Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 137707

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15705 A Coruña, Spain
Interests: food chemistry; analytical chemistry; food technology; sensory analysis; natural antioxidants; proteomics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Zoology, Genetics and Physical Anthropology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Interests: proteomics; peptidomics; analitical chemistry; bioinformatics; mass spectrometry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, 32900 Orense, Spain
Interests: meat quality; genetic influences in meat quality; genetic improvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The food industry generally uses synthetic antioxidants (BHT, BHA, TBHQ, PG) to control lipid and protein oxidation, although with legal constrains in several countries. Indeed, the use of these compounds has been linked to several health risks, hence current research tends for their replacement by natural antioxidants. In this context, a growing interest in the substitution of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources from terrestrial or marine origin. Another important aim is to identify other by-products for searching new antioxidants. For instance, in the meat industry, some processors in UE are already employing multi-functional ingredients such as rosemary (E-392) approved for use as spices and natural flavours to limit oxidation, but extensive research with other natural sources is still in progress. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to focus on four critical aspects: a) the antioxidant activity measured by in vitro and in vivo tests, and finally, in the food matrix; b) the knowledge of negative side-effects including toxicological aspects which may be produced by addition of extract, essential oil or additive to meat products. Even the prooxidant effects should be taken into account, c) an optimal relationship between antioxidant concentration and the response without detrimental of the product sensory aspects, without prejudice to the shelf life and quality of the foods and d) economic and environmental aspects related to the obtaining of the natural antioxidant extracts (type of solvents, green technologies used, operational costs, etc) should be considered.

This challenge is a very complex issue and for this reason being still unresolved and generating continuous interest in the research community. Overall, the aim of this special issue is to present the latest scientific studies focused on the different aforementioned practical aspects. Addressing all these problems is of paramount importance for incorporating of natural antioxidants in the food industry.

Dr. Daniel Franco Ruiz
Dr. María López-Pedrouso
Dr. Jose Lorenzo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • natural antioxidants
  • foods
  • lipid and protein oxidation
  • sensorial properties
  • antioxidant capacity in vitro and in vivo
  • shelf-life
  • antioxidant active packaging
  • extract concentration and identification
  • modelling of antioxidant activity in foods
  • antioxidant activity from residual by-products in foods
  • practical applications of antioxidants in the food industry
  • toxicology aspects

Published Papers (28 papers)

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13 pages, 1727 KiB  
Article
Introducing Three New Fruit-Scented Mints to Farmlands: Insights on Drug Yield, Essential-Oil Quality, and Antioxidant Properties
by Hosein Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Morshedloo, Roya Emrahi, Abdollah Javanmard, Farzad Rasouli, Filippo Maggi, Manoj Kumar and Jose Manuel Lorenzo
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050866 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
Mint species are one of the most traded medicinal plants with a wide array of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and perfumery industries. Here, a field experiment based on completely randomized block design (RCBD) aimed to compare drug yield, antioxidant properties, and essential-oil [...] Read more.
Mint species are one of the most traded medicinal plants with a wide array of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and perfumery industries. Here, a field experiment based on completely randomized block design (RCBD) aimed to compare drug yield, antioxidant properties, and essential-oil (EO) quality of three newly introduced mints (i.e., ginger mint, pineapple mint, and grapefruit mint) with a chiefly cultivated one (i.e., peppermint). The results manifested that dry-weight yield and EO yield of grapefruit mint (310 g/m2 and 5.18 g/m2, respectively) was approximately 2 times more than that of others. The highest EO content (i.e., 3.12%, v/w)) was obtained from the ginger mint; however, there were no significant differences among the other three mints. The highest total flavonoids content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of both methanolic and ethanolic extracts were found in pineapple and grapefruit mint. Methanolic extract of ginger mint yielded the highest total polyphenol content, whereas the ethanolic extract of pineapple mint showed the highest total polyphenol content. According to mean comparisons, the EO of ginger mint exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 value = 2.23 µL/mL), while EO of peppermint showed the lowest antioxidant activity (EC50 value = 48.23 µL/mL). Gas chromatography analysis identified four EO types among these mints: (i) grapefruit mint EO rich in linalool (51.7%) and linalyl acetate (28.38%); (ii) ginger mint EO rich in linalool (59.16%); (iii) pineapple mint EO rich in piperitone oxide (77.65%); and (iv) peppermint EO rich in menthol (35.65%). The findings of the present study provide new insights into the cultivation of preferable mints possessing desired characteristics for food and drug industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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13 pages, 1383 KiB  
Article
Effect of Alga Gelidium sp. Flour Extract on Lipid Damage Evolution in Heated Fish Muscle System
by Roberta G. Barbosa, Marcos Trigo, Bin Zhang and Santiago P. Aubourg
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050807 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
This research aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of flour obtained from red alga Gelidium sp., which is underutilised nowadays in food applications. Thus, a model system consisting of minced mackerel (Scomber scombrus) muscle and aqueous flour extract was subjected to [...] Read more.
This research aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of flour obtained from red alga Gelidium sp., which is underutilised nowadays in food applications. Thus, a model system consisting of minced mackerel (Scomber scombrus) muscle and aqueous flour extract was subjected to heating treatment (50 °C) for 11 days. Resulting levels on conjugated diene (CD) and triene (CT) contents, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid index, and fluorescent compound and free fatty acid (FFA) formation were monitored at different heating times. As a result, the presence of the aqueous extract of the alga flour led to higher levels (p < 0.05) of primary lipid oxidation compounds (CD and CT assessment) and lipid hydrolysis (FFA content). Contrarily, alga flour addition led to lower (p < 0.05) fluorescent compound formation measured in the aqueous and organic fractions resulting from the lipid extraction of the fish muscle and in the supernatant medium corresponding to the heating reaction system. All effects were found to be more important (p < 0.05) with increased alga flour concentration and heating reacting time. According to the straight relationship between the interaction compound formation and nutritional and sensory values, this study opens the way to the quality enhancement of thermally treated seafood by the addition of flour extract from Gelidium sp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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17 pages, 3424 KiB  
Article
Melatonin Maintains Fruit Quality and Reduces Anthracnose in Postharvest Papaya via Enhancement of Antioxidants and Inhibition of Pathogen Development
by Silin Fan, Qian Li, Shujie Feng, Qiumei Lei, Farhat Abbas, Yulin Yao, Weixin Chen, Xueping Li and Xiaoyang Zhu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050804 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3167
Abstract
Papaya fruit is widely grown in tropical regions because of its sweet taste, vibrant color, and the huge number of health benefits it provides. Melatonin is an essential hormone that governs many plants′ biological processes. In the current study, the impact of melatonin [...] Read more.
