molecules-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 30926

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail
Guest Editor
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, 32900 Orense, Spain
Interests: meat quality; genetic influences in meat quality; genetic improvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Fruit and Vegetable Product Technology, Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology—State Research Institute, 36 Rakowiecka Street, 02532 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: fruits; vegetables; emerging techniques; food processing and preservation; bioaccessibility and bioavailability; high-pressure processing; high-pressure homogenization; high-pressure carbon dioxide; ultrasounds; microwaves; food chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of General Technology of Food and Human Nutrition, Rzeszow University, Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: food fortification; antioxidant properties; food quality; composition analysis; secondary metabolites; food technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, China
Interests: purification and characterization of polyphenols; bioactivity and bioavailability of procyanidins; interactions of polyphenols; polysaccharides and proteins in food
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fruits, vegetables, and fungi are attractive raw materials for the optimization of innovative as well as traditional food products rich in bioactive compounds and high antioxidant capacity. It is currently recommended that at least 500 grams of high nutritional value fruit and vegetables (F&V) be consumed daily, in five portions, for the maintenance of good health and wellbeing. Taking into account that consumers are looking for unprocessed, high-quality, and safe ready-to-eat (RTE) products today, the big challenge for scientists is the development and optimization of new innovative techniques for food processing and/or preservation with minimal degradation of nutrients. Moreover, research focused on the extraction, purification, and isolation of bioactive compounds from plant matrices and the application of innovative techniques for the preservation as well as determination of the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of nutrients of food from plant origins have been a scientific hotspot in recent years.

Innovative technologies involving high-pressure processing (HPP), high-pressure homogenization (HPH), high-pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD), pulsed electric fields (PEF), ultrasounds (US), and microwaves (MV), among others, as well as traditional methods of food treatment such as heating, fermentation, and drying or smoking are increasingly applied in food preservation and the modification of selected physicochemical or sensory properties.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to highlight new challenges in the treatment of F&V products in obtaining traditional or new, safe RTE food, including functional food, with high or modified nutritional and sensory values. High residual concentrations of nutritional compounds in food during their whole shelf-life are a key factor for improving the health and quality of human life.

Prof. Dr. Jose Lorenzo Rodriguez
Prof. Dr. Krystian Marszałek
Dr. Ireneusz Kapusta
Dr. Shuyi Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • anthocyanins
  • polyphenols
  • carotenoids
  • betalains
  • chlorophylls
  • innovative and nonconventional techniques
  • bioaccessibility
  • bioavailability
  • extraction
  • preservation
  • food safety

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

21 pages, 2628 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Major By-Products of Citrus hystrix Peel and Their Characteristics in the Context of Utilization in the Industry
by Martyna Lubinska-Szczygeł, Anna Kuczyńska-Łażewska, Małgorzata Rutkowska, Żaneta Polkowska, Elena Katrich and Shela Gorinstein
Molecules 2023, 28(6), 2596; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28062596 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3256
Abstract
Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) is a popular citrus in Southeast Asia. Despite the growing interest in the peel of the fruit, the leaves are the most frequently used part of the fruit. The aim of the study was to determine the [...] Read more.
Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) is a popular citrus in Southeast Asia. Despite the growing interest in the peel of the fruit, the leaves are the most frequently used part of the fruit. The aim of the study was to determine the main by-products of the peel, such as pectins, minerals, essential oil, and bioactive compounds, and to evaluate the possibility of using them in various branches of industry. In the study of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation performed using the TGA chromatography technique (GC-MS), sabinene (31.93%), β-pinene (26%), and limonene (19%) were selected as the most abundant volatile compounds. Nine microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Mo, and V), four macroelements (Mg, Ca, K, and Na), and seven ballast substances (Cd, Hg, Pb, Al, V, Sr, and Pt) were also determined using the microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry technique (MP-AES). In the case of microelements, iron 32.72 ± 0.39 mg/kg DW (dry weight) had the highest concentration. In the case of macroelements, the calcium content was 9416 ± 34 mg/kg DW. Optimization of the pectin extraction was also performed by selecting citric acid and obtaining a yield of 7.6–17.6% for acid extraction and 9.9–28.2% for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), depending on the temperature used. The obtained pectins were characterized by the degree of methylation, galacturonic acid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) analysis. Among bioactive compounds, the contents of polyphenols (22.63 ± 2.12 mg GAE/g DW), flavonoids (2.72 ± 0.25 mg CE/g DW, vitamin C (2.43 ± 0.19 mg Asc), xantoproteins + carotenes (53.8 ± 4.24 ug), anthocyanins (24.8 ± 1.8 mg CGE/kg DW), and chlorophylls A and B (188.5 ± 8.1, 60.4 ± 3.23 µg/g DW) were evaluated. Antioxidant capacity using (cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity) CUPRAC and DPPH assays was also provided with the results of 76.98 ± 8.1, and 12.01 ± 1.02 µmol TE/g DW, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

9 pages, 1306 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Amines in Wines. The Assessment of Quality Descriptors by Flow Injection Analysis with Tandem Mass Spectrometry
by Aina Mir-Cerdà, Javier Saurina and Sònia Sentellas
Molecules 2022, 27(24), 8690; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27248690 - 8 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Biogenic amines (BAs) occur in a wide variety of foodstuffs, mainly from the decomposition of proteins by the action of microorganisms. They are involved in several cellular functions but may become toxic when ingested in high amounts through the diet. In the case [...] Read more.
Biogenic amines (BAs) occur in a wide variety of foodstuffs, mainly from the decomposition of proteins by the action of microorganisms. They are involved in several cellular functions but may become toxic when ingested in high amounts through the diet. In the case of oenological products, BAs are already present in low concentrations in must, and their levels rise dramatically during the fermentation processes. This paper proposes a rapid method for the determination of BAs in wines and related samples based on precolumn derivatization with dansyl chloride and further detection by flow injection analysis with tandem mass spectrometry. Some remarkable analytes such as putrescine, ethanolamine, histamine, and tyramine have been quantified in the samples. Concentrations obtained have shown interesting patterns, pointing out the role of BAs as quality descriptors. Furthermore, it has been found that the BA content also depends on the vinification practices, with malolactic fermentation being a significant step in the formation of BAs. From the point of view of health, concentrations found in the samples are, in general, below 10 mg L−1, so the consumption of these products does not represent any special concern. In conclusion, the proposed method results in a suitable approach for a fast screening of this family of bioactive compounds in wines to evaluate quality and health issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1379 KiB  
Article
Production of High-Quality Red Fruit Juices by Athermal Membrane Processes
by Rosanna Morelli, Carmela Conidi, Rosa Tundis, Monica R. Loizzo, Massimo D’Avella, Rosario Timpone and Alfredo Cassano
Molecules 2022, 27(21), 7435; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217435 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
Membrane-based processes are increasingly used to clarify and concentrate thermo-sensitive fruit juices and plant extracts as alternatives to conventional processes. This work aimed to evaluate the quality of red fruit juices clarified and concentrated by an integrated membrane process with special regard to [...] Read more.
Membrane-based processes are increasingly used to clarify and concentrate thermo-sensitive fruit juices and plant extracts as alternatives to conventional processes. This work aimed to evaluate the quality of red fruit juices clarified and concentrated by an integrated membrane process with special regard to the preservation of valuable compounds. A red fruit juice obtained from a blend of pomegranate, cactus pear, and red orange juices of Sicilian origin was clarified by microfiltration (MF) and then pre-concentrated up to 33 °Brix by nanofiltration (NF). The pre-concentrated juice was finally concentrated by osmotic distillation (OD) up to 50 and 60 °Brix. Samples of clarified, pre-concentrated, and concentrated juice were analyzed for their physico-chemical composition and in terms of the antioxidant activity and inhibitory activity against α-amylase and lipase. The results clearly confirmed the assumption of a mild fruit juice processing method, allowing us to preserve the original nutritional and functional properties of the fresh juice. In particular, the OD retentate at 60 °Brix resulted the most active sample against pancreatic lipase and α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 44.36 and 214.65 μg/mL, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
Bioaccessibility of Betalains in Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Juice under Different High-Pressure Techniques
by Urszula Trych, Magdalena Buniowska-Olejnik and Krystian Marszałek
Molecules 2022, 27(20), 7093; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27207093 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
The influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCD) on the bioaccessibility of betalains in beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) juice was investigated. Freshly squeezed juice (FJ) was treated at a mild temperature of 45 °C for 10 min (T45), [...] Read more.
The influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCD) on the bioaccessibility of betalains in beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) juice was investigated. Freshly squeezed juice (FJ) was treated at a mild temperature of 45 °C for 10 min (T45), pasteurization at 85 °C for 10 min (T85), HHP at 200, 400, and 500 MPa at 20 °C for 5 min (HHP200, HHP400, HHP500) and SCCD at 10, 30 and 60 MPa at 45 °C for 10 min (SCCD10, SCCD30, SCCD60). The juice was subjected to an in vitro digestion system equipped with dialysis. The content of betalains was measured with the aid of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), the antioxidant capacity (AC) (ABTS•+, DPPH•) was analyzed during each digestion step, and the bioaccessibility of betacyanins and betaxanthins was assessed. The SCCD at 30 and 60 MPa significantly increased pigments’ bioaccessibility compared with other samples. The 30 MPa proved particularly advantageous, as it increased the bioaccessibility of the total betacyanins and the betaxanthins by 58% and 64%, respectively, compared to the T85 samples. Additionally, higher bioaccessibility of betacyanins was noted in HHP200 and HHP400, by 35% and 32%, respectively, compared to FJ, T45, and T85 samples. AC measured by ABTS•+ and DPPH• assays were not unequivocal. However, both assays showed significantly higher AC in SCCD60 compared to T85 (21% and 31%, respectively). This research contributed to the extended use of the HHP and/or SCCD to design food with higher health-promoting potentials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Values of Minikiwi Fruit (Actinidia arguta) after Storage: Comparison between DCA New Technology and ULO and CA
by Tomasz Krupa, Kamila Klimek and Ewa Zaraś-Januszkiewicz
Molecules 2022, 27(13), 4313; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134313 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
The dietary properties of minikiwi make them, along with other fruits and vegetables, suitable as the basis for many slimming and pro-health diets. Prolonging the availability of minikiwi can be provided by different storage technologies. This experiment focused on evaluating the effect of [...] Read more.
The dietary properties of minikiwi make them, along with other fruits and vegetables, suitable as the basis for many slimming and pro-health diets. Prolonging the availability of minikiwi can be provided by different storage technologies. This experiment focused on evaluating the effect of various O2 and CO2 concentrations, i.e., low-oxygen atmosphere (DCA, 0.4% CO2:0.4% O2; ULO, 1.5% CO2:1.5% O2) or high-CO2 (CA, 5% CO2:1.5% O2) storage, in order to provide the consumer with fruits with comparable high nutritional values. Evaluation gave the basic characteristics of the fruits that characterize their health-promoting properties, i.e., total polyphenols (TPC), phenolic acids and flavonols, antioxidant activity (AA), monosaccharides, and acid content. The atmosphere with a higher CO2 content of 5% (CA) effectively influenced the high value of ascorbic acid even after 12 weeks of storage. DCA technology contributed to a significant inhibition of phenol loss but not as effectively as CA technology. In contrast, glucose and fructose contents were found to be significantly higher after storage in ULO or DCA, while sucrose content was more stable in fruit stored in CA or DCA. CA technology conditions stabilized the citric acid content of minikiwi, while DCA technology was less effective in inhibiting acid loss. The nutritional value of the fruit after storage in CA or DCA was not significantly reduced, which will allow the supply of fresh minikiwi fruit to be extended and provide a valuable component of the human diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
8 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Use of Elicitors for the Production of Antioxidant Compounds in Liquid Cultures of Ganoderma curtisii from Costa Rica
by Catalina Rosales-López, Felipe Arce-Torres, Mariana Monge-Artavia and Miguel Rojas-Chaves
Molecules 2022, 27(13), 4265; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134265 - 2 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1315
Abstract
The use of substances or conditions as elicitors can significantly increase the production of secondary metabolites. In this research, the effects of different elicitors on the production of antioxidant secondary metabolites were evaluated in a strain of Ganoderma sp. The elicitors tested were [...] Read more.
