Function of Microorganism in Food Production

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 40041

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Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, 32900 Orense, Spain
Interests: meat quality; genetic influences in meat quality; genetic improvement
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microorganisms have been influencing the production of food since ancient times. Milk, meat, and vegetables have been transformed into new products that can be stored for longer periods than raw materials and also have highly appreciated organoleptic characteristics after this transformation. The advances in food processing have been supporting the exploration of starter cultures (bacteria, molds, and yeasts) to produce fermented food with a longer shelf life and new or enhanced organoleptic attributes (lactic acid, ethanol, and the complex variety of microbial metabolites in fermented milks, alcoholic beverages, and fermented sausages, for instance), and also to obtain molecules from microbial activity such as colorants, flavors, oligo- and polysaccharides, fatty acids, organic acids, and bioactive compounds. Scientific investigation in the use of selected microorganisms in food production also revealed that microbial activity or the microorganisms per se is a prized aspect by consumers in a food product due to the health benefits associated with their consumption. Consequently, new opportunities (aligned to current consumers’ expectations and needs) to develop fermented food products, additives and ingredients were created.

This Special Issue invites frontline researchers to submit original research and review articles on (but not limited to) technological, microbiological, health-related aspects of food products and biomolecules obtained from fermentative microorganisms. Advances in conventional and innovative processes, technologies, and approaches are also welcome.

Dr. Jose M. Lorenzo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Fermentation
  • Starter cultures
  • Bioactive compounds
  • Fermented food products
  • Food additives and ingredients
  • Product innovation and development

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 2916 KiB  
Article
Biotechnological Valorization of Food Marine Wastes: Microbial Productions on Peptones Obtained from Aquaculture By-Products
by José Antonio Vázquez, Ana I. Durán, Araceli Menduíña and Margarita Nogueira
Biomolecules 2020, 10(8), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10081184 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4360
Abstract
Based on a biotechnological strategy, in the present work several peptones are produced from the Alcalase hydrolysis (0.1–0.2% v/w, 56–64 °C, pH 8.27–8.98, 3 h) and thermal processing (105 °C, 60 min) of wastes generated from the industrial processing of turbot, salmon, [...] Read more.
Based on a biotechnological strategy, in the present work several peptones are produced from the Alcalase hydrolysis (0.1–0.2% v/w, 56–64 °C, pH 8.27–8.98, 3 h) and thermal processing (105 °C, 60 min) of wastes generated from the industrial processing of turbot, salmon, trout, seabream and seabass. These peptones were included (in the range of 2.6–11 g/L of soluble protein) as main source of organic nitrogen (protein substrates) in low-cost media for the culture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), marine probiotic bacteria (MPB) and ubiquitous Gram+ bacteria. In most cases, batch fermentations conducted in aquaculture peptone media led to the best growth, metabolic productions and yields. Nevertheless, no significant differences between aquaculture peptones and commercial media were generally observed. Kinetic parameters from a logistic equation and used for cultures modeling were applied with the purpose of comparing the bioproduction outcomes. In economical terms, the validity of the aquaculture peptones as substitutives of the peptones (meat extract, casitone, etc.) from commercial media was also compared. The decreasing of the costs for LAB bioproductions ranged between 3–4 times and the growth costs of MPB and Gram+ bacteria were improved more than 70 and 15 times, respectively, in relation to those found in control commercial media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Function of Microorganism in Food Production)
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16 pages, 2691 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation with Sugar Beet Fructooligosaccharides and Garlic Residues Promotes Growth of Beneficial Bacteria and Increases Weight Gain in Neonatal Lambs
by Narciso M. Quijada, Raúl Bodas, Jose M. Lorenzo, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, David Rodríguez-Lázaro and Marta Hernández
Biomolecules 2020, 10(8), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10081179 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3857
Abstract
The proper development of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is critical for newborn ruminants. This microbiota is susceptible to modification by diverse external factors (such as diet) that can lead to long-lasting results when occurring in young ruminants. Dietary supplementation with prebiotics, [...] Read more.