Papaya fruit is widely grown in tropical regions because of its sweet taste, vibrant color, and the huge number of health benefits it provides. Melatonin is an essential hormone that governs many plants′ biological processes. In the current study, the impact of melatonin on fruit ripening and deterioration in postharvest papaya fruit was explored. An optimum melatonin dose (400 μmol L−1, 2 h) was found to be effective in delaying fruit softening and reducing anthracnose incidence. Melatonin enhanced antioxidant activity and decreased fruit oxidative injury by lowering superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde content by enhancing the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and by improving the antioxidant capacity of papaya fruit. Melatonin increased catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, NADH oxidase, glutathione reductase, polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activity, as well as induced total phenol, total flavonoid, and ascorbic acid accumulation. Melatonin also enhanced the activity of defense-related enzymes, such as chitinase, 4-coumaric acid-CoA-ligase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase, while it repressed lipid metabolism. Additionally, melatonin inhibited the development of anthracnose in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that exogenous melatonin application improves papaya fruit quality by boosting antioxidant and defense-related mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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21 pages, 1195 KiB  
Article
Impact of Bioactive Compounds of Plant Leaf Powders in White Chocolate Production: Changes in Antioxidant Properties during the Technological Processes
by Szymon Poliński, Patrycja Topka, Małgorzata Tańska, Sylwia Kowalska, Sylwester Czaplicki and Aleksandra Szydłowska-Czerniak
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040752 - 10 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3505
Abstract
Bioactive compounds present in the powdered leaves of matcha green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (MGTP) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) (MOLP) seem to be related to health benefits due to their antioxidant properties. The growing accessibility of these powders has led [...] Read more.
Bioactive compounds present in the powdered leaves of matcha green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (MGTP) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) (MOLP) seem to be related to health benefits due to their antioxidant properties. The growing accessibility of these powders has led to their being more widely used in food production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of white chocolate (WCh) supplemented with MGTP and MOLP. AC was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, whereas TPC was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) method. Both additives were incorporated at four levels (1, 2, 3 and 4%) in two chocolate processing steps (conching and tempering). Additionally, the amounts of phenolic acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids in WCh samples enriched by MGTP and MOLP were determined to explain their influence on AC. The results showed that the chocolates supplemented with MGTP were characterized by higher antioxidant properties than those with MOLP. In turn, MOLP significantly increased the content of lipophilic antioxidants in chocolates, tocopherols and carotenoids, which also exhibit pro-health effects. Furthermore, the incorporation of these additives during the tempering process was more relevant to the improvement of the antioxidant properties of WCh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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18 pages, 3244 KiB  
Article
Application of Citrus By-Products in the Production of Active Food Packaging
by Lourdes Casas Cardoso, Cristina Cejudo Bastante, Casimiro Mantell Serrano and Enrique J. Martínez de la Ossa
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040738 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
Some citrus by-products such as orange peel contains valuable compounds that could be recovered and restored into the food chain. In this study, an efficient valorization of orange peel has been investigated using green extraction, fractionation, and impregnation techniques. The first step included [...] Read more.
Some citrus by-products such as orange peel contains valuable compounds that could be recovered and restored into the food chain. In this study, an efficient valorization of orange peel has been investigated using green extraction, fractionation, and impregnation techniques. The first step included its extraction using CO2 and ethanol under different pressure (200–400 bar) and temperature (35–55 °C) conditions. The extracts obtained at 300 bar and 45 °C showed strong antioxidant with moderate antimicrobial activity. Then, the extract was subjected to a sequential fractionation process. The fraction obtained at 300 bar, 45 °C, and using 32% ethanol showed the strongest antioxidant and antimicrobial activity with a high extraction yield. Finally, the potential of the two best extracts (obtained at 400 bar and 45 °C before any fractionation and the fractions obtained at 300 bar, 45 °C using 32% ethanol) was determined by conducting an impregnation process to obtain an antioxidant food-grade rigid plastic that would preserve fresh food. The percentage of cosolvent (1 and 2% ethanol), the impregnation time (1 and 3 h), the pressure (200 and 400 bar), and the temperature (35 and 55 °C) were evaluated as variables of this process. The impregnated plastic showed good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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14 pages, 1461 KiB  
Article
UHPLC–MS Characterization, and Antioxidant and Nutritional Analysis of Cocoa Waste Flours from the Peruvian Amazon
by Gabriel Vargas-Arana, Claudia Merino-Zegarra, Miguel Tang, Mariano Walter Pertino and Mario J. Simirgiotis
Antioxidants 2022, 11(3), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11030595 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3308
Abstract
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a food product used worldwide and a key raw material for chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa possesses bioactive compounds such as methylxanthines, flavonoids, procyanidins, and related molecules with medicinal or health-promoting properties. Cocoa shell and pod husk have been proposed [...] Read more.
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a food product used worldwide and a key raw material for chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa possesses bioactive compounds such as methylxanthines, flavonoids, procyanidins, and related molecules with medicinal or health-promoting properties. Cocoa shell and pod husk have been proposed as a by-product with several interesting bioactivities, and the gummy residue or glue (a sticky, gluey by-product known as “mucilage” in Spanish) is used to produce liquors and is eaten as a food in Perú. However, little is known about the chemical composition and bioactivity of flours made from Peruvian cocoa ecotype wastes such as those from the vein and pod husk of the fruits. This study aimed to characterize the in vitro antioxidant properties and nutritional values of flours made from the waste from a special ecotype of cocoa (CCN-51). The chemical fingerprinting was performed using UHPLC–HESI orbitrap mass spectrometry and allowed the detection of 51 compounds. GC-FID was used for the determination of individual fatty acid contents, and the antioxidant activity was assessed by several assays (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS). The flours obtained were composed of a good amount of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, and minerals, as well as several bioactive polyphenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids with nutraceutical properties, making the flours a rich and promising food as well as a good source for the preparation of functional foods or nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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14 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Activity of Moringa oleifera and Olive Olea europaea L. Leaf Powders and Extracts on Quality and Oxidation Stability of Chicken Burgers
by Marwa Ezz El-Din Ibrahim, Randah Miqbil Alqurashi and Fatimah Yousef Alfaraj
Antioxidants 2022, 11(3), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11030496 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 6891
Abstract
Oxidation is the main cause of quality deterioration in meat-based foods, such as burgers. Antioxidants inhibit the oxidation process; recently, natural antioxidants have gained interest, due to safety concerns. In this study, the effects of leaf powder and crude extracts of both Moringa [...] Read more.
Oxidation is the main cause of quality deterioration in meat-based foods, such as burgers. Antioxidants inhibit the oxidation process; recently, natural antioxidants have gained interest, due to safety concerns. In this study, the effects of leaf powder and crude extracts of both Moringa oleifera and olive in chicken burgers were studied for their antioxidant potential in preventing fat oxidation during storage. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). The results showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 values of 2.397 ± 0.10 mg/mL in the Moringa leaf. Total phenolic content (TPC) was crude olive extract > crude Moringa extract > olive leaf > Moringa leaf. The total flavonoid content (TFC) was significantly higher in the olive leaf and its crude extract than in the Moringa leaf and its crude extract. The pH, total volatile nitrogen, and sensory properties were affected by the addition of olive and Moringa (leaf and crude extracts) to chicken burgers refrigerated for 20 days. The addition of Moringa and olive leaf powder decreased lipid oxidation and PV after 10 days of storage. In general, Moringa and olive leaf treatments slowed the deterioration of meat, suggesting their use as preservatives to extend the shelf-life of chicken burgers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
21 pages, 3527 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activities in Different Fractions of Mango Fruits (Mangifera indica L., Cultivar Tommy Atkins and Keitt)
by Marcello Salvatore Lenucci, Riccardo Tornese, Giovanni Mita and Miriana Durante
Antioxidants 2022, 11(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11030484 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 8026
Abstract
This study aims to describe and compare the distribution of bioactive compounds, the fatty acids profiles, and the TEAC hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities in different fruit fractions (pulp, peel, and kernel) of two mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins and Keitt). All fractions are [...] Read more.
This study aims to describe and compare the distribution of bioactive compounds, the fatty acids profiles, and the TEAC hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities in different fruit fractions (pulp, peel, and kernel) of two mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins and Keitt). All fractions are sources of health-promoting bioactive compounds. Regardless of cultivars, pulp had the highest content of phytosterols (~150 mg/100 g dw), peels ranked first for pentaciclic triterpenes (from 14.2 to 17.7 mg/100 g dw), tocopherols, carotenoids, and chlorophylls, and kernels for phenolic compounds (from 421.6 to 1464.8 mg/100 g dw), flavonoids, condensed tannins, as well as hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities. Differences between the two cultivars were evidenced for ascorbic acid, which showed the highest levels in the peels and kernels of Keitt and Tommy Atkins fruits, respectively. Similarly, the concentration of dehydroascorbic acid was higher in the pulp of Tommy Atkins than Keitt. The highest percentage of saturated fatty acids was observed in pulp (~42%) and kernels (~50%), monounsaturated fatty acids in kernels (up to 41%), and polyunsaturated fatty acids in peels (up to 52%). Our results add information to the current knowledge on nutraceuticals’ distribution in different fractions of mango fruit, supporting its consumption as a healthy fruit and suggesting the great potential value of peels and kernels as sources of novel ingredients. Indeed, mango by-products generated during agronomic-to-industrial processing not only causes a significant environmental impact, but economic losses too. In this scenario, boosting research on conventional recovery methods offers eco-friendly solutions. However, green, novel biorefinery technologies may offer eco-friendly and profitable solutions, allowing the recovery of several more profitable by-products, sustaining their continuous growth since many bioactive compounds can be recovered from mango by-products that are potentially useful in the design of innovative nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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13 pages, 2699 KiB  
Article
Improved Productivity of Naringin Oleate with Flavonoid and Fatty Acid by Efficient Enzymatic Esterification
by Jonghwa Lee, Kyeonga Kim, Jemin Son, Hyeseon Lee, Jin Han Song, Taek Lee, Heungbae Jeon, Hyun Soo Kim, Si Jae Park, Hah Young Yoo and Chulhwan Park
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020242 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
Naringin is a flavonoid found in citrus fruits. It exhibits biological activities, such as anticancer and antioxidant effects, but it suffers from low solubility and low stability in lipophilic systems. These drawbacks lead to difficulties in the commercial application of naringin, but they [...] Read more.
Naringin is a flavonoid found in citrus fruits. It exhibits biological activities, such as anticancer and antioxidant effects, but it suffers from low solubility and low stability in lipophilic systems. These drawbacks lead to difficulties in the commercial application of naringin, but they can be overcome through esterification. In this study, naringin oleate was synthesized by enzymatic esterification and optimal conditions for the reaction were investigated. Experiments were conducted focusing on the following parameters: enzyme type, enzyme concentration, molar ratio of naringin to oleic acid, reaction temperature, and reaction solvent. We further confirmed the degree of esterification based on the difference in the initial and the final naringin concentrations. A conversion of 93.10% was obtained under optimized conditions (Lipozyme TL IM 10 g/L, molar ratio 1:20, reaction temperature 40 °C, acetonitrile as solvent, and 48 h reaction time). Thus, naringin oleate, a high value-added material that overcomes the low hydrophobicity of naringin and enhances its performance, was obtained through esterification of naringin using oleic acid. This study presented a method for the efficient enzymatic synthesis that could ensure high conversion within a shorter reaction time compared with that required in previously reported methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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19 pages, 1279 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Properties of Pulp, Peel and Seeds of Phlegrean Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) at Different Stages of Fruit Ripening
by Giulia Costanzo, Ermenegilda Vitale, Maria Rosaria Iesce, Daniele Naviglio, Angela Amoresano, Carolina Fontanarosa, Michele Spinelli, Martina Ciaravolo and Carmen Arena
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020187 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5871
Abstract
In this work, we assess the potential of waste products of Phlegrean mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), namely seeds and peel, to be reutilized as a source of bioactive compounds beneficial for the human diet. Starting from the evidence that the by-products of [...] Read more.
