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Horticulturae, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 128 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Vegetative endotherapy has been tested as an alternative to conventional methods to control diseases and pests. Two endotherapeutic methods, pressurized and nonpressurized, were tested, and stem as well as fruit samples were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. After cyproconazole treatments, the results showed that the pressurized method was faster and had higher concentrations than the nonpressurized method, even applying half the volume. After 120 days of application, the fruits were residue-free in both endotherapeutic methods. Mathematical models were developed and extrapolated to taller coconut palm trees, and predictions were simulated for leaf diseases. View this paper
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Article
In-Orchard Sizing of Mango Fruit: 1. Comparison of Machine Vision Based Methods for On-The-Go Estimation
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121223 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 436
Abstract
Estimation of fruit size on-tree is useful for yield estimation, harvest timing and market planning. Automation of measurement of fruit size on-tree is possible using RGB-depth (RGB-D) cameras, if partly occluded fruit can be removed from consideration. An RGB-D Time of Flight camera [...] Read more.
Estimation of fruit size on-tree is useful for yield estimation, harvest timing and market planning. Automation of measurement of fruit size on-tree is possible using RGB-depth (RGB-D) cameras, if partly occluded fruit can be removed from consideration. An RGB-D Time of Flight camera was used in an imaging system that can be driven through an orchard. Three approaches were compared, being: (i) refined bounding box dimensions of a YOLO object detector; (ii) bounding box dimensions of an instance segmentation model (Mask R-CNN) applied to canopy images, and (iii) instance segmentation applied to extracted bounding boxes from a YOLO detection model. YOLO versions 3, 4 and 7 and their tiny variants were compared to an in-house variant, MangoYOLO, for this application, with YOLO v4-tiny adopted. Criteria developed to exclude occluded fruit by filtering based on depth, mask size, ellipse to mask area ratio and difference between refined bounding box height and ellipse major axis. The lowest root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.7 mm and 5.1 mm on the lineal length dimensions of a population (n = 104) of Honey Gold and Keitt varieties of mango fruit, respectively, and the lowest fruit exclusion rate was achieved using method (ii), while the RMSE on estimated fruit weight was 113 g on a population weight range between 180 and 1130 g. An example use is provided, with the method applied to video of an orchard row to produce a weight frequency distribution related to packing tray size. Full article
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Review
Rethinking Horticulture to Meet Sustainable Development Goals—The Case Study of Novi Sad, Serbia
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121222 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 794
Abstract
With the aim of being a part of global change and providing an example to other researchers throughout the world, this paper details how breeding goals of horticultural plants and their application have shifted in Novi Sad (Serbia) in the last 10–15 years. [...] Read more.
With the aim of being a part of global change and providing an example to other researchers throughout the world, this paper details how breeding goals of horticultural plants and their application have shifted in Novi Sad (Serbia) in the last 10–15 years. Contemporary cities/citizens strive to incorporate nature into all of their important life segments and activities, thus requiring an interdisciplinary approach to solving challenges that the 21st century brings. Early research in Novi Sad (Serbia) was focused on the basic genetic, physiological, biochemical and botanical aspects of plant functioning and development in a challenging and changing urban environment abundant in abiotic stressors, as well as biotic and abiotic stressors, that affect the production of horticultural plant in this field. Recently, research interest has shifted towards the sustainable usage of plant genetic resources (roses, autochthonous terrestrial orchids, sweet and sour cherry eco-types, and allochthonous oil-rich species), as well as sustainable practices and nature-based solutions (urban-derived biodiesel, rain gardens, green roofs, green walls, constructed wetlands, water ponds, bioswales and permeable surfaces on a different scale of urban planning). This case study aimed to illustrate how plant selection and breeding strategies can satisfy urban growth demands, whereas urban planning must include sustainable genetic resources suitable for urban ecosystems. Available ornamental plant genetic resources (with pronounced tolerance/resistance to abiotic and/or biotic stressors) associated with the novel approach of their application in green city infrastructure provide the opportunity to implement multiple nature-based solutions leading to numerous ecosystem services. Combined, these contribute to the globally defined goals for sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Horticulturae)
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Article
Continuous Third Phase Fruit Monitoring in Olive with Regulated Deficit Irrigation to Set a Quantitative Index of Water Stress
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121221 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 438
Abstract
The transversal fruit diameter (FD) was monitored continuously by automatic extensimeters (fruit gauges) in order to monitor fruit growth dynamics under deficit irrigation treatments. The daily diameter fluctuation (ΔD, mm), the daily growth (ΔG, mm), the cumulative fruit growth (CFG, mm), and the [...] Read more.