The use of substances or conditions as elicitors can significantly increase the production of secondary metabolites. In this research, the effects of different elicitors on the production of antioxidant secondary metabolites were evaluated in a strain of Ganoderma sp. The elicitors tested were pH changes in different growth phases of the fungus (pH 3, 5.5 and 8), different concentrations of peptone as a nitrogen source (1 g/L and 10 g/L), and the addition of chemical agents to the culture medium (ethanol, growth regulators, and salts). The alkaline pH during the stationary phase and the high availability of nitrogen were effective elicitors, producing cultures with higher antioxidant activity (37.87 g/L and 43.13 g/L dry biomass) although there were no significant differences with other treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
12 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
The Health-Promoting and Sensory Properties of Tropical Fruit Sorbets with Inulin
by Agnieszka Palka and Magdalena Skotnicka
Molecules 2022, 27(13), 4239; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134239 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2340
Abstract
Inulin is a popular prebiotic that is often used in the production of ice cream, mainly to improve its consistency. It also reduces the hardness of ice cream, as well as improving the ice cream’s organoleptic characteristics. Inulin can also improve the texture [...] Read more.
Inulin is a popular prebiotic that is often used in the production of ice cream, mainly to improve its consistency. It also reduces the hardness of ice cream, as well as improving the ice cream’s organoleptic characteristics. Inulin can also improve the texture of sorbets, which are gaining popularity as an alternative to milk-based ice cream. Sorbets can be an excellent source of natural vitamins and antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of inulin on the sensory characteristics and health-promoting value of avocado, kiwi, honey melon, yellow melon and mango sorbets. Three types of sorbets were made—two with inulin (2% and 5% wt.) and the other without—using fresh fruit with the addition of water, sucrose and lemon juice. Both the type of fruit and the addition of inulin influenced the sorbet mixture viscosity, the content of polyphenols, vitamin C, acidity, ability to scavenge free radicals using DPPH reagent, melting resistance, overrun and sensory evaluation of the tested sorbets (all p < 0.05). The addition of inulin had no impact on the color of the tested sorbets, only the type of fruit influenced this feature. In the sensory evaluation, the mango sorbets were rated the best and the avocado sorbets were rated the worst. Sorbets can be a good source of antioxidant compounds. The tested fruits sorbets had different levels of polyphenol content and the ability to scavenge free radicals. Kiwi sorbet had the highest antioxidant potential among the tested fruits. The obtained ability to catch free radicals and the content of polyphenols proved the beneficial effect of sorbets, particularly as a valuable source of antioxidants. The addition of inulin improved the meltability, which may indicate the effect of inulin on the consistency. Further research should focus on making sorbets only from natural ingredients and comparing their health-promoting quality with the ready-made sorbets that are available on the market, which are made from ready-made ice cream mixes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
11 pages, 3464 KiB  
Article
Are Organic Certified Carrots Richer in Health-Promoting Phenolics and Carotenoids than the Conventionally Grown Ones?
by Dominika Średnicka-Tober, Klaudia Kopczyńska, Rita Góralska-Walczak, Ewelina Hallmann, Marcin Barański, Krystian Marszałek and Renata Kazimierczak
Molecules 2022, 27(13), 4184; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134184 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of polyphenols and carotenoids by means of HPLC/UV-Vis in certified organic and non-organic carrots (Daucus carota L.) of two cultivars (Flacoro and Nantejska). The analyzed carrot root samples contained, on average, [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of polyphenols and carotenoids by means of HPLC/UV-Vis in certified organic and non-organic carrots (Daucus carota L.) of two cultivars (Flacoro and Nantejska). The analyzed carrot root samples contained, on average, 4.29 ± 0.83 mg/100g f.w. of carotenoids (mainly β-carotene) and 9.09 ± 2.97 mg/100g f.w. of polyphenols, including 4.44 ± 1.42 mg/100g f.w. of phenolic acids and 4.65 ± 1.96 mg/100g f.w. of flavonoids. Significant effects of the production system on the carotenoids (total) and β-carotene concentration were found, with higher concentrations of these compounds generally identified in conventionally cultivated roots (4.67 ± 0.88 mg/100g f.w.) vs. organically grown ones (4.08 ± 0.74 mg/100g f.w.). There was a noticeable inter-sample (inter-farm) variation in the concentration of polyphenols in carrot roots. Despite a general trend towards higher concentrations of these compounds in the organic carrots (9.33 ± 3.17 mg/100g f.w.) vs. conventional carrots (8.64 ± 2.58 mg/100g f.w.), and in those of Nantejska (9.60 ± 2.87 mg/100g f.w.) vs. Flacoro (8.46 ± 3.02 mg/100g f.w.) cultivar, no consistent, statistically significant impact of the production system and/or cultivar on the level of these bioactive compounds was identified. More efforts should be encouraged to ensure that organic crops reaching the market consistently contain the expected high levels of health-promoting bioactive compounds, which could be brought through their shelf-life and all processing steps, in order to meet consumers’ expectations and provide the expected health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Natural Bioactive Compounds in Organic and Conventional Fermented Food
by Barbara Breza-Boruta, Anna Ligocka and Justyna Bauza-Kaszewska
Molecules 2022, 27(13), 4084; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134084 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3037
Abstract
Compared to conventional agriculture, organic farming is believed to provide a higher nutritional and health value in its products due to the elimination of harmful contaminants (pesticides, nitrates, heavy metals, etc.). Numerous studies have been conducted to show how the production system affects [...] Read more.