In this work, we assess the potential of waste products of Phlegrean mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), namely seeds and peel, to be reutilized as a source of bioactive compounds beneficial for the human diet. Starting from the evidence that the by-products of this specific cultivar are the most powerful sources of antioxidants compared to pulp, we have investigated if and how the bioactive compounds in peel and seeds may be affected by fruit ripening. Three stages of fruit ripening have been considered in our study: unripe fruits = UF, semi-ripe fruits = SRF, ripe fruits = RF. The overall results indicated that RF showed the highest concentration of antioxidants. Among fruit components, peel was the richest in total antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, total flavonoids, total chlorophylls and carotenoids, while seeds exhibited the highest concentration of total condensed tannins and ascorbic acid. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay indicates the occurrence, in peel extracts, of 28 phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids (FLs); in seeds, 34 derivatives were present in the first stage (UF), which diminish to 24 during the ripening process. Our data indicated that the content of phytochemicals in citrus strongly varies among the fruit components and depends on the ripening stage. The higher antioxidant activity of peel and seeds, especially in RF, encourage a potential use of by-products of this specific citrus cultivar for industrial or pharmacological applications. However, to maximize the occurrence of desired bioactive compounds, it is important also to consider the ripening stage at which fruits must be collected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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13 pages, 873 KiB  
Article
In Search of Antioxidant Peptides from Porcine Liver Hydrolysates Using Analytical and Peptidomic Approach
by María López-Pedrouso, José M. Lorenzo, Paula Borrajo and Daniel Franco
Antioxidants 2022, 11(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010027 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2789
Abstract
The search for antioxidant peptides as health-promoting agents is of great scientific interest for their biotechnological applications. Thus, the main goal of this study was to identify antioxidant peptides from pork liver using alcalase, bromelain, flavourzyme, and papain enzymes. All liver hydrolysates proved [...] Read more.
The search for antioxidant peptides as health-promoting agents is of great scientific interest for their biotechnological applications. Thus, the main goal of this study was to identify antioxidant peptides from pork liver using alcalase, bromelain, flavourzyme, and papain enzymes. All liver hydrolysates proved to be of adequate quality regarding the ratio EAA/NEAA, particularly flavourzyme hydrolysates. The peptidomic profiles were significantly different for each enzyme and their characterizations were performed, resulting in forty-four differentially abundant peptides among the four treatments. Porcine liver hydrolysates from alcalase and bromelain are demonstrated to have the most antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, hydrophobic amino acid residues (serine, threonine, histidine and aspartic acid) might be reducing the hydrolysates antioxidant capacity. Seventeen peptides from collagen, albumin, globin domain-containing protein, cytochrome β, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, dihydropyrimidinase, argininosuccinate synthase, and ATP synthase seem to be antioxidant. Further studies are necessary to isolate these peptides and test them in in vivo experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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13 pages, 1524 KiB  
Article
UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and GC-MS Characterization of Phytochemicals in Vegetable Juice Fermented Using Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kimchi and Their Antioxidant Potential
by Moeun Lee, Jung Hee Song, Eun Ji Choi, Ye-Rang Yun, Ki Won Lee and Ji Yoon Chang
Antioxidants 2021, 10(11), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111761 - 4 Nov 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3259
Abstract
This study aims to investigate fermentative metabolites in probiotic vegetable juice from four crop varieties (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleracea var. italica, Daucus carota L., and Beta vulgaris) and their antioxidant properties. Vegetable juice was inoculated with two [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate fermentative metabolites in probiotic vegetable juice from four crop varieties (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleracea var. italica, Daucus carota L., and Beta vulgaris) and their antioxidant properties. Vegetable juice was inoculated with two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Companilactobacillus allii WiKim39 and Lactococcus lactis WiKim0124) isolated from kimchi and their properties were evaluated using untargeted UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and GC-MS. The samples were also evaluated for radical (DPPH and OH) scavenging activities, lipid peroxidation, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The fermented vegetable juices exhibited high antioxidant activities and increased amounts of total phenolic compounds. Fifteen compounds and thirty-two volatiles were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and GC-MS, respectively. LAB fermentation significantly increased the contents of d-leucic acid, indole-3-lactic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, pyroglutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, and gluconic acid. These six metabolites showed a positive correlation with antioxidant properties. Thus, vegetable juices fermented with WiKim39 and WiKim0124 can be considered as novel bioactive health-promoting sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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16 pages, 498 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Acid Whey on the Lipid Composition and Oxidative Stability of Organic Uncured Fermented Bacon after Production and during Chilling Storage
by Anna Okoń, Piotr Szymański, Dorota Zielińska, Aleksandra Szydłowska, Urszula Siekierko, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska and Zbigniew J. Dolatowski
Antioxidants 2021, 10(11), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111711 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of acid whey on changes in the fatty acid profile, oxidative stability, physico-chemical parameters, and microbiological and sensory quality of traditional organic uncured fermented Polish bacon after production and during chilling storage. Three [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of acid whey on changes in the fatty acid profile, oxidative stability, physico-chemical parameters, and microbiological and sensory quality of traditional organic uncured fermented Polish bacon after production and during chilling storage. Three different treatments of fermented bacon were produced: C—control bacon with a nitrite curing mixture; T—bacon with a nitrate curing mixture; and AW—bacon with acid whey and NaCl. The acid whey used in the production of uncured fermented pork bacon positively changed the sensorial characteristics, directly after the ripening process, and had a positive effect in terms of a decrease in the pH of the product. All of the fermented bacon treatments in general were of good microbiological quality. A higher lactic acid bacteria (LAB) level was observed in the AW treatment after the fermentation process, and the bacteria number did not change during storage, whereas in the C and T treatments, the LAB level increased during storage (p < 0.05). The application of acid whey did not limit the formation of secondary oxidation products (TBARS) during bacon ripening (1.68 mg MDA kg−1), but had a reduced value during storage time (0.73 mg MDA kg−1). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, after ripening and after four weeks of refrigerated storage, were found in the C treatment. In the AW treatment, it was found that the PUFA level increased; likewise, the content of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids increased, while saturated fatty acids (SFAs) decreased during storage (p < 0.05). The opposite tendency was observed in the C treatment. After four weeks of storage, the PUFA/SFA ratio was the lowest in the nitrate treatment, and higher values of the PUFA/SFA ratio were obtained in the acid whey and nitrite treatment (p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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13 pages, 2639 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Wastewater from Table Olives: NMR Identification of Antioxidant Phenolic Fraction and Microwave Single-Phase Reaction of Sugary Fraction
by Alberto J. Huertas-Alonso, Mohsen Gavahian, Diego J. González-Serrano, Milad Hadidi, Manuel Salgado-Ramos, M. Prado Sánchez-Verdú, Mario J. Simirgiotis, Francisco J. Barba, Daniel Franco, José M. Lorenzo and Andrés Moreno
Antioxidants 2021, 10(11), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111652 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3041
Abstract
The table olive industry is producing a huge amount of wastewater, which is a post-processing cost and an environmental concern. The present study aims to valorize this processing by-product to obtain a value-added product, thereby enhancing resource efficiency and contributing to achieving sustainable [...] Read more.
The table olive industry is producing a huge amount of wastewater, which is a post-processing cost and an environmental concern. The present study aims to valorize this processing by-product to obtain a value-added product, thereby enhancing resource efficiency and contributing to achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs). In this sense, a chemical reaction-based platform was developed to obtain valuable components, such as levulinic acid (LA) and 5-hydromethylfurfural (HMF). The products were then analyzed using NMR identification of the antioxidant phenolic fraction and microwave single-phase reaction of the sugary fraction. According to the results, the highest concentration of phenolic compounds does not correspond to the sample directly obtained from NaOH treatment (S1), indicating that water washing steps (S2–S5) are fundamental to recover phenolic substances. Moreover, glucose was presented in the sugary fraction that can be transformed into levulinic acid by a single-phase reaction under microwave irradiation. The information provided in this manuscript suggests that the wastewater from the olive processing industry can be valorized to obtain valuable products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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21 pages, 1304 KiB  
Article
Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Capacities, Nutritional Analysis and UHPLC-PDA-MS Characterization of Cocona Fruits (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) from the Peruvian Amazon
by Gabriel Vargas-Arana, Claudia Merino-Zegarra, Marcos Riquelme-Penaherrera, Luis Nonato-Ramirez, Henry Delgado-Wong, Mariano Walter Pertino, Claudio Parra and Mario J. Simirgiotis
Antioxidants 2021, 10(10), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101566 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4172
Abstract
Cocona fruits are a popular food and medicinal fruit used mainly in the Amazon and several countries of South America for the preparation of several food products such as drinks, jams and milk shakes. In this study five ecotypes of cocona native to [...] Read more.
Cocona fruits are a popular food and medicinal fruit used mainly in the Amazon and several countries of South America for the preparation of several food products such as drinks, jams and milk shakes. In this study five ecotypes of cocona native to Peru have been studied regarding their nutritional and antioxidants values plus antihyperlipidemic activities. Seventy bioactive compounds have been detected in Peruvian cocona ecotypes including several phenolic acids, aminoacids and flavonoids; of those six were spermidines, (peaks 1, 2, 25, 26, 38 and 39), thirteen were aminoacids, (peaks 3–9, 11–13, 16, 17, 22–24), eighteen flavonoids (peaks 28, 30–32 45,46, 48–53 56, 57, 61 and 64–66), twelve were phenolics (peaks 19, 21, 27, 29, 34, 35, 36, 42, 43, 44, 54, and 59), two carotenoids, (peak 62 and 63), eight were lipid derivatives (peaks 37, 55, 58, 60 and 67–70), one sugar (peak 47), four terpenes (peaks 33, 40, 41 and 47), two amides, (peaks 10 and 18), one aldehyde, (peak 15), and three saturated organic acids, (peaks 4, 5 and 20). Hypercholesterolemic rats administered with pulp of the ecotypes CTR and SRN9 showed the lowest cholesterol and triglyceride levels after treatment (126.74 ± 6.63; 102.11 ± 9.47; 58.16 ± 6.64; 61.05 ± 4.00 mg/dL, for cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein respectively, for the group treated with SRN9 pulp, and 130.09 ± 8.55; 108.51 ± 10.04; 57.30 ± 5.72; and 65.41 ± 7.68 mg/dL, for cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL lipoproteins respectively for the group treated with CTR pulp). The ecotypes proved to be good sources of natural antioxidants and their consumption represent an alternative for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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17 pages, 1623 KiB  
Article
An Ascorbate Bluetooth© Analyzer for Quality Control of Fresh-Cut Parsley Supply Chain
by Ylenia Spissu, Antonio Barberis, Guy D’hallewin, Germano Orrù, Alessandra Scano, Gavina Rita Serra, Milo Pinna, Cristian Pinna, Salvatore Marceddu and Pier Andrea Serra
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091485 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
This work provides companies in the fresh-cut produce sector with an Ascorbate Bluetooth© Analyzer (ABA), a screen-printed sensor-based device for ascorbic acid (AA) detection, for quality control all along the supply chain. The amperometric detection of AA on fresh and fresh-cut parsley, under [...] Read more.
This work provides companies in the fresh-cut produce sector with an Ascorbate Bluetooth© Analyzer (ABA), a screen-printed sensor-based device for ascorbic acid (AA) detection, for quality control all along the supply chain. The amperometric detection of AA on fresh and fresh-cut parsley, under correct and incorrect storage temperature, allowed us to investigate the kinetics of AA decay in response to oxidative stress. The role of ascorbate oxidase (AOx) and ascorbate peroxidase (APx) was studied. ABA was used in situ by unskilled personnel. Treatments influenced AA decay kinetics, which were linear in fresh parsley, and non-linear in fresh-cut. Two hours at 28 °C immediately after chopping, the resilience of the fresh-cut parsley was reduced, even though the cold chain was restored. Two hours at −2 °C caused a rapid loss of AA until its complete decay after 72 h. Significant differences between treatments were observed in both the expression and activity of AOx and APx. ABA registered sudden changes of parsley AA following unpredicted variations of temperature during processing or transport. It was useful to remedy the effects of unexpected flaws in the cold chain, which can be proposed for quality preservation of different fresh-cut produce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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18 pages, 1789 KiB  
Article
Exploiting the Potential of Bioactive Molecules Extracted by Ultrasounds from Avocado Peels—Food and Nutraceutical Applications
by Beatriz Rodríguez-Martínez, Pedro Ferreira-Santos, Beatriz Gullón, José António Teixeira, Cláudia M. Botelho and Remedios Yáñez
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091475 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3188
Abstract
Natural bioactive compounds from food waste have fomented interest in food and pharmaceutical industries for the past decade. In this work, it purposed the recovery of bioactive avocado peel extract using an environmentally friendly technique: the ultrasound assisted extraction. The response surface methodology [...] Read more.
Natural bioactive compounds from food waste have fomented interest in food and pharmaceutical industries for the past decade. In this work, it purposed the recovery of bioactive avocado peel extract using an environmentally friendly technique: the ultrasound assisted extraction. The response surface methodology was applied in order to optimize the conditions of the extraction, ethanol-water mixtures and time. The optimized extracts (ethanol 38.46%, 44.06 min, and 50 °C) were chemically characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS and FTIR. Its antioxidant ability, as well as, its effect on cell metabolic activity of normal (L929) and cancer (Caco-2, A549 and HeLa) cell lines were assessed. Aqueous ethanol extracts presented a high content in bioactive compounds with high antioxidant potential. The most representative class of the phenolic compounds found in the avocado peel extract were phenolic acids, such as hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids. Another important chemical group detected were the flavonoids, such as flavanols, flavanonols, flavones, flavanones and chalcone, phenylethanoids and lignans. In terms of its influence on the metabolic activity of normal and cancer cell lines, the extract does not significantly affect normal cells. On the other hand, it can negatively affect cancer cells, particularly HeLa cells. These results clearly demonstrated that ultrasound is a sustainable extraction technique, resulting in extracts with low toxicity in normal cells and with potential application in food, pharmaceutical or nutraceutical sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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26 pages, 2954 KiB  
Article
The Antioxidant Effect of Colombian Berry (Vaccinium meridionale Sw.) Extracts to Prevent Lipid Oxidation during Pork Patties Shelf-Life
by Márcio Vargas-Ramella, José M. Lorenzo, Sol Zamuz, María Esperanza Valdés, Daniel Moreno, María C. Guamán Balcázar, José M. Fernández-Arias, Jorge F. Reyes and Daniel Franco
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081290 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3628
Abstract
A scarce amount of knowledge about the use of Colombian berry (CB) in meat products is available in the literature. This work studies the impact of the addition of CB extracts (CBE) on pork patties at three different concentrations in the range 250–750 [...] Read more.
A scarce amount of knowledge about the use of Colombian berry (CB) in meat products is available in the literature. This work studies the impact of the addition of CB extracts (CBE) on pork patties at three different concentrations in the range 250–750 mg/kg. CBE were characterized in terms of their polyphenolic profile and antioxidant activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, half maximal inhibitory antioxidant concentration (IC50), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) tests)]. After pork patties elaboration, instrumental and sensorial colour, as well as lipid oxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) values, were evaluated for 10 days of refrigerated storage in a modified atmosphere (80% O2–20% CO2). The total anthocyanin composition represented 35% of the polyphenolic substances of the CBE, highlighting high contents in cyanidin derivatives. Additionally, other flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol compounds) and phenolics acids, substances positively related to antioxidant activity, were identified and quantified. In addition, the incorporation of CBE resulted in improvements in colour and lipid stability of pork patties, especially for the highest concentration used. Our findings demonstrated that CBE could be added to pork patties without impairing their sensorial profile. Overall, our results indicate that the use of CBE as a source of natural antioxidant, natural colourant, or even as a functional ingredient could be promising, but more studies are necessary to confirm it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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14 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
Unraveling the Bioactive Profile, Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protection Potential of Rye (Secale cereale) Flour
by Pinderpal Kaur, Kawaljit Singh Sandhu, Sneh Punia Bangar, Sukhvinder Singh Purewal, Maninder Kaur, Rushdan Ahmad Ilyas, Muhammad Rizal Muhammad Asyraf and Muhammad Rizal Razman
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081214 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
Six different solvents were used as extraction medium (water, methanol, ethanol, acidified methanol, benzene and acetone) to check their phenolics extraction efficacy from flour of two rye cultivars. Rye extracts with different solvents were further analyzed for the estimation of phytochemicals and antioxidant [...] Read more.
Six different solvents were used as extraction medium (water, methanol, ethanol, acidified methanol, benzene and acetone) to check their phenolics extraction efficacy from flour of two rye cultivars. Rye extracts with different solvents were further analyzed for the estimation of phytochemicals and antioxidant properties. Different tests (TPC, TAC, DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, RPA and CTC) were performed to check the antioxidant properties and tannin contents in extracts. A bioactive profile of a rye cultivar indicated the presence of total phenolic compounds (0.08–2.62 mg GAE/g), total antioxidant capacity (0.9–6.8 mg AAE/g) and condensed tannin content (4.24–9.28 mg CE/100 g). HPLC was done to check phenolics in rye extract with the best solvent (water), which indicated the presence of Catechol (91.1–120.4 mg/100 g), resorcinol (52–70.3 mg/100 g), vanillin (1.3–5.5 mg/100 g), ferulic acid (1.4–1.5 mg/100 g), quercetin (4.6–4.67 mg/100 g) and benzoic acid (5.3 mg/100 g) in rye extracts. The presence of DNA damage protection potential in rye extracts indicates its medicinal importance. Rye flour could be utilized in the preparation of antioxidant-rich health-benefiting food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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22 pages, 9608 KiB  
Article
Bioprocessed Brewers’ Spent Grain Improves Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Pasta
by Rosa Schettino, Michela Verni, Marta Acin-Albiac, Olimpia Vincentini, Annika Krona, Antti Knaapila, Raffaella Di Cagno, Marco Gobbetti, Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello and Rossana Coda
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050742 - 7 May 2021
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5042
Abstract
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), the by-product of brewing, was subjected to a xylanase treatment followed by fermentation with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum PU1. Bioprocessed BSG has been used as ingredient to obtain a fortified semolina pasta which can be labeled as “high fiber” and “source [...] Read more.
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), the by-product of brewing, was subjected to a xylanase treatment followed by fermentation with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum PU1. Bioprocessed BSG has been used as ingredient to obtain a fortified semolina pasta which can be labeled as “high fiber” and “source of protein” according to the European Community Regulation No. 1924/2006. Compared to native BSG, the use of bioprocessed BSG led to higher protein digestibility and quality indices (essential amino acid index, biological value, protein efficiency ratio, nutritional index), as well as lower predicted glycemic index. Bioprocessing also improved the technological properties of fortified pasta. Indeed, brightfield and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the formation of a more homogeneous protein network, resulting from the degradation of the arabinoxylan structure of BSG, and the release of the components entrapped into the cellular compartments. The extensive cell wall disruption contributed to the release of phenols, and conferred enhanced antioxidant activity to the fortified pasta. The persistence of the activity was demonstrated after in vitro-mimicked digestion, evaluating the protective effects of the digested pasta towards induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells cultures. The fortified pasta showed a peculiar sensory profile, markedly improved by the pre-treatment, thus confirming the great potential of bioprocessed BSG as health-promoting food ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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Review

Jump to: Research

21 pages, 1175 KiB  
Review
Uncovering the Industrial Potentials of Lemongrass Essential Oil as a Food Preservative: A Review
by Fatima Faheem, Zhi Wei Liu, Roshina Rabail, Iahtisham-Ul Haq, Maryam Gul, Marcin Bryła, Marek Roszko, Marek Kieliszek, Ahmad Din and Rana Muhammad Aadil
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040720 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 7178
Abstract
The food industry is growing vastly, with an increasing number of food products and the demand of consumers to have safe and pathogen-free food with an extended shelf life for consumption. It is critical to have food safe from pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and [...] Read more.
