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Food Proteins and Peptides Focused on Functional and Bioactive Properties

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 49853

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15705 A Coruña, Spain
Interests: food chemistry; analytical chemistry; food technology; sensory analysis; natural antioxidants; proteomics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Zoology, Genetics and Physical Anthropology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Interests: proteomics; peptidomics; analitical chemistry; bioinformatics; mass spectrometry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, 32900 Orense, Spain
Interests: meat quality; genetic influences in meat quality; genetic improvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Protein is an essential macronutrient for maintaining human health requirements, but its nutritional quality is highly variable and complex from a food industry perspective. Moreover, proteins and their interactions establish different food functional properties (solubility, emulsification, foaming, and gelling) and nutritional quality, but food processing could also change these features. Most changes in the protein structure lead to Maillard compounds, the oxidation of sulphur amino acids and other molecules from undesirable side-reactions. To control all of these parameters, the fields of research and analytical tools involved are highly heterogeneous and multidisciplinary, such as proteomics, peptidomics, metabolomics, spectrometry, or bioinformatics. Furthermore, bioactive peptides, produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins, have been clearly demonstrated having a wide range of applications in human health in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. The optimization of the absorption and bioavailability of the peptides to develop new functional foods is not yet completely resolved, and opens up new opportunities. Indeed, peptides with different biological activities (antioxidant, antihypertension, anticancer, etc.) must be absorbed, transported, distributed, and retained correctly in the fluids, cells, and tissues in order to have a biological effect. Overall, industrial-scale technologies of bioactive peptides are still at an early stage being developed in pharmacological and food applications.

Dr. Daniel Franco
Dr. María López-Pedrouso
Dr. Jose M. Lorenzo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Proteomics
  • Peptidomics
  • Metabolomics
  • Bioinformatics
  • Analytical chemistry
  • Functional proteins
  • Bioactive peptides
  • Natural antioxidants
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Food technology

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2953 KiB  
Article
Unlocking the Real Potential of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larvae Protein Derivatives in Pet Diets
by Ange Mouithys-Mickalad, Nuria Martin Tome, Thomas Boogaard, Arpita Chakraborty, Didier Serteyn, Kees Aarts and Aman Paul
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4216; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144216 - 11 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5756
Abstract
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL)-derived proteins are gaining popularity as sustainable pet food ingredients. According to the literature, these ingredients have strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Due to the ability of BSFL protein derivatives to donate hydrogen atoms and/or electrons to counterpoise unstable [...] Read more.
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL)-derived proteins are gaining popularity as sustainable pet food ingredients. According to the literature, these ingredients have strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Due to the ability of BSFL protein derivatives to donate hydrogen atoms and/or electrons to counterpoise unstable molecules, they could possibly help in the prevention of osteoarthritis. During this study, the antiarthritic potential of BSFL protein derivatives was evaluated using the following assays: (1) proteinase inhibition, (2) erythrocyte membrane stability, (3) reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by activated macrophages, (4) ROS production by monocytes, and (5) cellular toxicity. Additionally, the glucosamine content of these ingredients was also evaluated. Chicken meal is commonly used in pet food formulations and was used as an industrial benchmark. The results obtained during this study demonstrated the strong antiarthritic potential of BSFL protein derivatives. We found that BSFL protein derivatives are not only useful in preventing the development of arthritis but could also help to cure it due to the presence of glucosamine. We also found that chicken meal could contribute to the development of arthritis by increasing ROS production by monocytes. Full article
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17 pages, 2657 KiB  
Article
Statistical Based Bioprocess Design for Improved Production of Amylase from Halophilic Bacillus sp. H7 Isolated from Marine Water
by J. N. Bandal, V. A. Tile, R. Z. Sayyed, H. P. Jadhav, N. I. Wan Azelee, Subhan Danish and Rahul Datta
Molecules 2021, 26(10), 2833; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102833 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3021
Abstract
Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) enzyme has gained tremendous demand in various industries, including wastewater treatment, bioremediation and nano-biotechnology. This compels the availability of enzyme in greater yields that can be achieved by employing potential amylase-producing cultures and statistical optimization. The use of Plackett–Burman design [...] Read more.
Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) enzyme has gained tremendous demand in various industries, including wastewater treatment, bioremediation and nano-biotechnology. This compels the availability of enzyme in greater yields that can be achieved by employing potential amylase-producing cultures and statistical optimization. The use of Plackett–Burman design (PBD) that evaluates various medium components and having two-level factorial designs help to determine the factor and its level to increase the yield of product. In the present work, we are reporting the screening of amylase-producing marine bacterial strain identified as Bacillus sp. H7 by 16S rRNA. The use of two-stage statistical optimization, i.e., PBD and response surface methodology (RSM), using central composite design (CCD) further improved the production of amylase. A 1.31-fold increase in amylase production was evident using a 5.0 L laboratory-scale bioreactor. Statistical optimization gives the exact idea of variables that influence the production of enzymes, and hence, the statistical approach offers the best way to optimize the bioprocess. The high catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of amylase from Bacillus sp. H7 on soluble starch was estimated to be 13.73 mL/s/mg. Full article
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11 pages, 1190 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of The Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Collagen from Sea Cucumber (Holothuria scabra), Obtained through Dialysis and the Ultrafiltration Membrane
by Suryani Saallah, Jumardi Roslan, Flavian Sheryl Julius, Sharinee Saallah, Umi Hartina Mohamad Razali, Wolyna Pindi, Mohd Rosni Sulaiman, Khairul Faizal Pa’ee and Siti Mazlina Mustapa Kamal
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2564; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092564 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2759
Abstract
Collagen was extracted from the body wall of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra) using the pepsin-solubilized collagen method followed by isolation using dialysis and the ultrafiltration membrane. The yield and physicochemical properties of the collagen obtained from both isolation methods, denoted as [...] Read more.
Collagen was extracted from the body wall of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra) using the pepsin-solubilized collagen method followed by isolation using dialysis and the ultrafiltration membrane. The yield and physicochemical properties of the collagen obtained from both isolation methods, denoted as D-PSC and UF-PSC, were compared. The ultrafiltration method affords a higher yield of collagen (11.39%) than that of the dialysis (5.15%). The isolated collagens have almost the same amino acid composition, while their functional groups, referred to as amide A, B, I, II, and III bands, were in accordance with commercial collagen, as verified by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The UV-Vis absorption peaks at 240 nm and 220 nm, respectively, indicated that the collagens produced are type-I collagen. The D-PSC showed interconnecting sheet-like fibrils, while the UF-PSC exhibited a flaky structure with flat-sheets arranged very close to each other. The higher yield and comparable physicochemical properties of the collagen obtained by ultrafiltration as compared with dialysis indicate that the membrane process has high potential to be used in large-scale collagen production for food and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
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16 pages, 3669 KiB  
Article
Lupin Protein Isolate Structure Diversity in Frozen-Cast Foams: Effects of Transglutaminases and Edible Fats
by Elaine Berger Ceresino, Eva Johansson, Hélia Harumi Sato, Tomás S. Plivelic, Stephen A. Hall, Jürgen Bez and Ramune Kuktaite
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061717 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2793
Abstract
This study addresses an innovative approach to generate aerated foods with appealing texture through the utilization of lupin protein isolate (LPI) in combination with edible fats. We show the impact of transglutaminases (TGs; SB6 and commercial), glycerol (Gly), soy lecithin (Lec) and linoleic [...] Read more.
This study addresses an innovative approach to generate aerated foods with appealing texture through the utilization of lupin protein isolate (LPI) in combination with edible fats. We show the impact of transglutaminases (TGs; SB6 and commercial), glycerol (Gly), soy lecithin (Lec) and linoleic acid (LA) on the micro- and nanostructure of health promoting solid foods created from LPI and fats blends. 3-D tomographic images of LPI with TG revealed that SB6 contributed to an exceptional bubble spatial organization. The inclusion of Gly and Lec decreased protein polymerization and also induced the formation of a porous layered material. LA promoted protein polymerization and formation of homogeneous thick layers in the LPI matrix. Thus, the LPI is a promising protein resource which when in blend with additives is able to create diverse food structures. Much focus has been placed on the great foamability of LPI and here we show the resulting microstructure of LPI foams, and how these were improved with addition of TGs. New food applications for LPI can arise with the addition of food grade dispersant Lec and essential fatty-acid LA, by improved puffiness, and their contributing as replacer of chemical leavening additives in gluten-free products. Full article
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11 pages, 1091 KiB  
Communication
Palatability Enhancement Potential of Hermetia illucens Larvae Protein Hydrolysate in Litopenaeus vannamei Diets
by David Terrey, Jack James, Ivan Tankovski, Monika Dalim, Michel van Spankeren, Arpita Chakraborty, Eric Schmitt and Aman Paul
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061582 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4809
Abstract
Marine feed ingredients derived from cephalopods (e.g., squid) and crustaceans (e.g., krill) are commercially used to improve the palatability of shrimp diets. Increase in global demand for shrimps has resulted in overfishing of these marine organisms and is a matter of concern. Insect [...] Read more.
Marine feed ingredients derived from cephalopods (e.g., squid) and crustaceans (e.g., krill) are commercially used to improve the palatability of shrimp diets. Increase in global demand for shrimps has resulted in overfishing of these marine organisms and is a matter of concern. Insect protein hydrolysate could be a sustainable alternative for the possible replacement of these marine feed ingredients. During this study, four formulations: diet A (control: not containing any palatability enhancer), diet B (containing squid meal and krill oil), diet C (containing 1% insect protein hydrolysate), and diet D (containing 2% insect protein hydrolysate) were tested for (1) time required by first subject to begin feeding (time to strike) and (2) palatability in Litopenaeus vannamei. Additionally, the chemical composition of all four diet formulations was also analyzed. Results indicate that all diets had similar crude composition. The major essential amino acids in all diets were leucine and lysine, whereas eicosapentaenoic acid was the major omega-3 fatty acid in all diets. There were no significant differences between the mean time to strike for all the tested formulations. Palatability of tested formulations was found in the following order: diet D > diet C > diet B = diet A (p < 0.05), indicating that addition of squid meal and krill oil has no effect on palatability in comparison to control, whereas inclusion of insect protein hydrolysates significantly improves the palatability of formulations. Palatability enhancement potential of insect protein hydrolysate could be attributed to the high free amino acid content and water solubility in comparison to squid meal. Full article
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16 pages, 786 KiB  
Article
Influence of Sonication and Taraxacum Officinale Addition on the Antioxidant and Anti-ACE Activity of Protein Extracts from Sous Vide Beef Marinated with Sour Milk and after In Vitro Digestion
by Paulina Kęska, Karolina M. Wójciak and Dariusz M. Stasiak
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4692; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204692 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
The present study assessed the effect of pretreating beef as a raw material for sous vide steak preparation. The pretreatment involved maceration of a batch of meat in sour milk with the simultaneous use of ultrasound (250 or 500 W) as well as [...] Read more.
The present study assessed the effect of pretreating beef as a raw material for sous vide steak preparation. The pretreatment involved maceration of a batch of meat in sour milk with the simultaneous use of ultrasound (250 or 500 W) as well as the addition of Taraxacum officinale. The biological activity profile of the peptides was assessed in terms of their antioxidant activity and inhibiting activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Changes in the biological activity of peptides under the influence of hydrolysis by gastrointestinal enzymes, i.e., pepsin and pancreatin, were also considered. There was no significant effect of T. officinale addition and sonication of beef batches on the protein content (except for lot S6, after sonication at 500 W as acoustic power and with the addition of dandelion). It was observed that the interaction of maceration in sour milk with simultaneous ultrasound treatment as the initial production step of sous vide beef steak generates the formation of peptides with antioxidant properties. Moreover, peptide formation can be further enhanced by adding dandelion (based on the results of antiradical and chelating activity tests). In addition, the progression of hydrolysis under the influence of gastrointestinal enzymes promotes the release of peptides with antioxidant and anti-ACE activity. Full article
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11 pages, 3636 KiB  
Article
The wPDI Redox Cycle Coupled Conformational Change of the Repetitive Domain of the HMW-GS 1Dx5—A Computational Study
by Jihui Gao, Peixuan Yu, Hongrui Liang, Jiahui Fu, Ziyue Luo and Dong Yang
Molecules 2020, 25(19), 4393; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194393 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
The repetitive sequence of glutenin plays an important role in dough rheology; however, its interaction with wheat protein disulfide isomerase (wPDI) remains unclear. In this study, the conformations of wild type glutenin repetitive sequence (WRS) from the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) [...] Read more.
The repetitive sequence of glutenin plays an important role in dough rheology; however, its interaction with wheat protein disulfide isomerase (wPDI) remains unclear. In this study, the conformations of wild type glutenin repetitive sequence (WRS) from the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) 1Dx5, an artificially designed glutenin repetitive sequence (DRS) of which the amino acid composition is the same but the primary structure is different, and wPDI under different redox states were simulated. The molecular interactions between the aforementioned repetitive sequences with wPDI under different redox states were further investigated. The results indicated that the repetitive sequences bind to the b and b′ domains of an “open”, oxidized wPDI (wPDIO) which serves as the acceptor state of substrate. The repetitive sequence is partially folded (compressed) in wPDIO, and is further folded in the thermodynamically favored, subsequent conformational transition of wPDIO to reduced wPDI (wPDIR). Compared with the artificially designed one, the naturally designed repetitive sequence is better recognized and more intensively folded by wPDI for its later unfold as the molecular basis of dough extension. Full article
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14 pages, 1784 KiB  
Article
Optimal Production of Protein Hydrolysates from Monkfish By-Products: Chemical Features and Associated Biological Activities
by José Antonio Vázquez, Araceli Menduíña, Margarita Nogueira, Ana I. Durán, Noelia Sanz and Jesus Valcarcel
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4068; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184068 - 6 Sep 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2774
Abstract
The aim of this work was the recovery of protein substrates from monkfish waste (heads and viscera) generated in the on-board processing of this species. Initially, the effect of pH, temperature, and protease concentration was studied on mixtures of a 1:1 ratio ( [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was the recovery of protein substrates from monkfish waste (heads and viscera) generated in the on-board processing of this species. Initially, the effect of pH, temperature, and protease concentration was studied on mixtures of a 1:1 ratio (w/v) of monkfish heads/water. The optimal conditions of proteolytic digestion were established at 57.4 °C, pH 8.31, [Alcalase] = 0.05% (v/w) for 3 h of hydrolysis. Later on, a set of hydrolysis at 5L-pH-stat reactor were run under the aforementioned conditions, confirming the validity of the optimization studies for the head and viscera of monkfish. Regarding the chemical properties of the fish protein hydrolysates (FPH), the yield of digestion was higher than 90% in both cases and the degrees of hydrolysis and the soluble protein content were not especially large (<20% and <45 g/L, respectively). In vitro digestibility was higher than 90% and the percentage of essential amino acids ranged from 40 to 42%. Antioxidant activities were higher in viscera FPH, and antihypertensive ability was superior in head FPH. The values of number average molecular weights (Mn) of monkfish hydrolysates were 600 Da in the viscera and 947 Da in the head. The peptide size distribution, obtained by size-exclusion chromatography, indicated that the largest presence of peptides below 1000 Da and 200 Da was observed in the viscera FPH. Full article
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13 pages, 753 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Gelatine Packaging Film Containing a Spirulina platensis Protein Concentrate on Atlantic Mackerel Shelf Life
by Nadia Stejskal, José M. Miranda, Josefa F. Martucci, Roxana A. Ruseckaite, Santiago P. Aubourg and Jorge Barros-Velázquez
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3209; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143209 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
The use of packaging films containing natural preservative compounds attracts great attention for the quality improvement of seafood. Microalga spirulina (Spirulina platensis) represents a potential source of high added-value and preservative biocompounds. The goal of this study was to enhance the [...] Read more.
The use of packaging films containing natural preservative compounds attracts great attention for the quality improvement of seafood. Microalga spirulina (Spirulina platensis) represents a potential source of high added-value and preservative biocompounds. The goal of this study was to enhance the quality of refrigerated Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) by including a protein concentrate (PC) of spirulina in a gelatine-based film. Quality changes in fish muscle were monitored by microbial and chemical analyses throughout an 11-day refrigerated storage (4 °C). As a result of the presence of spirulina PC in the film, an antimicrobial effect (p < 0.05) was concluded as determined by comparative evolution of aerobes and psychrotrophs, while no effect (p > 0.05) was concluded for Enterobacteriaceae, proteolytics and lipolytics counts. Furthermore, a lower (p < 0.05) formation of trimethylamine and free fatty acids was detected. Lipid oxidation, measured by fluorescent compounds formation, also exhibited lower average values in fish corresponding to the batch containing spirulina concentrate. The preservative effects observed can be explained on the basis of the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds in the microalga concentrate. It is proposed that the current packaging system may constitute a novel and promising strategy to enhance the quality of commercial refrigerated fatty fish. Full article
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15 pages, 2422 KiB  
Article
Chicken Combs and Wattles as Sources of Bioactive Peptides: Optimization of Hydrolysis, Identification by LC-ESI-MS2 and Bioactivity Assessment
by Taliana Bezerra, Mario Estévez, José Thalles Lacerda, Meriellen Dias, Maria Juliano, Maria Anita Mendes, Marcelo Morgano, Maria Teresa Pacheco and Marta Madruga
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1698; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071698 - 7 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4364
Abstract
The production of bioactive peptides from organic by-waste materials is in line with current trends devoted to guaranteeing environmental protection and a circular economy. The objectives of this study were i) to optimize the conditions for obtaining bioactive hydrolysates from chicken combs and [...] Read more.
The production of bioactive peptides from organic by-waste materials is in line with current trends devoted to guaranteeing environmental protection and a circular economy. The objectives of this study were i) to optimize the conditions for obtaining bioactive hydrolysates from chicken combs and wattles using Alcalase, ii) to identify the resulting peptides using LC-ESI-MS2 and iii) to evaluate their chelating and antioxidant activities. The hydrolysate obtained using a ratio of enzyme to substrate of 5% (w/w) and 240 min of hydrolysis showed excellent Fe2+ chelating and antioxidant capacities, reducing Fe3+ and inhibiting 2, 2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The mapping of ion distribution showed that a high degree of hydrolysis led to the production of peptides with m/z ≤ 400, suggesting low mass peptides or peptides with multiple charge precursor ions. The peptides derived from the proteins of cartilage like Collagen alpha-2(I), Collagen alpha-1(I), Collagen alpha-1(III) and elastin contributed to generation of bioactive compounds. Hydrolysates from chicken waste materials could be regarded as candidates to be used as ingredients to design processed foods with functional properties. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 596 KiB  
Review
Proteomic Advances in Cereal and Vegetable Crops
by Rubén Agregán, Noemí Echegaray, María López-Pedrouso, Rana Muhammad Aadil, Christophe Hano, Daniel Franco and José M. Lorenzo
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4924; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164924 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2822
Abstract
The importance of vegetables in human nutrition, such as cereals, which in many cases represent the main source of daily energy for humans, added to the impact that the incessant increase in demographic pressure has on the demand for these plant foods, entails [...] Read more.
The importance of vegetables in human nutrition, such as cereals, which in many cases represent the main source of daily energy for humans, added to the impact that the incessant increase in demographic pressure has on the demand for these plant foods, entails the search for new technologies that can alleviate this pressure on markets while reducing the carbon footprint of related activities. Plant proteomics arises as a response to these problems, and through research and the application of new technologies, it attempts to enhance areas of food science that are fundamental for the optimization of processes. This review aims to present the different approaches and tools of proteomics in the investigation of new methods for the development of vegetable crops. In the last two decades, different studies in the control of the quality of crops have reported very interesting results that can help us to verify parameters as important as food safety, the authenticity of the products, or the increase in the yield by early detection of diseases. A strategic plan that encourages the incorporation of these new methods into the industry will be essential to promote the use of proteomics and all the advantages it offers in the optimization of processes and the solution of problems. Full article
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20 pages, 1239 KiB  
Review
Proteomic Advances in Milk and Dairy Products
by Rubén Agregán, Noemí Echegaray, María López-Pedrouso, Radwan Kharabsheh, Daniel Franco and José M. Lorenzo
Molecules 2021, 26(13), 3832; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133832 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4280
Abstract
Proteomics is a new area of study that in recent decades has provided great advances in the field of medicine. However, its enormous potential for the study of proteomes makes it also applicable to other areas of science. Milk is a highly heterogeneous [...] Read more.
Proteomics is a new area of study that in recent decades has provided great advances in the field of medicine. However, its enormous potential for the study of proteomes makes it also applicable to other areas of science. Milk is a highly heterogeneous and complex fluid, where there are numerous genetic variants and isoforms with post-translational modifications (PTMs). Due to the vast number of proteins and peptides existing in its matrix, proteomics is presented as a powerful tool for the characterization of milk samples and their products. The technology developed to date for the separation and characterization of the milk proteome, such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) technology and especially mass spectrometry (MS) have allowed an exhaustive characterization of the proteins and peptides present in milk and dairy products with enormous applications in the industry for the control of fundamental parameters, such as microbiological safety, the guarantee of authenticity, or the control of the transformations carried out, aimed to increase the quality of the final product. Full article
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41 pages, 1066 KiB  
Review
Aquaculture Production of the Brown Seaweeds Laminaria digitata and Macrocystis pyrifera: Applications in Food and Pharmaceuticals
by Diane Purcell-Meyerink, Michael A. Packer, Thomas T. Wheeler and Maria Hayes
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051306 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 7907
Abstract
Seaweeds have a long history of use as food, as flavouring agents, and find use in traditional folk medicine. Seaweed products range from food, feed, and dietary supplements to pharmaceuticals, and from bioenergy intermediates to materials. At present, 98% of the seaweed required [...] Read more.
Seaweeds have a long history of use as food, as flavouring agents, and find use in traditional folk medicine. Seaweed products range from food, feed, and dietary supplements to pharmaceuticals, and from bioenergy intermediates to materials. At present, 98% of the seaweed required by the seaweed industry is provided by five genera and only ten species. The two brown kelp seaweeds Laminaria digitata, a native Irish species, and Macrocystis pyrifera, a native New Zealand species, are not included in these eleven species, although they have been used as dietary supplements and as animal and fish feed. The properties associated with the polysaccharides and proteins from these two species have resulted in increased interest in them, enabling their use as functional foods. Improvements and optimisations in aquaculture methods and bioproduct extractions are essential to realise the commercial potential of these seaweeds. Recent advances in optimising these processes are outlined in this review, as well as potential future applications of L. digitata and, to a greater extent, M. pyrifera which, to date, has been predominately only wild-harvested. These include bio-refinery processing to produce ingredients for nutricosmetics, functional foods, cosmeceuticals, and bioplastics. Areas that currently limit the commercial potential of these two species are highlighted. Full article
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