella concept that applies different mechanisms aiming to minimize waste generation, thus decoupling economic growth from natural resources. Each year, an estimated one-third of all food produced is wasted; this is equivalent to 1.3 billion tons of food, which is worth around US$1 trillion or even $2.6 trillion when social and economic costs are included. In the fruit and vegetable sector, 45% of the total produced amount is lost in the production (post-harvest, processing, and distribution) and consumption chains. Therefore, it is necessary to find new technological and environmentally friendly solutions to utilize fruit wastes as new raw materials to develop and scale up the production of high value-added products and ingredients. Considering that the production and consumption of fruits has increased in the last years and following the need to find the sustainable use of different fruit side streams, this work aimed to describe the chemical composition and bioactivity of different fruit seeds consumed worldwide. A comprehensive focus is given on the extraction techniques of water-soluble and lipophilic compounds and in vitro/in vivo functionalities, and the link between chemical composition and observed activity is holistically explained. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Comprehensive Review on Chemical and Pharmacological Potential of Viola betonicifolia: A Plant with Multiple Benefits
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3138; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173138 - 29 Aug 2019
Abstract
Viola betonicifolia (Violaceae) is commonly recognized as “Banafsha” and widely distributed throughout the globe. This plant is of great interest because of its traditional, pharmacological uses. This review mainly emphases on morphology, nutritional composition, and several therapeutic uses, along with pharmacological properties of [...] Read more.
Viola betonicifolia (Violaceae) is commonly recognized as “Banafsha” and widely distributed throughout the globe. This plant is of great interest because of its traditional, pharmacological uses. This review mainly emphases on morphology, nutritional composition, and several therapeutic uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose plant. Different vegetative parts of this plant (roots, leaves, petioles, and flowers) contained a good profile of essential micro- and macronutrients and are rich source of fat, protein, carbohydrates, and vitamin C. The plant is well known for its pharmacological properties, e.g., antioxidant, antihelminthic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and has been reported in the treatment of various neurological diseases. This plant is of high economic value. The plant has potential role in cosmetic industry. This review suggests that V. betonicifolia is a promising source of pharmaceutical agents. This plant is also of significance as ornamental plant, however further studies needed to explore its phytoconstituents and their pharmacological potential. Furthermore, clinical studies are needed to use this plant for benefits of human beings. Full article
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