The food industry is growing vastly, with an increasing number of food products and the demand of consumers to have safe and pathogen-free food with an extended shelf life for consumption. It is critical to have food safe from pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and unpleasant odors or tastes so that the food may not cause any health risks to consumers. Currently, the direction of food industry has been shifting from synthetically produced preservatives to natural preservatives to lower the unnecessary chemical burden on health. Many new technologies are working on natural prevention tools against food degradation. Lemongrass is one such natural preservative that possesses significant antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The essential oil of lemongrass contains a series of terpenes that are responsible for these activities. These properties make lemongrass acceptable in the food industry and may fulfill consumer demands. This article provides detailed information about the role of lemongrass and its essential oil in food preservation. The outcomes of the research on lemongrass offer room for its new technological applications in food preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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21 pages, 1224 KiB  
Review
Role of Food Hydrocolloids as Antioxidants along with Modern Processing Techniques on the Surimi Protein Gel Textural Properties, Developments, Limitation and Future Perspectives
by Noman Walayat, Jianhua Liu, Asad Nawaz, Rana Muhammad Aadil, María López-Pedrouso and José M. Lorenzo
Antioxidants 2022, 11(3), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11030486 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5391
Abstract
Texture is an important parameter in determining the quality characteristics and consumer acceptability of seafood and fish protein-based products. The addition of food-based additives as antioxidants (monosaccharides, oilgosaccharides, polysaccharides and protein hydrolysates) in surimi and other seafood products has become a promising trend [...] Read more.
Texture is an important parameter in determining the quality characteristics and consumer acceptability of seafood and fish protein-based products. The addition of food-based additives as antioxidants (monosaccharides, oilgosaccharides, polysaccharides and protein hydrolysates) in surimi and other seafood products has become a promising trend at an industrial scale. Improvement in gelling, textural and structural attributes of surimi gel could be attained by inhibiting the oxidative changes, protein denaturation and aggregation with these additives along with new emerging processing techniques. Moreover, the intermolecular crosslinking of surimi gel can be improved with the addition of different food hydrocolloid-based antioxidants in combination with modern processing techniques. The high-pressure processing (HPP) technique with polysaccharides can develop surimi gel with better physicochemical, antioxidative, textural attributes and increase the gel matrix than conventional processing methods. The increase in protein oxidation, denaturation, decline in water holding capacity, gel strength and viscoelastic properties of surimi gel can be substantially improved by microwave (MW) processing. The MW, ultrasonication and ultraviolet (UV) treatments can significantly increase the textural properties (hardness, gumminess and cohesiveness) and improve the antioxidative properties of surimi gel produced by different additives. This study will review potential opportunities and primary areas of future exploration for high-quality surimi gel products. Moreover, it also focuses on the influence of different antioxidants as additives and some new production strategies, such as HPP, ultrasonication, UV and MW and ohmic processing. The effects of additives in combination with different modern processing technologies on surimi gel texture are also compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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18 pages, 1437 KiB  
Review
Identification and Recovery of Valuable Bioactive Compounds from Potato Peels: A Comprehensive Review
by Beatriz Rodríguez-Martínez, Beatriz Gullón and Remedios Yáñez
Antioxidants 2021, 10(10), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101630 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 6431
Abstract
Nowadays, the potato is one of the most cultivated and consumed food crops in the world and, in recent years, its production has experienced a sharp increase. Its industrial processing generates several by-products that are wasted and cause economic and environmental problems. Among [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the potato is one of the most cultivated and consumed food crops in the world and, in recent years, its production has experienced a sharp increase. Its industrial processing generates several by-products that are wasted and cause economic and environmental problems. Among them, potato peel stands out, representing up to 10% of the total potato residues obtained in the processing. On the other hand, these wastes, in addition to presenting antioxidant compounds, are rich in interesting chemical compounds of great value in a biorefinery model. This review summarizes the main compounds present in potato skins as well as the most used and innovative extraction methods employed for their isolation, with special emphasis on the fractions with biological activities. In addition, a sustainable biorefinery proposal focused on obtaining high added-value products with potential applications in the pharmaceutical, food, nutraceutical, or cosmetic industries is included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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20 pages, 2691 KiB  
Review
Kombucha Tea—A Double Power of Bioactive Compounds from Tea and Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeasts (SCOBY)
by Hubert Antolak, Dominik Piechota and Aleksandra Kucharska
Antioxidants 2021, 10(10), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101541 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 83 | Viewed by 18363
Abstract
Kombucha is a low alcoholic beverage with high content of bioactive compounds derived from plant material (tea, juices, herb extracts) and metabolic activity of microorganisms (acetic acid bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts). Currently, it attracts an increasing number of consumers due to [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a low alcoholic beverage with high content of bioactive compounds derived from plant material (tea, juices, herb extracts) and metabolic activity of microorganisms (acetic acid bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts). Currently, it attracts an increasing number of consumers due to its health-promoting properties. This review focuses on aspects significantly affecting the bioactive compound content and biological activities of Kombucha tea. The literature review shows that the drink is characterized by a high content of bioactive compounds, strong antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Factors that substantially affect these activities are the tea type and its brewing parameters, the composition of the SCOBY, as well as the fermentation parameters. On the other hand, Kombucha fermentation is characterized by many unknowns, which result, inter alia, from different methods of tea extraction, diverse, often undefined compositions of microorganisms used in the fermentation, as well as the lack of clearly defined effects of microorganisms on bioactive compounds contained in tea, and therefore the health-promoting properties of the final product. The article indicates the shortcomings in the current research in the field of Kombucha, as well as future perspectives on improving the health-promoting activities of this fermented drink. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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15 pages, 1133 KiB  
Review
Employment of Flake Ice Systems Including Natural Preservative Compounds for the Quality Enhancement of Chilled Seafood—A Review
by Santiago P. Aubourg
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1499; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091499 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
Marine species deteriorate rapidly post-mortem as a consequence of a variety of biochemical and microbial breakdown mechanisms. Due to the increasing demand for high-quality fresh seafood, different strategies are now available to retard spoilage for as long as possible. The present study provides [...] Read more.