Compared to conventional agriculture, organic farming is believed to provide a higher nutritional and health value in its products due to the elimination of harmful contaminants (pesticides, nitrates, heavy metals, etc.). Numerous studies have been conducted to show how the production system affects the quality of food in terms of the content of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the content of some bioactive compounds (vitamin C, β-carotene, Ca content) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) number and their bacteriocinogenic activity in organic and conventional fermented food. Although the results do not provide an unambiguous conclusion regarding the superiority of one production system over the other, the LAB number in organic pickled carrot juice, sauerkraut, yogurt, and kefir was higher than in their conventional counterparts. Their bacteriocinogenic potential against selected pathogens was also higher in most organic products. Organic vegetables contained significantly more vitamin C, and the calcium content in the organic yogurt was higher compared to the conventional version of the product. Relatively similar concentrations of ß-carotene for both production systems were found in carrot juice, while in organic pickled beet juice, there was five-fold less ß-carotene than in conventional juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
19 pages, 4416 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Polyols on the Process Kinetics and Bioactive Substance Content in Osmotic Dehydrated Organic Strawberries
by Artur Wiktor, Magdalena Chadzynska, Katarzyna Rybak, Magdalena Dadan, Dorota Witrowa-Rajchert and Malgorzata Nowacka
Molecules 2022, 27(4), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041376 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2950
Abstract
In recent years, an increasing interest in reducing sugar consumption has been observed and many studies are conducted on the use of polyols in the osmotic dehydration process to obtain candied or dried fruits. The studies in the literature have focused on the [...] Read more.
In recent years, an increasing interest in reducing sugar consumption has been observed and many studies are conducted on the use of polyols in the osmotic dehydration process to obtain candied or dried fruits. The studies in the literature have focused on the kinetics of the process as well as the basic physical properties. In the scientific literature, there is a lack of investigation of the influence of such polyol solutions such as sorbitol and mannitol used as osmotic substances during the osmotic dehydration process on the contents of bioactive components, including natural colourants. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of polyols (mannitol and sorbitol) in different concentrations on the process kinetics and on chosen physical (colour and structural changes) as well as chemical (sugars and polyol content, total anthocyanin content, total polyphenol content, vitamin C, antioxidant activity) properties of osmotic-dehydrated organic strawberries. Generally, the results showed that the best solution for osmotic dehydration is 30% or 40% sorbitol solutions, while mannitol solution is not recommended due to difficulties with preparing a high-concentration solution and its crystallization in the tissue. In the case of sorbitol, the changes of bioactive compounds, as well as colour change, were similar to the sucrose solution. However, the profile of the sugar changed significantly, in which sucrose, glucose, and fructose were reduced in organic strawberries and were partially replaced by polyols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

21 pages, 7296 KiB  
Article
Bioaccessibility of Antioxidants in Blackcurrant Juice after Treatment Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
by Urszula Trych, Magdalena Buniowska, Sylwia Skąpska, Ireneusz Kapusta and Krystian Marszałek
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27031036 - 3 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2067
Abstract
Blackcurrant juice (Ribes nigrum L.) was subjected to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCD) at 10, 30, and 60 MPa for 10 min at 45 °C, as well as thermally treated at 45 and 85 °C for 10 min to determine the stability, antioxidant [...] Read more.