The proper development of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is critical for newborn ruminants. This microbiota is susceptible to modification by diverse external factors (such as diet) that can lead to long-lasting results when occurring in young ruminants. Dietary supplementation with prebiotics, ingredients nondigestible and nonabsorbable by the host that stimulate the growth of beneficial GIT bacteria, has been applied worldwide as a potential approach in order to improve ruminant health and production yields. However, how prebiotics affect the GIT microbiota during ruminants’ early life is still poorly understood. We investigated the effect of milk supplementation with a combination of two well-known prebiotics, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from sugar beet and garlic residues (all together named as “additive”), exerted on preweaned lamb growth and the composition of their fecal microbiota, by using 16S rRNA gene amplicon high-throughput sequencing. The results showed a significant increase in the mean daily weight gain of lambs fed with the additive. Lamb fecal microbiota was also influenced by the additive intake, as additive-diet lambs showed lower bacterial diversity and were significantly more abundant in Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Veillonella. These bacteria have been previously reported to confer beneficial properties to the ruminant, including promotion of growth and health status, and our results showed that they were strongly linked to the additive intake and the increased weight gain of lambs. This study points out the combination of FOS from sugar beet and garlic residues as a potential prebiotic to be used in young ruminants’ nutrition in order to improve production yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Function of Microorganism in Food Production)
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17 pages, 5496 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Biosynthetic Changes that Give Origin to the Distinctive Flavor of Sotol: Microbial Identification and Analysis of the Volatile Metabolites Profiles During Sotol (Dasylirion sp.) Must Fermentation
by Francisco Javier Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Ricardo Contreras-López, L. Paola Lerma-Torres, Francisco Ruiz-Terán, Beatriz A. Rocha-Gutiérrez, Samuel B. Pérez-Vega, Leslie R. Elías-Ogaz and Ivan Salmerón
Biomolecules 2020, 10(7), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10071063 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3118
Abstract
In northern Mexico, the distilled spirit sotol with a denomination of origin is made from species of Dasylirion. The configuration of the volatile metabolites produced during the spontaneous fermentation of Dasylirion sp. must is insufficiently understood. In this study, the aim was [...] Read more.
In northern Mexico, the distilled spirit sotol with a denomination of origin is made from species of Dasylirion. The configuration of the volatile metabolites produced during the spontaneous fermentation of Dasylirion sp. must is insufficiently understood. In this study, the aim was to investigate the composition of the microbial consortia, describe the variation of volatile metabolites, and relate such profiles with their particular flavor attributes during the fermentation of sotol (Dasylirion sp.) must. Ascomycota was the phylum of most strains identified with 75% of total abundance. The genus of fermenting yeasts constituted of 101 Pichia strains and 13 Saccharomyces strains. A total of 57 volatile metabolites were identified and grouped into ten classes. The first stage of fermentation was composed of diesel, green, fruity, and cheesy attributes due to butyl 2-methylpropanoate, octan-1-ol, ethyl octanoate, and butanal, respectively, followed by a variation to pungent and sweet descriptors due to 3-methylbutan-1-ol and butyl 2-methylpropanoate. The final stage was described by floral, ethereal-winey, and vinegar attributes related to ethyl ethanimidate, 2-methylpropan-1-ol, and 2-hydroxyacetic acid. Our results improve the knowledge of the variations of volatile metabolites during the fermentation of sotol must and their contribution to its distinctive flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Function of Microorganism in Food Production)
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15 pages, 1878 KiB  
Article
Exploitation of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Baker’s Yeast as Single or Multiple Starter Cultures of Wheat Flour Dough Enriched with Soy Flour
by Bernadette-Emőke Teleky, Adrian Gheorghe Martău, Floricuța Ranga, Felicia Chețan and Dan C. Vodnar
Biomolecules 2020, 10(5), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10050778 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 5699
Abstract
Sourdough fermentation presents several advantageous effects in bread making, like improved nutritional quality and increased shelf life. Three types of experiments aimed to evaluate comparatively the efficiency of two Lactobacillus (Lb.) strains, Lb. plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lb. casei ATCC 393, to metabolize [...] Read more.