Marine species deteriorate rapidly post-mortem as a consequence of a variety of biochemical and microbial breakdown mechanisms. Due to the increasing demand for high-quality fresh seafood, different strategies are now available to retard spoilage for as long as possible. The present study provides an overview of a recently proposed strategy based on the addition of natural compounds to marine species. In this strategy, different kinds of natural preservative compounds are included in the flake-ice medium that is commonly used for chilled storage. Natural sources tested for this purpose include low-molecular-weight organic acids and different kinds of extracts of plants, macroalgae, and by-products resulting from marine species commercialization. The preservative action of such treatments is analyzed according to the effect on different deteriorative mechanisms (i.e., lipid hydrolysis, oxidation, and microbial activity development), as well as on the resulting sensory acceptability and shelf-life time. The basic objective of this review is to provide an overview concerning the positive effect that the presence in an icing system of natural preserving compounds may have on the quality of chilled marine species. Furthermore, various potential avenues are proposed to develop the practical and commercial employment of this technological strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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18 pages, 1605 KiB  
Review
Natural Antioxidants from Endemic Leaves in the Elaboration of Processed Meat Products: Current Status
by Lidiana Velázquez, John Quiñones, Rommy Díaz, Mirian Pateiro, José Manuel Lorenzo and Néstor Sepúlveda
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091396 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4325
Abstract
During the last few years, consumers’ demand for animal protein and healthier meat products has increased considerably. This has motivated researchers of the meat industry to create products that present healthier components while maintaining their safety, sensory characteristics, and shelf life. Concerning this, [...] Read more.
During the last few years, consumers’ demand for animal protein and healthier meat products has increased considerably. This has motivated researchers of the meat industry to create products that present healthier components while maintaining their safety, sensory characteristics, and shelf life. Concerning this, natural plant extracts have gained prominence because they can act as antioxidants and antimicrobials, increasing the stability and shelf life of processed meat products. It has been observed that the leaves of plant species (Moringa oleifera, Bidens pilosa, Eugenia uniflora, Olea europea, Prunus cerasus, Ribes nigrum, etc.) have a higher concentration and variety of polyphenols than other parts of the plants, such as fruits and stems. In Chile, there are two native berries, maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz), that that stand out for their high concentrations of polyphenols. Recently, their polyphenols have been characterized, demonstrating their potential antioxidant and antimicrobial action and their bioactive action at cellular level. However, to date, there is little information on their use in the elaboration of meat products. Therefore, the objective of this review is to compile the most current data on the use of polyphenols from leaves of native plants in the elaboration of meat products and their effect on the oxidation, stability, and organoleptic characteristics during the shelf life of these products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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23 pages, 2277 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Current Knowledge of Thermal Stability of Anthocyanins and Approaches to Their Stabilization to Heat
by Simona Oancea
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091337 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 90 | Viewed by 7115
Abstract
Anthocyanins are colored valuable biocompounds, of which extraction increases globally, although functional applications are restrained by their limited environmental stability. Temperature is a critical parameter of food industrial processing that impacts on the food matrix, particularly affecting heat-sensitive compounds such as anthocyanins. Due [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are colored valuable biocompounds, of which extraction increases globally, although functional applications are restrained by their limited environmental stability. Temperature is a critical parameter of food industrial processing that impacts on the food matrix, particularly affecting heat-sensitive compounds such as anthocyanins. Due to the notable scientific progress in the field of thermal stability of anthocyanins, an analytical and synthetic integration of published data is required. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms and the kinetic parameters of anthocyanin degradation during heating, both in extracts and real food matrices. Several kinetic models (Arrhenius, Eyring, Ball) of anthocyanin degradation were studied. Crude extracts deliver more thermally stable anthocyanins than purified ones. A different anthocyanin behavior pattern within real food products subjected to thermal processing has been observed due to interactions with some nutrients (proteins, polysaccharides). The most recent studies on the stabilization of anthocyanins by linkages to other molecules using classical and innovative methods are summarized. Ensuring appropriate thermal conditions for processing anthocyanin-rich food will allow a rational design for the future development of stable functional products, which retain these bioactive molecules and their functionalities to a great extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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33 pages, 1793 KiB  
Review
Terpenoids and Polyphenols as Natural Antioxidant Agents in Food Preservation
by Ignacio Gutiérrez-del-Río, Sara López-Ibáñez, Patricia Magadán-Corpas, Luis Fernández-Calleja, Álvaro Pérez-Valero, Mateo Tuñón-Granda, Elisa M. Miguélez, Claudio J. Villar and Felipe Lombó
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081264 - 8 Aug 2021
Cited by 117 | Viewed by 11185
Abstract
Synthetic antioxidant food additives, such as BHA, BHT and TBHQ, are going through a difficult time, since these products generate a negative perception in consumers. This has generated an increased pressure on food manufacturers to search for safer natural alternatives like phytochemicals (such [...] Read more.
Synthetic antioxidant food additives, such as BHA, BHT and TBHQ, are going through a difficult time, since these products generate a negative perception in consumers. This has generated an increased pressure on food manufacturers to search for safer natural alternatives like phytochemicals (such as polyphenols, including flavonoids, and essential oils rich in terpenoids, including carotenoids). These plant bioactive compounds have antioxidant activities widely proven in in vitro tests and in diverse food matrices (meat, fish, oil and vegetables). As tons of food are wasted every year due to aesthetic reasons (lipid oxidation) and premature damage caused by inappropriate packaging, there is an urgent need for natural antioxidants capable of replacing the synthetic ones to meet consumer demands. This review summarizes industrially interesting antioxidant bioactivities associated with terpenoids and polyphenols with respect to the prevention of lipid oxidation in high fat containing foods, such as meat (rich in saturated fat), fish (rich in polyunsaturated fat), oil and vegetable products, while avoiding the generation of rancid flavors and negative visual deterioration (such as color changes due to oxidized lipids). Terpenoids (like monoterpenes and carotenoids) and polyphenols (like quercetin and other flavonoids) are important phytochemicals with a broad range of antioxidant effects. These phytochemicals are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, including agricultural waste, and are remarkably useful in food preservation, as they show bioactivity as plant antioxidants, able to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, such as superoxide, hydroxyl or peroxyl radicals in meat and other products, contributing to the prevention of lipid oxidation processes in food matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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