Blackcurrant juice (Ribes nigrum L.) was subjected to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCD) at 10, 30, and 60 MPa for 10 min at 45 °C, as well as thermally treated at 45 and 85 °C for 10 min to determine the stability, antioxidant capacity (AC), and bioaccessibility (BAc) of vitamin C, total anthocyanins, and their individual monomers. An in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model completed with dialysis was used to assess BAc. The use of SCCD at each of the pressures applied improved the stability of vitamin C, total anthocyanins, and AC before in vitro digestion. As a result of digestion, the total content of vitamin C, anthocyanins, and AC decreased. The highest BAc of vitamin C was noted in fresh juice (FJ) (40%) and after mild heat treatment at 45 °C (T45) (46%). The highest BAc of total anthocyanins was also noted in the FJ (4.4%). The positive effect of the application of SCCD on the BAc of the delphinidin-3-O-glycosides was observed compared to T45 and thermal pasteurization at 85 °C (T85). Although SCCD did not significantly improve the BAc of vitamin C and total anthocyanins, the higher AC of SCCD samples after intestinal digestion (ABTS+• and DPPH•) and in dialysate (ABTS+•) compared to thermally treated was observed. The protocatechuic acid was detected by UPLC-PDA-MS/MS as the major metabolite formed during the digestion of delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside. This may indicate the influence of SCCD on improvement of the accessibility of antioxidants for digestion, thanks to which more metabolites with high antioxidant activity were released. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2481 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Carotenoids Accumulation and Biosynthesis in Two Genotypes of Pomelo (Citrus maxima) during Early Fruit Development
by Yihan Zhao, Xufeng Yang, Yuwei Hu, Qiuming Gu, Weiling Chen, Jiaqi Li, Xinbo Guo and Yutao Liu
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5054; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165054 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2511
Abstract
Pomelo is rich in bioactive compounds (carotenoids, phenolics and essential oil) in the early stage of fruit development, but it is often wasted in the cultivation and management process. To gain an insight into the carotenoid metabolism pathway in pomelo, the carotenoid profiles [...] Read more.
Pomelo is rich in bioactive compounds (carotenoids, phenolics and essential oil) in the early stage of fruit development, but it is often wasted in the cultivation and management process. To gain an insight into the carotenoid metabolism pathway in pomelo, the carotenoid profiles and the expression patterns of carotenogenic genes were investigated in two genotypes of pomelo during early fruit development. The results showed that a higher carotenoid content was observed in honey pomelo as compared with golden pomelo, which may be related to different gene regulation mechanisms. Lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene were the main carotenoids in pomelo young fruit, and lutein was the highest one. The accumulation of carotenoids during fruit early development in honey pomelo is related to the transcriptional regulation of ZISO and LUT5. In golden pomelo, the rate-limiting gene for carotenoids is PDS and ZDS. In addition, the expression of seven genes except CRTISO in honey pomelo was higher than that in golden pomelo. The results are helpful to further clarify the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation during early fruit development and provide a direction for the high-value utilization of young fruits in pomelo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

13 pages, 934 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Ingredients with Health-Promoting Properties of Strawberry Fruit (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne)
by Joanna Newerli-Guz, Maria Śmiechowska, Alicja Drzewiecka and Robert Tylingo
Molecules 2023, 28(6), 2711; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28062711 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3447
Abstract
Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) belong to the berry group and are characterized primarily by delightful sensory properties. Due to their chemical composition, these fruits are a rich source of bioactive compounds that can modify the metabolic and physiological functions of the [...] Read more.
Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) belong to the berry group and are characterized primarily by delightful sensory properties. Due to their chemical composition, these fruits are a rich source of bioactive compounds that can modify the metabolic and physiological functions of the body. The aim of this work is to present the current state of research on bioactive ingredients found in these fruits in the context of their health-promoting properties. The paper presents compiled and reviewed data on the content of polyphenolic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins, especially vitamin C, in strawberries. The content of these compounds is influenced by many different factors that are discussed in the paper. It also draws attention to the presence of oxalates and allergenic compounds, which are classified as anti-nutritional compounds of strawberries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds of Fruits, Vegetables and Mushrooms II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop