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Proceedings, 2019, AITA 2019

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Open AccessProceedings
Leonardo Spaceborne Infrared Payloads for Earth Observation: SLSTRs for Copernicus Sentinel 3 and PRISMA Hyperspectral Camera for PRISMA Satellite
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027001 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 203
Abstract
Leonardo has been involved in the realization of several infrared payloads for Earth Observation since 1990. Among the currently in orbit operative instruments we find the two SLSTRs and PRISMA. The SLSTRs are high accuracy radiometers of the Copernicus mission related to ESA [...] Read more.
Leonardo has been involved in the realization of several infrared payloads for Earth Observation since 1990. Among the currently in orbit operative instruments we find the two SLSTRs and PRISMA. The SLSTRs are high accuracy radiometers of the Copernicus mission related to ESA Sentinel-3 space component to provide Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data continuity respect to previous (A)ATSRs for climatology in the next 20-years. The PRISMA Program is the first ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana) optical hyperspectral mission for Earth observation. It is based on a high spectral resolution spectrometer operating in the VIS-SWIR channels optically integrated with a panchromatic camera. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Principal Components Analysis for the Interpretation of Humidification Phenomena—Preliminary Results
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027002 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Moisture is one of the major causes of building decay, compromising the indoor air quality and the durability of building components. Infrared thermography is a non-destructive technique that can be used to prevent damage caused by the presence of water. In this study, [...] Read more.
Moisture is one of the major causes of building decay, compromising the indoor air quality and the durability of building components. Infrared thermography is a non-destructive technique that can be used to prevent damage caused by the presence of water. In this study, the potential of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was assessed as a quantitative technique for processing the thermal images captured during 24 hours of water absorption by a lightweight concrete specimen. PCA showed that the first principal component is the one that better explains the phenomenon. The initial instant was the most interesting to identify the water level in the sample and the final instant allowed defining the first 8h as the most relevant. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Feasibility of Identifying Defects Illustrated on Building Facades by Applying Thermal Infrared Images with Shadow
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027003 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 191
Abstract
Infrared thermography (IRT) has been widely employed to identify the defects illustrated in building facades. However, the IRT covered with a shadow is hard to be applied to determine the defects shown in the IRT. The study proposed an approach based on the [...] Read more.
Infrared thermography (IRT) has been widely employed to identify the defects illustrated in building facades. However, the IRT covered with a shadow is hard to be applied to determine the defects shown in the IRT. The study proposed an approach based on the multiplicated model to describe quantitively the shadow effects, and the IRT can be segmented into few classes according to the surface temperature information recorded on the IRT by employing a thermal infrared camera. The segmented results were compared with the non-destructive method (acoustic tracing) to verify the correctness and robustness of the approach. From the processed results, the proposed approach did correctly identify the defects illustrated in building facades through the IRTs were covered with shadow. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Importance of Moisture Content to the Emissivity of Ceramic Bricks
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027004 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Emissivity is a key parameter if one intends to use quantitative thermography. The importance of temperature, surface characteristics, wavelength and the direction of the emitted radiation in the emissivity is well documented in the literature. However, no research was found concerning the effect [...] Read more.
Emissivity is a key parameter if one intends to use quantitative thermography. The importance of temperature, surface characteristics, wavelength and the direction of the emitted radiation in the emissivity is well documented in the literature. However, no research was found concerning the effect of moisture content. In this research, an experimental campaign was carried out with two main objectives: compare the emissivity value measured with an emissometer with the value measured with infrared thermography; assess the importance of moisture content in the emissivity value measured with an emissometer. A ceramic brick was used as an example case. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Flash Thermography Mapping of Degradation Patterns in Archaeological Glass
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027005 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 192
Abstract
The process of degradation in artefacts subjected to centuries of burial can be of great relevance above all in archaeological glass. Infrared thermography is a non-destructive method allowing to map the defects of the glass substrate, both produced during its manufacturing (e.g., bubbles [...] Read more.
The process of degradation in artefacts subjected to centuries of burial can be of great relevance above all in archaeological glass. Infrared thermography is a non-destructive method allowing to map the defects of the glass substrate, both produced during its manufacturing (e.g., bubbles and inclusions) and due to ageing. This research is focused on the use of different flash thermography methods for the mapping of superficial flakes on Roman glasses dating back to the I and II century A.D. The effectiveness of active thermography methods is evaluated to map degraded portions of archaeological glass considering their semitransparency and specific optical absorption. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Tool Applied for Tissue Pathologies to Support Histological Analysis
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027006 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a non-invasive optical tool to. [...] Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Automatic Detection and Delimitation of Internal Moisture in Mosaics from Thermographic Sequences. Experimental Tests
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027007 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 79
Abstract
InfraRed Thermography, IRT, is one of the most recent techniques to monitor heritage elements, finding existing pathologies in order to implement the required maintenance tasks. However, most IRT results on cultural heritage are interpreted subjectively. Then, this work presents a methodology for the [...] Read more.