Sourdough fermentation presents several advantageous effects in bread making, like improved nutritional quality and increased shelf life. Three types of experiments aimed to evaluate comparatively the efficiency of two Lactobacillus (Lb.) strains, Lb. plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lb. casei ATCC 393, to metabolize different white wheat flour and soybeans flour combinations to compare their efficiency, together with/without Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sourdough fermentation. For this purpose, the viability, pH, organic acids, and secondary metabolites production were investigated, together with the dynamic rheological properties of the sourdough. During sourdough fermentation, LAB presented higher growth, and the pH decreased significantly from above pH 6 at 0 h to values under 4 at 24 h for each experiment. Co-cultures of LAB and yeast produced a higher quantity of lactic acid than single cultures, especially in sourdough enriched with soy-flour. In general, sourdoughs displayed a stable, elastic-like behavior, and the incorporation of soy-flour conferred higher elasticity in comparison with sourdoughs without soy-flour. The higher elasticity of sourdoughs enriched with soy-flour can be attributed to the fact that through frozen storage, soy proteins have better water holding capacity. In conclusion, sourdough supplemented with 10% soy-flour had better rheological properties, increased lactic, acetic, and citric acid production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Function of Microorganism in Food Production)
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17 pages, 1296 KiB  
Article
Metabolic and Lipidomic Profiling of Vegetable Juices Fermented with Various Probiotics
by Hyuk-Jin Chung, Hwanhui Lee, Guknam Na, Heechul Jung, Dong-Gun Kim, Sang-Ick Shin, Seong-Eun Jung, Il-dong Choi, Jae-Hwan Lee, Jae-Hun Sim and Hyung-Kyoon Choi
Biomolecules 2020, 10(5), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10050725 - 6 May 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4818
Abstract
Fermented vegetable juices have gained attention due to their various beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we employed gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, direct infusion-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to identify useful metabolites, lipids, and carotenoids in vegetable juice (VJ) fermented with [...] Read more.
Fermented vegetable juices have gained attention due to their various beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we employed gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, direct infusion-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to identify useful metabolites, lipids, and carotenoids in vegetable juice (VJ) fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum HY7712, Lactobacillus plantarum HY7715, Lactobacillus helveticus HY7801, and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis HY8002. A total of 41 metabolites, 24 lipids, and 4 carotenoids were detected in the fermented and non-fermented VJ (control). The lycopene, α-carotene, and β-carotene levels were higher in VJ fermented with L. plantarum strains (HY7712 and HY7715) than in the control. Proline content was also elevated in VJ fermented with HY7715. Uracil, succinic acid, and α-carotene concentration was increased in VJ fermented with HY7801, while glycine and lycopene levels were raised in VJ fermented with HY8002. This study confirmed that each probiotic strain has distinctive characteristics and produces unique changes to metabolic profiles of VJ during fermentation. Our results suggest that probiotic-fermented VJ is a promising functional beverage that contains more beneficial metabolites and carotenoids than commercial non-fermented VJ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Function of Microorganism in Food Production)
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18 pages, 1390 KiB  
Article
β-Mannanase Production Using Coffee Industry Waste for Application in Soluble Coffee Processing
by Camila P. Favaro, Ilton J. Baraldi, Fernanda P. Casciatori and Cristiane S. Farinas
Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020227 - 4 Feb 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4389
Abstract
Soluble coffee offers the combined benefits of high added value and practicality for its consumers. The hydrolysis of coffee polysaccharides by the biochemical route, using enzymes, is an eco-friendly and sustainable way to improve the quality of this product, while contributing to the [...] Read more.
Soluble coffee offers the combined benefits of high added value and practicality for its consumers. The hydrolysis of coffee polysaccharides by the biochemical route, using enzymes, is an eco-friendly and sustainable way to improve the quality of this product, while contributing to the implementation of industrial processes that have lower energy requirements and can reduce environmental impacts. This work describes the production of hydrolytic enzymes by solid-state fermentation (SSF), cultivating filamentous fungi on waste from the coffee industry, followed by their application in the hydrolysis of waste coffee polysaccharides from soluble coffee processing. Different substrate compositions were studied, an ideal microorganism was selected, and the fermentation conditions were optimized. Cultivations for enzymes production were carried out in flasks and in a packed-bed bioreactor. Higher enzyme yield was achieved in the bioreactor, due to better aeration of the substrate. The best β-mannanase production results were found for a substrate composed of a mixture of coffee waste and wheat bran (1:1 w/w), using Aspergillus niger F12. The enzymatic extract proved to be very stable for 24 h, at 50 °C, and was able to hydrolyze a considerable amount of the carbohydrates in the coffee. The addition of a commercial cellulase cocktail to the crude extract increased the hydrolysis yield by 56%. The production of β-mannanase by SSF and its application in the hydrolysis of coffee polysaccharides showed promise for improving soluble coffee processing, offering an attractive way to assist in closing the loops in the coffee industry and creating a circular economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Function of Microorganism in Food Production)
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16 pages, 3057 KiB  
Article
Identification, Classification and Screening for γ-Amino-butyric Acid Production in Lactic Acid Bacteria from Cambodian Fermented Foods
by Dalin Ly, Sigrid Mayrhofer, I. B. Agung Yogeswara, Thu-Ha Nguyen and Konrad J. Domig
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120768 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4430
Abstract
Screening for various types of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that form the biological agent γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) is important to produce different kinds of GABA-containing fermented foods. So far, no GABA-producing LAB have been reported from Cambodian fermented foods. Most small-scale fermentations and [...] Read more.