InfraRed Thermography, IRT, is one of the most recent techniques to monitor heritage elements, finding existing pathologies in order to implement the required maintenance tasks. However, most IRT results on cultural heritage are interpreted subjectively. Then, this work presents a methodology for the automatic detection and delimitation of moisture inside a heritage element, a mosaic in this case, from a thermographic sequence, based on the analysis of the temperature distribution of the thermal images acquired. Comparing the experimental test results with typical thermographic algorithms, the detection performance of the algorithm proposed was similar, but the new method is able to delimit and automate the whole process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Integrated Multi-channel PPG and ECG System for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027008 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 173
Abstract
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive technique that employs near infrared light to estimate periodic oscillations in blood volume within arteries caused by the pulse pressure wave. Importantly, combined Electrocardiography (ECG) and PPG can be employed to quantify arterial stiffness. The capabilities of a [...] Read more.
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive technique that employs near infrared light to estimate periodic oscillations in blood volume within arteries caused by the pulse pressure wave. Importantly, combined Electrocardiography (ECG) and PPG can be employed to quantify arterial stiffness. The capabilities of a home-made multi-channel PPG-ECG device (7 PPG probes, 4 ECG derivations) to evaluate arterial ageing were assessed. The high numerosity of channels allowed to estimate arterial stiffness at multiple body locations, without supra-systolic cuff occlusion, providing a fast and accurate examination of cardiovascular status and potentially allowing large scale clinical screening of cardiovascular risk. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Dynamic Line-Scan Thermography for the Inspection of Paper-Based Materials: A Case Study Focused on an Ancient Book Cover
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027009 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 164
Abstract
This work is focused on the use of line-scan thermography (LST) method for the inspection of an ancient book cover. Three widely used image post-processing techniques (i.e., pulsed phase thermography, partial least square thermography and principal component thermography) were applied to the acquired [...] Read more.
This work is focused on the use of line-scan thermography (LST) method for the inspection of an ancient book cover. Three widely used image post-processing techniques (i.e., pulsed phase thermography, partial least square thermography and principal component thermography) were applied to the acquired thermal sequences. Flash thermography (FT) anticipated the LST results in order to have a comparison of the results. It was concluded that LST is an effective technique for paper-based materials, and it can additionally provide a higher image contrast if compared to classical FT technique. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experimental Tests on TIR Multispectral Images for Temperature-Emissivity Separation by Using the MaxEnTES Algorithm
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027010 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 156
Abstract
Satellite images in the TIR are relevant for several Earth Observation applications. The retrieval of temperature and emissivity from the emitted radiance, however, requires the use of suitable algorithms, such as the MaxEnTES that uses the concept of maximum entropy to solve the [...] Read more.
Satellite images in the TIR are relevant for several Earth Observation applications. The retrieval of temperature and emissivity from the emitted radiance, however, requires the use of suitable algorithms, such as the MaxEnTES that uses the concept of maximum entropy to solve the Temperature-Emissivity Separation problem. Here we discuss the performance of MaxEnTES when applied to TIR images with a limited number of channels, specifically simulated HyspIRI multispectral images and real multispectral images by ASTER. The results were respectively compared with the original temperatures used for the simulations and with the temperatures obtained by using the ASTER TES algorithm. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Using Near Infrared for Studying Lemming Subnival Behavior in the High Arctic
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027011 - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 216
Abstract
Despite the crucial role of lemming in the Arctic ecosystem, many aspects of its ecology are still unknown. The main challenge of studying lemming is that this rodent does not hibernate in winter and remains active under snow. To tackle this challenge, this [...] Read more.
Despite the crucial role of lemming in the Arctic ecosystem, many aspects of its ecology are still unknown. The main challenge of studying lemming is that this rodent does not hibernate in winter and remains active under snow. To tackle this challenge, this paper presents a monitoring system based on near infrared. Design and implementation of a system that should work autonomously in the harsh arctic environment is really challenging. After developing the first version of the equipment, we installed three units at Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada. Retrieved videos were promising and showed the great potential of this system in assisting ecologists to study the subnivean ecology of the Arctic. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first ever videos of lemming that have been recorded under snow in winter in the Arctic. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Integrating Thermographic Images in A User-Friendly Platform to Support Inspection of Railway Bridges
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027012 - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 188
Abstract
preventive inspection of railway bridges is a key step for an effective maintenance program. The TOSCA-FI project has developed an integrated ICT platform for easy access to a wide set of data, obtained with several imaging techniques (high definition photography, photogrammetry, 3D scanning, [...] Read more.
preventive inspection of railway bridges is a key step for an effective maintenance program. The TOSCA-FI project has developed an integrated ICT platform for easy access to a wide set of data, obtained with several imaging techniques (high definition photography, photogrammetry, 3D scanning, fluorescence LIDAR and thermography) and integrated into a 3D model of the bridge. The aim is to provide a tool to support the inspection of railway bridges, often based exclusively on the visual inspection. In this paper, we present selected results obtained on masonry bridges by using thermography and their integration in the TOSCA-FI platform. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Infrared Non-Destructive Testing via Semi-Nonnegative Matrix Factorization
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027013 - 20 Sep 2019
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Detection of subsurface defects is undeniably a growing subfield of infrared non-destructive testing (IR-NDT). There are many algorithms used for this purpose, where non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is considered to be an interesting alternative to principal component analysis (PCA) by having no negative [...] Read more.
Detection of subsurface defects is undeniably a growing subfield of infrared non-destructive testing (IR-NDT). There are many algorithms used for this purpose, where non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is considered to be an interesting alternative to principal component analysis (PCA) by having no negative basis in matrix decomposition. Here, an application of Semi non-negative matrix factorization (Semi-NMF) in IR-NDT is presented to determine the subsurface defects of an Aluminum plate specimen through active thermographic method. To benchmark, the defect detection accuracy and computational load of the Semi-NMF approach is compared to state-of-the-art thermography processing approaches such as: principal component thermography (PCT), Candid Covariance-Free Incremental Principal Component Thermography (CCIPCT), Sparse PCT, Sparse NMF and standard NMF with gradient descend (GD) and non-negative least square (NNLS). The results show 86% accuracy for 27.5s computational time for SemiNMF, which conclusively indicate the promising performance of the approach in the field of IR-NDT. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Intracellular Components
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027014 - 20 Sep 2019
Viewed by 164
Abstract
In the last decade, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) met increasing interest in the detection of chemical and biological agents due to its rapid performance and ultra-sensitive features. SERS is a combination of Raman spectroscopy and nanotechnology; it includes the advantages of Raman spectroscopy, [...] Read more.
In the last decade, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) met increasing interest in the detection of chemical and biological agents due to its rapid performance and ultra-sensitive features. SERS is a combination of Raman spectroscopy and nanotechnology; it includes the advantages of Raman spectroscopy, providing rapid spectra collection, small sample sizes, and characteristic spectral fingerprints for specific analytes. In this paper, we detected label-free SERS signals for arbitrarily configurations of dimers, trimers, etc., composed of gold nanoshells (AuNSs) and applied to the mapping of osteosarcoma intracellular components. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Raman Spectroscopy and Cancer Diagnosis
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027015 - 20 Sep 2019
Viewed by 212
Abstract
Raman spectroscopy is a technique based on inelastic scattering of molecular systems when illuminated by monochromatic radiation. Owing to its high chemical specificity and noninvasive detection capability, in the last decade, Raman scattering has found wide application in cancer screening and diagnosis. In [...] Read more.
Raman spectroscopy is a technique based on inelastic scattering of molecular systems when illuminated by monochromatic radiation. Owing to its high chemical specificity and noninvasive detection capability, in the last decade, Raman scattering has found wide application in cancer screening and diagnosis. In this paper; we describe recent results obtained by applying Raman spectroscopy to osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma; the two main bone tumors. The results show the remarkable potential of Thermo Scientific™ DXR™2 microscope to discriminate between subcellular components inside osteo-differentiated osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cells or; at level of tissues; to discriminate chondrogenic tumors giving the possibility to grade the level of malignancy the cartilaginous tumors under investigation. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Relationship between Inspection Time and Frequency Components of Input and Reflected Thermal Waves in Active Thermographic Non-Destructive Inspection
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027016 - 21 Sep 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Experiments and numerical simulations for a carbon fiber reinforced plastic specimen were performed to investigate the relationship between the time required for detecting subsurface defects and the frequency components of the thermal waves propagating within the specimen. Experimental results showed that the required [...] Read more.
Experiments and numerical simulations for a carbon fiber reinforced plastic specimen were performed to investigate the relationship between the time required for detecting subsurface defects and the frequency components of the thermal waves propagating within the specimen. Experimental results showed that the required inspection time was shortened by increasing the frequency of the input thermal wave. However, if the attenuation during thermal wave propagation is large enough to render the detection of the thermal wave reflected at the subsurface defect impossible, the inspection time exceeds the time estimated by theoretical calculation. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Numerical Focusing of a Wide Field-of-View Instrument for Monitoring the Planetary Energy Budget
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027017 - 21 Sep 2019
Viewed by 168
Abstract
Wide field-of-view optical instruments based on Ritchey-Crétien telescopes have been proposed to replace narrow field-of-view scanning instruments for Earth radiation budget monitoring applications. A disadvantage of such instruments is that they are subject to significant focal plane distortion. A novel numerical focusing scheme [...] Read more.
Wide field-of-view optical instruments based on Ritchey-Crétien telescopes have been proposed to replace narrow field-of-view scanning instruments for Earth radiation budget monitoring applications. A disadvantage of such instruments is that they are subject to significant focal plane distortion. A novel numerical focusing scheme is proposed and demonstrated using a Monte Carlo ray-trace-based simulation of the performance of a candidate instrument. Results are presented which indicate that image recovery error can be significantly reduced using the proposed algorithm. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Concept of a Computer-Vision-Based Algorithm for Detecting Thermal Anomalies in Reinforced Concrete Structures
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027018 - 21 Sep 2019
Viewed by 178
Abstract
In Hong Kong, there is great abundancy of aged buildings and infrastructures for which a re-assessment of the current status is needed. Water exfiltrations/infiltrations, deteriorating insulations, thermal bridges and regions of failure are among the most recurrent symptoms to be found in existing [...] Read more.
In Hong Kong, there is great abundancy of aged buildings and infrastructures for which a re-assessment of the current status is needed. Water exfiltrations/infiltrations, deteriorating insulations, thermal bridges and regions of failure are among the most recurrent symptoms to be found in existing Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures. Diagnosis of such symptoms, in the form of thermal infrared anomalies, is usually performed through infrared (IR) image capturing, followed by qualitative assessment. This paper presents a novel automated computer-vision-based method for detecting thermal anomalies. Such Computer-Vision (CV) algorithm is tested on different thermal scenarios including beam elements, roofs and entire façades of RC buildings. Thermal anomalies related to cases of water leakages, moisture trapping and debonding are successfully detected. The authors intend to undertake further research for successfully implementing the method for detecting also other thermal dissimilarities. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Preliminary Study on Non Contact Thermal Monitoring of Microwave Photonic Systems
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027019 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Microwave photonic systems are more susceptible to thermal fluctuations due to thermo-optic effect. In order to stabilize the performance of photonic components, thermal monitoring is achieved by using thermistors placed at any arbitrary location along the component. This work presents non contact thermography [...] Read more.
Microwave photonic systems are more susceptible to thermal fluctuations due to thermo-optic effect. In order to stabilize the performance of photonic components, thermal monitoring is achieved by using thermistors placed at any arbitrary location along the component. This work presents non contact thermography of a fully functional microwave photonic system. The temperature profile of printed circuit board (PCB) and photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is obtained using Fluke FLIR (A65) camera. We performed Otsu’s thresholding to segment heat centers located across PCB as well as PIC. The infrared and visible cameras used in this work have different field of view, therefore, after applying morphological methods, we performed image registration to synchronize both visible and thermal images. We demonstrate this method on the circuit board with active electrical/photonic elements and were able to observe thermal profile of these components. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Techniques for Evaluating the Depth of a Crack by Means of Laser Spot Thermography
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027020 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 170
Abstract
Laser Spot Thermography is a useful tool in nondestructive crack detection. Our goal is to estimate the depth of a fracture from external thermal measurements. First we transform a set of real 3D data in a 2D effective one. Then we use the [...] Read more.
Laser Spot Thermography is a useful tool in nondestructive crack detection. Our goal is to estimate the depth of a fracture from external thermal measurements. First we transform a set of real 3D data in a 2D effective one. Then we use the 2D data set as input in different methods for solving an inverse problems for the heat equation. Our guiding idea is that an effort in the direction of the mathematical analysis of the problem, rewards us in term of computational costs. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Multiple Shots Averaging in Laser Flash Measurement
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027021 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 164
Abstract
The knowledge of the thermal properties of materials is a key resource for the correct design of industrial components. The laser flash method is a well-known procedure to determine the thermal diffusivity of a wide range of materials. However, in some cases there [...] Read more.
The knowledge of the thermal properties of materials is a key resource for the correct design of industrial components. The laser flash method is a well-known procedure to determine the thermal diffusivity of a wide range of materials. However, in some cases there is the need of limiting the input power, or measuring materials with high thermal capacity, or investigating thick samples. Under these circumstances, the expected signal-to-noise ratio can reach extremely low values. To solve this issue, the existing laser flash apparatus has been improved, creating a new control and data acquisition system that is able to repeat multiple times the emission of the laser impulse and the measurement of the thermal response of the specimen. This gives the possibility of averaging several measurements, leading to a decrease of the noise. The experimental validation on different samples shows the feasibility of the proposed setup, that makes it possible to work with low power inputs. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Depth-Based Lip Localization and Identification of Open or Closed Mouth, Using Kinect 2
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027022 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 194
Abstract
A depth-based technique for lip localization and also mouth state analysis that is an important step in many applications such as lips reading, yawning detection and emotion recognition, is presented throughout this work. This is done by employing depth images captured by the [...] Read more.
A depth-based technique for lip localization and also mouth state analysis that is an important step in many applications such as lips reading, yawning detection and emotion recognition, is presented throughout this work. This is done by employing depth images captured by the Kinect V2 device. At first, using the depth information, we use the face’s depth information to reduce the search area for the lips by developing a nose point detection, Second, we further reduce the search area by using a depth segmentation algorithm to separate the mouth area. Finally, with the reduced search range, we present a method for mouth state identification based on depth information. Comparing this work with other researchers’ work using the databases prepared by authors and the VAP_RGBD dataset, we found that our method, which involves using of depth information, can solve the problem of varying illumination conditions. Experimental results demonstrated an accuracy of 91% for lip localization, and 86% for open or closed mouth state detection. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Correction of Thermographic Contrast Values in Relation to the Average Temperature of the Region for Comparative Analysis of Anomalies Exposed to Different Thermal Flows
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027023 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 142
Abstract
In the field of civil construction, infrared thermography can be used as a tool for inspection of building elements such as facade inspection. The large amount of variables involved in the thermal flow acting on the facade of a building makes it difficult [...] Read more.
In the field of civil construction, infrared thermography can be used as a tool for inspection of building elements such as facade inspection. The large amount of variables involved in the thermal flow acting on the facade of a building makes it difficult to compare different points of the facade. This work suggests the correction of the thermographic contrast values of the anomalies (Delta-T) in the relation at the average temperature of the region in which the anomaly is located. The results demonstrate a good correlation between the values of Delta-T and the adjusted Delta-T, thus legitimizing the use of adjusted Delta-T as a function of thermographic contrast. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Detection of Typical Metal Additive Manufacturing Defects by the Application of Thermographic Techniques
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027024 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 209
Abstract
One of the most advanced technologies of Metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the Laser Powder Bed Fusion process (L-PBF), also known as Selective Laser Melting (SLM). This process involves the deposition and fusion, layer by layer, of very fine metal powders and structure [...] Read more.
One of the most advanced technologies of Metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the Laser Powder Bed Fusion process (L-PBF), also known as Selective Laser Melting (SLM). This process involves the deposition and fusion, layer by layer, of very fine metal powders and structure and quality of the final component strongly depends on several processing parameters, for example the laser parameters. Due to the complexity of the process it is necessary to assure the absence of defects in the final component, in order to accept or discard it. Thermography is a very fast non-destructive testing (NDT) technique. Its applicability for defect detection in AM produced parts would significantly reduce costs and time required for NDT, making it versatile and very competitive. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Laser-Induced Thermography for Quantitative Detection of Cracks in Building Materials
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027025 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 149
Abstract
Laser-induced thermography is a an active technique using a laser source to heat a very small area on a side of a crack in a building material. The presence of a crack is easily detected as a sharp change in the temperature due [...] Read more.
Laser-induced thermography is a an active technique using a laser source to heat a very small area on a side of a crack in a building material. The presence of a crack is easily detected as a sharp change in the temperature due to its insulating nature, but no information about its depth is directly available from the thermal image. The method described in this paper uses a heuristic form of the temperature on the surface of the heated specimen, which is transformed to a two-dimensional distribution. Then, a relation is used (called β -tool) between the thermal gap across the crack and the unknown depth of the damage. The purpose is that of making it possible to distinguish between shallow and deep fractures (more than 15mm deep). Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy in Biology and Medicine. Breath Analysis
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027026 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 153
Abstract
Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the molecular structure and dynamics. It has a great promise to use for medical diagnosis. It is already proved that volatile organic compound contain in breath, reflect the internal chemistry of the body. However, due [...] Read more.
Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the molecular structure and dynamics. It has a great promise to use for medical diagnosis. It is already proved that volatile organic compound contain in breath, reflect the internal chemistry of the body. However, due to the lack of reliable investigation technique, identification and quantification of those molecules are not reached to clinically acceptable parameter. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) based vibrational spectroscopy has been used to investigate the breath sample. Molecular identification based component analysis of breath sample is proposed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Thermal Imaging Based Affective Computing for Educational Robot
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027027 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 148
Abstract
Over the recent years, Social Robots (SRs) have become more and more prominent in everyday human lives. The main goal of a SR is to interact and communicate with human by following social behaviors and affective interaction. However, they still encounter significant limitations [...] Read more.
Over the recent years, Social Robots (SRs) have become more and more prominent in everyday human lives. The main goal of a SR is to interact and communicate with human by following social behaviors and affective interaction. However, they still encounter significant limitations in pursuing a natural interaction, mainly due to their hard task of recognizing and understanding human emotions thus ensuring an appropriate response. The aim of this study was to enrich the SR with affective computing capability and real time assessment of the interlocutor’s psychophysiological state, by means of computational psychophysiology based on thermal infrared imaging. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Thermographic Monitoring of Laser Cutting Machine
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027028 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 140
Abstract
Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) laser cutting tools are developing as an alternative to conventional cutting systems thanks to increased accuracy, non-contact processing, higher productivity, less energy demand. An IR camera is utilized to monitor the laser cutting process of a steel plate. Even [...] Read more.
Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) laser cutting tools are developing as an alternative to conventional cutting systems thanks to increased accuracy, non-contact processing, higher productivity, less energy demand. An IR camera is utilized to monitor the laser cutting process of a steel plate. Even though the process is very complicated an analytical solution of the temperature field generated on a slab by a point source moving along one direction of the plate surface is provided in order to interpret the temperature field experimentally obtained by the IR camera. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Contribution of Infrared Thermography to Impact Testing of Composite Materials
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027029 - 24 Sep 2019
Viewed by 134
Abstract
This work wants to give an overview on information gathered at the University of Naples Federico II in the last ten years by monitoring the impact tests of composite materials with infrared thermography. Many tests have been carried out involving several different types [...] Read more.
This work wants to give an overview on information gathered at the University of Naples Federico II in the last ten years by monitoring the impact tests of composite materials with infrared thermography. Many tests have been carried out involving several different types of composites and different infrared cameras. The obtained results show that IRT can be advantageously used to both validate previously obtained data and to get new data that can be exploited for understanding more on the impact damaging of composite materials. This bears witness for the advantages of having an infrared imaging device within the testing instrumentation. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
CFRP Non-Destructive Testing Using IR Thermography Methods
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027030 - 25 Sep 2019
Viewed by 148
Abstract
Multilayer composites reinforced fibres are often used in military applications as construction materials for lightweight ballistic covers that protect against fragments and projectiles. The basic fibre used in these applications is aramid fibre, but research is also conducted using carbon fibres. One of [...] Read more.
Multilayer composites reinforced fibres are often used in military applications as construction materials for lightweight ballistic covers that protect against fragments and projectiles. The basic fibre used in these applications is aramid fibre, but research is also conducted using carbon fibres. One of the many methods used in non-destructive testing of composites is active infrared thermography, in which different types of sources can be used to thermally stimulate the material being tested. This paper compares the results obtained with various methods of thermal stimulation in the study of samples made with CFRP with deliberately introduced defects and destructive tests. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Infrared Thermography and DIT of Quadcopter Rotor Blades Using Laser Heating
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027031 - 25 Sep 2019
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Abstract
A measuring method to detect wall flow topologies by active infrared thermography was developed. Quadcopter rotor blades were studied in typical hover and forward flight conditions, while using a high-power infrared laser to heat the blade surface. By this, the distance between heat [...] Read more.
A measuring method to detect wall flow topologies by active infrared thermography was developed. Quadcopter rotor blades were studied in typical hover and forward flight conditions, while using a high-power infrared laser to heat the blade surface. By this, the distance between heat source and measuring object could be significantly increased compared to conventional heat sources. The resulting images show little blurring at high signal-to-noise ratios. In steady-state flow conditions, wall flow topologies could be detected reliably and show good agreement with performed oil-film interferometry measurements. Wind tunnel experiments at forward flight conditions were conducted and indicate unsteady shifts of the transition location. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Quantitative Inspection of Coatings Thickness by Time-Power Transformation Flash Pulse Thermographic Method
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027032 - 25 Sep 2019
Viewed by 125
Abstract
Thermographic testing is an inspection method, which primary indicates a presence of discontinuities in a tested sample. Its application to coatings can indicate a presence of local thickness variations; however, it mostly does not bring a quantitative information about a thickness of the [...] Read more.
Thermographic testing is an inspection method, which primary indicates a presence of discontinuities in a tested sample. Its application to coatings can indicate a presence of local thickness variations; however, it mostly does not bring a quantitative information about a thickness of the coatings. This contribution is focused on a quantification of the thermographic inspection, which would make possible an evaluation of coating thickness differences. A flash pulse thermographic testing was applied to thermally sprayed coatings. An importance of a precise synchronization of a flash-source and thermographic recording was determined. Different evaluation methods were analyzed and their comparison showed that a time-power transformation method is the most suitable for a quantification of the inspection results. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
2D Materials in Infrared Detector Family
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027033 - 26 Sep 2019
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Abstract
The paper compares two-dimensional (2D) material detectors performance with traditionally and commercially available ones operating in high temperature conditions. The most effective single graphene detectors are THz detectors which utilize plasma rectification phenomena in FETs. Most of 2D layered semiconducting material photodetectors operate [...] Read more.
The paper compares two-dimensional (2D) material detectors performance with traditionally and commercially available ones operating in high temperature conditions. The most effective single graphene detectors are THz detectors which utilize plasma rectification phenomena in FETs. Most of 2D layered semiconducting material photodetectors operate at the visible and near-infrared regions and generally their high sensitivity does not coincide with a fast response time, which limits real detector functions. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Edge-Group Sparse Principal Component Thermography for Defect Detection in an Ancient Marquetry Sample
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027034 - 27 Sep 2019
Viewed by 153
Abstract
Nondestructive inspection (NDI) has immensely contributed to the restoration of historic and artistic works. As one of the most common used NDI methods, active thermography is an easy-to-operate and efficient technique. Principal component thermography (PCT) has been widely used to deal with thermographic [...] Read more.
Nondestructive inspection (NDI) has immensely contributed to the restoration of historic and artistic works. As one of the most common used NDI methods, active thermography is an easy-to-operate and efficient technique. Principal component thermography (PCT) has been widely used to deal with thermographic data for enhancing the visibility of subsurface defects. Unlike PCT, edge-group sparse PCT introduced herein enforces sparsity of principal component (PC) loadings by considering the spatial connectivity of thermographic image pixels. The feasibility and effectiveness of this method is illustrated by the experimental results of the defect characterization in an ancient marquetry sample with a fir wood support. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Exploring the Potential of Compressive Sensing and Super-Resolution for Space Applications in the MIR-TIR
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027035 - 27 Sep 2019
Viewed by 153
Abstract
Earth Observation applications could take advantage from the availability of high spatial resolution data in the MIR-TIR. This, however, poses technological challenges, especially for the availability of large focal plane. Here we discuss two approaches, the compressive sensing and the super-resolution, that could [...] Read more.
Earth Observation applications could take advantage from the availability of high spatial resolution data in the MIR-TIR. This, however, poses technological challenges, especially for the availability of large focal plane. Here we discuss two approaches, the compressive sensing and the super-resolution, that could provide a basis for the development of innovative EO instruments working in the MIR-TIR and able to enjoy an augmented resolution without increasing the number of detection elements in the matrix detector. Main pros and cons are analyzed, focusing on simulations done for an instrument combining both approaches to achieve super-resolved images for studying hot events. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Optical Properties on Bone Analysis: An Approach to Biomaterials
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027036 - 27 Sep 2019
Viewed by 175
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of demineralization solution on the optical properties of chicken femoral samples. Biomaterials based on bone have gained importance in clinical applications due to their properties as better osseointegration and biocompatibility. Biomateriais (bone [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of demineralization solution on the optical properties of chicken femoral samples. Biomaterials based on bone have gained importance in clinical applications due to their properties as better osseointegration and biocompatibility. Biomateriais (bone substitute) are essentials to auxiliary in treatment of diseases related to bones such as bone density disorder, low bone mineral mass and the deterioration of bone tissue. Our data shows that integrating sphere technique permits to determinate significant difference in optical properties between healthy and demineralized samples. In this work, the optical properties of bone samples from chicken femur have been measured over the wavelength range 700–1000 nm. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Numerical Analysis of Dark Currents in T2SL nBn Detector Grown by MBE on GaAs Substrate
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027037 - 09 Oct 2019
Viewed by 141
Abstract
The paper presents the numerical analysis of the performance of the nBn type-II superlattice barrier detector operated at 230 K. Results of theoretical predictions were compared to the experimental data for the nBn detector composed of AlAs0.15Sb0.85 barrier and InAs [...] Read more.
The paper presents the numerical analysis of the performance of the nBn type-II superlattice barrier detector operated at 230 K. Results of theoretical predictions were compared to the experimental data for the nBn detector composed of AlAs0.15Sb0.85 barrier and InAs (5.096 nm)/InAs0.62Sb0.38 (1.94 nm) superlattice absorber and contact layer. Detector structure was grown on GaAs substrate using molecular beam epitaxy. To determine the position of the electron miniband and the first heavy hole state in the superlattice, we have used a k·p model which can also predict the absorption spectrum and the cut-off wavelength of an absorber layer. As shown, the most important parameters in the nBn structure optimization is the barrier height in the valence band. While the barrier in the conduction band must be high enough to prevent the flow of the electron current from the contact layer to the absorber, the barrier in the valence band must be sufficiently low to ensure the flow and a collection of optically generated holes. The position of the valence band edge for the AlAsSb barrier was changed by changing the valence band bowing parameter for this ternary material. Proper fit of the calculated plot to our experimental data was obtained assuming no bowing in the valence band for AlAsSb barrier. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
InAs/GaSb Superlattice Based Mid-Infrared Interband Cascade Photodetectors Grown on Both Native GaSb and Lattice-Mismatched GaAs Substrates
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027038 - 09 Oct 2019
Viewed by 115
Abstract
Electrical and optical properties of interband cascade infrared photodetectors with InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice absorbers are investigated in this work. We compare the detection parameters of detectors grown on the native GaSb substrate and lattice-mismatched GaAs substrate and seek solutions to enhance device performance, [...] Read more.
Electrical and optical properties of interband cascade infrared photodetectors with InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice absorbers are investigated in this work. We compare the detection parameters of detectors grown on the native GaSb substrate and lattice-mismatched GaAs substrate and seek solutions to enhance device performance, specifically with using an optical immersion. The detectors grown on GaAs have better detection parameters at room temperature, but at lower temperatures the misfit dislocations become more important and detectors grown on GaSb become better. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Study of Transparency of Pigments to Near Infrared
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027039 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 110
Abstract
We describe the results of a systematic study of reflectance of pigments traditionally used in Mexican cultural treasures on different substrates. We observe that underline drawings may be most easily detected in NIR when the pigment transmissivity in NIR is high. We conclude [...] Read more.
We describe the results of a systematic study of reflectance of pigments traditionally used in Mexican cultural treasures on different substrates. We observe that underline drawings may be most easily detected in NIR when the pigment transmissivity in NIR is high. We conclude that the under-drawings of best quality are detected with illuminators with low NIR wavelengths. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Applying a Two-Layer Quadrupole Model for Quantitative Thermography at Overload-Induced Delaminations in GFRP
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027040 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 108
Abstract
The applicability of 1D-quadrupole-model on the depth estimation of overload-induced delaminations is tested in this contribution. While classical 1D-methods like Pulsed Phase Transformation and Thermographic Signal Reconstruction determine the depth of a defect by one parameter, a two-layer quadrupole model provides two parameters: [...] Read more.
The applicability of 1D-quadrupole-model on the depth estimation of overload-induced delaminations is tested in this contribution. While classical 1D-methods like Pulsed Phase Transformation and Thermographic Signal Reconstruction determine the depth of a defect by one parameter, a two-layer quadrupole model provides two parameters: depth and thermal resistance. In addition, the convectional losses at the surfaces may be considered. The defect investigated is a large-scale delamination in glass fibre reinforced polymer generated by tension overload. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Diffusion of Dopants and Components in Arsenic-Implanted CdTe/HgCdTe Structures under Different High-Temperature Annealing Conditions
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027041 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 115
Abstract
The CdTe cap layers were grown on CdZnTe-substrated HgCdTe (MCT) LPE epilayers by magnetron sputtering and thermal evaporation. The diffusion behaviors of Cd & Hg components and impurities (As or In) in these CdTe/MCT structures subjected to As ion implantation and various Hg [...] Read more.
The CdTe cap layers were grown on CdZnTe-substrated HgCdTe (MCT) LPE epilayers by magnetron sputtering and thermal evaporation. The diffusion behaviors of Cd & Hg components and impurities (As or In) in these CdTe/MCT structures subjected to As ion implantation and various Hg overpressure annealing processes were investigated. The conclusions indicate that the defects at the CdTe/MCT interface could produce the accumulations of impurities and the distributions of induced damages (related to the cap layer structure) have a significant influence on the diffusion of components and impurities. By adjusting annealing procedures, the diffusions of components and impurities can be controlled. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Dynamic Thermal Contact Resistance Measurement Method Using Lock-in Thermography
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027042 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 96
Abstract
This paper proposes a new thermal contact resistance measurement method using lock-in thermography. By the lock-in thermography with an infrared microscope, the dynamic temperature behavior across the contact interface was visualized in the sample side surface. Meanwhile, a new thermal contact resistance measurement [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new thermal contact resistance measurement method using lock-in thermography. By the lock-in thermography with an infrared microscope, the dynamic temperature behavior across the contact interface was visualized in the sample side surface. Meanwhile, a new thermal contact resistance measurement principle was constructed by the superimposition of the temperature wave from virtual heat sources in consideration of the thermal contact resistance at the interface. Consequently, the thermal contact resistance was obtained as a fitting parameter by fitting the theoretical curve to the measured amplitude and phase lag. The validity of the principle was shown. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
IR Spectroscopic Characterization of Plant Leaves, Endemic to Hot Regions, in Two Senescent States
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027043 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 135
Abstract
We propose monitoring the state of the health and senescence of the oak leaves in narrow spectral intervals around 0.9 µm, 1.8 µm and 3.45 µm. The easiest and the most cost-effective strategy would be to implement an electro-optical remote sensing system featuring [...] Read more.
We propose monitoring the state of the health and senescence of the oak leaves in narrow spectral intervals around 0.9 µm, 1.8 µm and 3.45 µm. The easiest and the most cost-effective strategy would be to implement an electro-optical remote sensing system featuring a commercial camera incorporating a traditional Si CCD detector, and a wide transmission filter, blind to the visible radiation, from about 0.82 to 0.95 µm. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Simulation of Extrasolar Planet Detection with Rotationally Shearing Interferometer at 10 µm
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027044 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
We simulate the interferometric fringe patterns for the case of an extrasolar planet system with two planets. We show that the incidence distributions become more complicated, yet their interpretation is feasible. The generalized fringe distributions rotate when the Dove prism is rotated. Likewise, [...] Read more.
We simulate the interferometric fringe patterns for the case of an extrasolar planet system with two planets. We show that the incidence distributions become more complicated, yet their interpretation is feasible. The generalized fringe distributions rotate when the Dove prism is rotated. Likewise, the number of fringes changes with the angle of rotation of the Dove prism. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Machine Learning and Infrared Thermography for Breast Cancer Detection
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027045 - 11 Oct 2019
Viewed by 123
Abstract
Breast cancer kills a large number of women around the world. Infrared thermography is a promising screening technique which does not involve harmful radiation for the patient and has a relatively low cost. This work proposes an approach for classifying patients into three [...] Read more.
Breast cancer kills a large number of women around the world. Infrared thermography is a promising screening technique which does not involve harmful radiation for the patient and has a relatively low cost. This work proposes an approach for classifying patients into three different classes using infrared images: healthy patients, patients with benign changes and patients with cancer (malignant changes). A set of features is extracted from each image and two approaches are used in the classification process. The first is based on Artificial Neural Networks while the second is based on Support Vector Machines. The proposed approach shows a great potential to be used as a screening diagnosis technique for early breast cancer detection. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Biomedical Applications of Infrared Thermal Imaging: Current State of Machine Learning Classification
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027046 - 15 Oct 2019
Viewed by 124
Abstract
Infrared thermal (IRT) imaging is a modality that allows non-invasive and non-ionizing monitoring of skin surface temperature distribution, providing underlining physiological information on peripheral blood flow, autonomic nervous system, vasoconstriction/vasodilatation, inflammation, transpiration or other processes that can contribute to skin temperature. This imaging [...] Read more.
Infrared thermal (IRT) imaging is a modality that allows non-invasive and non-ionizing monitoring of skin surface temperature distribution, providing underlining physiological information on peripheral blood flow, autonomic nervous system, vasoconstriction/vasodilatation, inflammation, transpiration or other processes that can contribute to skin temperature. This imaging method has been used in biomedical applications since 1956 and has proved its usefulness for vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal pathological situations. This research aims to identify and appraise the recent biomedical applications which had used intelligent analysis methods such as machine learning processes to classify and perform decision making towards improving the existing medical care, a literature review is presented and their operation in the biomedical applications of infrared thermal imaging. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Novel Method for LWIR Hyperspectral Target Detection by Means of a Subspace-Based Approach
Proceedings 2019, 27(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019027047 - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 70
Abstract
In this work, we present a new approach to detect materials with known spectral emissivity, in data acquired by thermal infrared hyperspectral systems. The method takes into account the spectral variability of the downwelling radiance, commonly neglected in most target detection techniques. We [...] Read more.
In this work, we present a new approach to detect materials with known spectral emissivity, in data acquired by thermal infrared hyperspectral systems. The method takes into account the spectral variability of the downwelling radiance, commonly neglected in most target detection techniques. We address such variability supposing that the downwelling radiance spans a low-rank subspace, whose basis matrix is learned off-line by means of MODTRAN. We evaluate the performance of the method with simulated data, and present results that show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Full article
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