Screening for various types of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that form the biological agent γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) is important to produce different kinds of GABA-containing fermented foods. So far, no GABA-producing LAB have been reported from Cambodian fermented foods. Most small-scale fermentations and even some industrial processes in this country still rely on indigenous LAB. The application of GABA-producing autochthonous starters would allow the production of Cambodian fermented foods with an additional nutritional value that meet the population’s dietary habits and that are also more attractive for the international food market. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionizing time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and partial 16S rDNA sequencing were used to identify 68 LAB isolates from Cambodian fermented foods. These isolates were classified and grouped with (GTG)5 rep-PCR, resulting in 50 strains. Subsequently, all strains were investigated for their ability to produce GABA by thin layer chromatography. GABA-positive strains were further analyzed by the GABase assay. Of the six GABA-positive LAB strains—one Lactobacillus futsaii, two Lactobacillus namurensis, and three Lactobacillus plantarum strains—two Lactobacillus plantarum strains produced high amounts of GABA (20.34 mM, 16.47 mM). These strains should be further investigated for their potential application as GABA-producing starter cultures in the food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Function of Microorganism in Food Production)
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11 pages, 771 KiB  
Article
The Prevalence, Antibiotic Resistance and Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus aureus in Bulk Ready-To-Eat Foods
by Qi Lin, Honghu Sun, Kai Yao, Jiong Cai, Yao Ren and Yuanlong Chi
Biomolecules 2019, 9(10), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9100524 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4031
Abstract
The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in 2160 bulk ready-to-eat foods from the Sichuan province of China during 2013–2016 was investigated. The antibiotic resistance and the associated genes, as well as biofilm formation capacity of the S. aureus isolates were measured. Furthermore, the relationship [...] Read more.
The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in 2160 bulk ready-to-eat foods from the Sichuan province of China during 2013–2016 was investigated. The antibiotic resistance and the associated genes, as well as biofilm formation capacity of the S. aureus isolates were measured. Furthermore, the relationship between the antibiotic resistance and the resistant genes was discussed. It was found that 54 S. aureus isolates were recovered, and their prevalence in meat products, dairy, fruit and vegetables, and desserts were 31 (2.6%), six (3.0%), nine (2.2%) and eight (2.3%), respectively. Most strains (52/54) were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics, and 21 isolates were identified as multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. aureus. Three isolates were found to be methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and inducible clindamycin resistance were determined as the predominant antibiotics, and the isolates with the phenotypic resistance on these five antibiotics were all determined positive for the resistant gene associated. In total, 33 of 54 S. aureus isolates showed biofilm formation capacity, including two strong biofilm producers, one moderate and 30 weak ones. Two S. aureus isolates with strong biofilm formation abilities showed multi-drug resistance, and one moderate biofilm producer was resistant to two categories of antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Function of Microorganism in Food Production)
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15 pages, 2132 KiB  
Article
Dose-Dependent Alterations to In Vitro Human Microbiota Composition and Butyrate Inhibition by a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Hops Extract
by Paul A. Blatchford, Shanthi G. Parkar, Wendy Hopkins, John R. Ingram and Kevin H. Sutton
Biomolecules 2019, 9(9), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9090390 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3699
Abstract
Hop cones (Humulus lupulus L.) have been used throughout history as an additive in beer brewing and as herbal supplements with medicinal and culinary properties. The objective of this study was to ascertain the effect of a range of concentrations of a [...] Read more.
Hop cones (Humulus lupulus L.) have been used throughout history as an additive in beer brewing and as herbal supplements with medicinal and culinary properties. The objective of this study was to ascertain the effect of a range of concentrations of a supercritical CO2 extract of hops on the composition and metabolism of human gut bacterial communities using in vitro batch culture systems. Fermentations were conducted over 24 h using a mixed human fecal inoculum. Microbial metabolism was assessed by measuring organic acid production and microbial community alterations were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Butyrate, an important short chain fatty acid in maintaining colonic well-being, decreased at elevated concentrations of hops, which may partly be accounted for by the concomitant reduction of Eubacterium and Coprococcus, known butyrate-producing genera, and also the inhibition of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial organism that has a butyrogenic effect through metabolic cross-feeding with intestinal commensals. The hops compounds also caused dose-dependent increases in the potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and potentially beneficial Akkermansia. Thus, hops compounds had a significant impact on the structure of the bacterial consortium, which warrants further study including human clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Function of Microorganism in Food Production)
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