The transversal fruit diameter (FD) was monitored continuously by automatic extensimeters (fruit gauges) in order to monitor fruit growth dynamics under deficit irrigation treatments. The daily diameter fluctuation (ΔD, mm), the daily growth (ΔG, mm), the cumulative fruit growth (CFG, mm), and the fruit relative growth rate (RGR, mm mm−1 h−1) of four olive cultivars (Ascolana dura, Piantone di Falerone, Arbequina, and Lea) were studied during the third phase of fruit growth. Two regulated deficit irrigation treatments DI-20 (20% of ETc) and DI-10 (10% of ETc) were applied. The daily hysteretic pattern of FD versus the environmental variable of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was evaluated using the data of a local weather station. The assessment of fruit growth parameters showed cultivar-specific response to water stress. For instance, after performing deficit irrigation, minimum RGR in different cultivars downsized with various slopes which suggested a very different response of the cultivars to dehydration. On the other hand, the daily hysteretic pattern of FD versus VPD was detected in all the studied cultivars, and a quantitative index (height of hysteresis curves) used for explanation of hysteresis magnitude’s changed according to the deficit irrigation treatments. The results showed a significant reduction of height of hysteresis curves by irrigation treatments which were not cultivar-specific. The quantitative index for hysteresis curve magnitude’s change in the four olive cultivars of Ascolana dura, Piantone di Falerone, Arbequina and Lea can efficiently estimate the plant water response to irrigation treatment in olive orchards. However, further investigation needs to be done to implement precise irrigation systems. Full article
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Article
Could an Early Treatment with GA and BA Impact Prolonged Cold Storage and Shelf Life of Apricot?
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121220 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) in apricot orchards is a common practice with a goal of improving yield and/or quality of fruits at harvest. However, the question of whether such treatment alters postharvest properties is seldom answered. The effects of an early [...] Read more.
Application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) in apricot orchards is a common practice with a goal of improving yield and/or quality of fruits at harvest. However, the question of whether such treatment alters postharvest properties is seldom answered. The effects of an early application of PGRs on postharvest changes on apricots were investigated on cultivar NS-4, grown on Myrobalan rootstock with blackthorn interstock in a 5-year-old orchard. PGR treatments included 50 and 100 ppm of benzyladenine (BA) and 200 ppm of gibberellic acid (GA3), which were applied when the green ovary was surrounded by dying a sepal crown, at the stage where sepals beginning to fall. Apricots at the stage of commercial ripeness were used for the postharvest experiments. Analysis was performed at harvest, after 21 days of cold storage (at 1 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 10% RH), and after 3 days of shelf life (24 ± 2 °C). At harvest, significant differences were observed between treated and untreated fruits regarding flesh firmness, color, ethylene production and respiration rate, flavonoid, carotenoid and citric acid content, while application of BA100 changed TA and TSS. Prolonged cold storage reduced the initial differences in firmness, respiration rate, flavonoid and carotenoid contents, but new differences in fructose, malic and succinic acid contents began to appear. Shelf life reduced the difference in citric acid, but differences in TA, TSS, phenol and flavonoid content appeared. There is no difference in the sensory properties of treated and non-treated fruit after cold storage and shelf life. Full article
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Communication
Damage Caused by Bacchisa medioviolacea Breuning (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Wild Apple (Docynia indica) Orchards in Northwest Vietnam
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121219 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 413
Abstract
The wood-borer Bacchisa medioviolacea Breuning (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is identified as a major new pest of Docynia indica (Rosales: Rosaceae) orchards in the northwest mountainous provinces of Vietnam. The life cycle extends over two years (721.7 days ± 17.6 days), with overwintering as larvae. [...] Read more.
The wood-borer Bacchisa medioviolacea Breuning (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is identified as a major new pest of Docynia indica (Rosales: Rosaceae) orchards in the northwest mountainous provinces of Vietnam. The life cycle extends over two years (721.7 days ± 17.6 days), with overwintering as larvae. Adults emerge and disperse in summer. Females lay 6–12 eggs during an oviposition period of 2–3 days, and the incubation period ranges from 27 to 38 days. The larval and pupal periods take 554–701 days and 40–59 days, respectively. Adults survive for 12–23 days. In 2019, the damage incidence (P%) and the damage index (DI) in Yen Bai, Lao Cai, Lai Chau, and Dien Bien provinces ranged from 43.5% to 71.6% and 0.80 to 1.78, respectively. Further research on the distribution and host range of B. medioviolacea is required to help formulate a management strategy for this new orchard pest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Article
Chemotypes of Species of the Genus Thymus L. in Carpathians Region of Ukraine—Their Essential Oil Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics and Antimicrobial Activity
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121218 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
The study of the R&D in this paper is to determine the range of essential oils (EOs) in the raw materials of species of the genus Thymus of the natural flora in the Carpathian region and their antimicrobial activity. It was found that [...] Read more.
The study of the R&D in this paper is to determine the range of essential oils (EOs) in the raw materials of species of the genus Thymus of the natural flora in the Carpathian region and their antimicrobial activity. It was found that the component range of EO in species of the genus Thymus depends on the microclimatic conditions of the population. The range of essential oils in the raw material of Th. Serpyllum and Th. Pulegoides is 7–9 mL and Th. Marschallianus is 3.5 mL. The research found that the plants Th. Serpyllum and Th. Pulegoides that grow in sunny habitats have an aromatic mono- and bicyclic monoterpenoid chemotype (K/α-T-neol/ G/p-C/B), with total dominance of carvacrol and p-cymene. The populations of Th. Serpyllum, which grow on the edges of sparse pine forests, and populations of Th. Pullegioide, with denser plant cover and which grow in meadows, have an acyclic and bicyclic monoterpene chemotype (G/α-T-neol/B/K). Plants that grow in the communities of meadow-steppe vegetation have the following chemotypes: Th. Serpyllum—L/K/G with 63% of linalool, Th. Pullegioides—G/α-T-neol/L/B, and Th. Marschallianus—α-T-neol/K/L/α-T-nen/G/B. Of these, the dominant chemotypes are α-terpineol and carvacrol (28:6.5%). A wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity was registered in samples of Th. Pullegoides and Th. Serpyllum that have an aromatic-monoterpenoid chemotype. Essential oils of Th. Pullegoides were dominated by carvacrol, and p-cymene had the highest fungicidal action (41.00 ± 1.0%). Plant populations of Th. Pullegoides and Th. Serpyllum with the aromatic-monoterpenoid chemotype are suggested by R&D to be of use in the pharmaceutical industry. They have high contents of natural components, which are effective in a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The EO of Th. Marschallianus had the lowest influence on the inhibition of bacterial and fungal reproduction. Full article
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Article
Development of BC3F2 Tomato Genotypes with Arthropod Resistance Introgressed from Solanum habrochaites var. hirsutum (PI127826)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121217 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Arthropod pests are among the biggest problems faced in tomato production worldwide. To overcome the losses caused by these pests, one of the most sustainable and economical strategies is the use of resistance introgressed from wild species. We aimed to develop BC3 [...] Read more.
Arthropod pests are among the biggest problems faced in tomato production worldwide. To overcome the losses caused by these pests, one of the most sustainable and economical strategies is the use of resistance introgressed from wild species. We aimed to develop BC3F2 tomato genotypes with high levels of zingiberene (ZGB) and resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci biotype B), South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta), and the two-spotted spider mite (Tatranychus urticae), from the wild accession of Solanum habrochaites var. hirsutum (accession PI127826). The quantification of ZGB in 520 BC3F2 genotypes and in the parentals yielded the selection of five genotypes with high ZGB content and three with low ZGB content, which were then infested with B. tabaci, T. absolute, and T. urticae. In these eight genotypes and in the parents, the types and amounts of trichomes on the leaves were determined. Additionally, molecular markers were used to identify the genotypes with a higher recurrent genome recovery. The results confirmed the transfer of resistance from S. habrochaites to the BC3F2 genotypes and showed that this resistance seems to be directly related to high concentrations of ZGB and the presence of type IV trichomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genes, Genetics and Breeding of Tomato)
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Article
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) for Simultaneous Determination of Individual Phenolic Compounds in 15 Dried Edible Flowers
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121216 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Nowadays, dried edible flowers have become one of the eating habits of a healthy lifestyle. The most common way to consume dried flowers is via infused water (tisane). A number of studies on dried edible flowers have reported antioxidant activities mainly due to [...] Read more.
Nowadays, dried edible flowers have become one of the eating habits of a healthy lifestyle. The most common way to consume dried flowers is via infused water (tisane). A number of studies on dried edible flowers have reported antioxidant activities mainly due to their phenolic compounds. This work has developed a new extraction method using ultrasound technology to determine phenolic compounds in 15 widely consumed edible flowers. Several extraction factors including pulse duty cycle (0.2, 0.6, 1.0 s−1), temperature (10, 40, 70 °C), solvent-to-sample ratio (10:1, 20:1, 30:1 mL of solvent g −1 of sample), and solvent composition (0, 25, 50% methanol in water) have been optimized based on a Box–Behnken design coupled with response surface methodology. UPLC-PDA has been employed to quantify 12 major phenolic compounds (2,4,6-trihydroxy benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercetin-3-rutinose, iso-ferulic acid, and quercetin-3-glucoside) in the extracts. The optimum extraction conditions for a 1 g sample were 30 mL of solvent (28% methanol in water) at 42 °C with 1.0 s−1 of pulse duty cycle. Based on the kinetic study, the optimal extraction time was 10 min. The method was validated with high precision (CVs of repeatability and intermediate precision were lower than 7%) and high accuracy (recovery higher than 90%). Additionally, the proposed ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied in the determination of phenolic compounds in 15 dried edible flowers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
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Article
Program Evaluation of a Workshop on Prairie Strips for Farm Advisors: Framing the Co-Occurring Outcomes of Low Knowledge Acquisition and High Confidence
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121215 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
The agricultural conservation practice of prairie strips is new and novel. Prairie strips planted in row crop fields warrants greater adoption because the application decreases erosion; protects water quality; and supports habitat for wildlife and biodiversity, including pollinators. Prairie strips are a vegetative [...] Read more.
The agricultural conservation practice of prairie strips is new and novel. Prairie strips planted in row crop fields warrants greater adoption because the application decreases erosion; protects water quality; and supports habitat for wildlife and biodiversity, including pollinators. Prairie strips are a vegetative practice composed of diverse, native, and mostly perennial species that, as a community, follow principles of ecological succession; however, they must be managed for success. Farm advisor comprehension of practice characteristics is key for adoption by producers and landowners. This article reports on a developmental evaluation of workshops intended to change farm advisor knowledge, skills, and confidence related to prairie strips management for use in consulting with farmers and landowners. The study used pre-post instruments of knowledge and skill focused on prairie species identification and age of prairie strips planing; pre-then post-end of session questions were asked in a survey to report change in knowledge, skill, and confidence, as well as farm advisor situation. Advisors reported increased confidence, but acquisition of prairie knowledge and skills resulted in flat to lower scores. The paper explores the discrepancy of lower cognitive scores (knowledge and skills) compared to higher confidence. Explanations explore the phenomena of satisficing and perceived self-efficacy to explain the differential. Full article
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Article
Influence of Biochar Mixed into Peat Substrate on Lettuce Growth and Nutrient Supply
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121214 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 952
Abstract
The use of peat in traditional cultivation systems and in commercial nurseries is an environmental problem. In this work, we evaluated the partial replacement of peat with different amounts of biochar sourced from vineyard pruning as plant growing substrates. We studied its effect [...] Read more.
The use of peat in traditional cultivation systems and in commercial nurseries is an environmental problem. In this work, we evaluated the partial replacement of peat with different amounts of biochar sourced from vineyard pruning as plant growing substrates. We studied its effect on the growth of lettuce plants under greenhouse and semi-hydroponic conditions. Substrate mixtures contained 30% (v/v) of vermiculite and 70% (v/v) of different biochar:peat treatments as follows: 0:70 (B0), 15:55 (B15), 30:40 (B30), 50:20 (B50), and 70:0 (B70). Higher biochar treatments increased the pH and electrical conductivity of the substrate, negatively affecting plant growth and germination (especially in B70). The partial substitution of peat by 30% biochar (B30) delayed seed germination but improved plant growth and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), with shoots containing higher levels of organic nitrogen and nitrate. Moreover, it increased the water holding capacity (WHC) and led to an efficient use of nutrients. Our study demonstrates that biochar can successfully replace and reduce peat and N fertilizer consumption. This has the potential to promote more sustainable farming with positive impacts on both plant growth and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Chars in Growing Media)
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Article
Correlations between the Phylogenetic Relationship of 14 Tulasnella Strains and Their Promotion Effect on Dendrobium crepidatum Protocorm
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121213 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 489
Abstract
The compatibility of mycorrhizal fungi with the early growth stage of orchids is essential for their growth. In this study, the compatibility and promotion effects of 14 Tulasnella strains from different hosts were studied by co-culturing them with the protocorms of Dendrobium crepidatum [...] Read more.
The compatibility of mycorrhizal fungi with the early growth stage of orchids is essential for their growth. In this study, the compatibility and promotion effects of 14 Tulasnella strains from different hosts were studied by co-culturing them with the protocorms of Dendrobium crepidatum, which has high ornamental and economic value in China. The ITS–LSU–SSU–TEF combined sequence analysis divided the 14 strains into three clades belonging to Tulasnella calospora (clades A and B) and Tulasnella asymmetrica (clade C). All the strains were compatible with D. crepidatum protocorms within 90 d of the co-culture. Strain T12 in Clade A had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) effect on the biomass and morphology of D. crepidatum, and strain T13 in Clade C had a significantly lower (p < 0.05) effect than the other strains. Through morphological principal component analysis, we constructed a hierarchical cluster analysis tree, which was consistent with the phylogenetic tree of these 14 strains at the clade level. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed that these strains have an important effect on the plant height, root number, and length of D. crepidatum. The findings of this study will contribute to the identification of Tulasnella strains, conservation of D. crepidatum resources, and commercial utilization of mycorrhizal technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal Roles in Horticultural Plants)
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Article
Transcriptional Effects of Rootstock on Scion after Drought: A Case Study of Using MdGH3 RNAi as the Rootstock
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121212 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting apple yield and fruit quality. Previously, we identified GRETCHEN HAGEN3.6 (GH3.6) as a negative regulator of drought stress in apple trees. Using transgenic MdGH3 RNAi (knocking down MdGH3.6 and its five homologs) plants as rootstock [...] Read more.
Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting apple yield and fruit quality. Previously, we identified GRETCHEN HAGEN3.6 (GH3.6) as a negative regulator of drought stress in apple trees. Using transgenic MdGH3 RNAi (knocking down MdGH3.6 and its five homologs) plants as rootstock can increase drought tolerance, water use efficiency, flowering, and fruit quality of the Fuji scion after drought stress. However, the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon is still unknown. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing of the grafted plants (Fuji/GL-3 where Fuji was used as the scion and non-transgenic GL-3 was used as the rootstock, and Fuji/MdGH3 RNAi where MdGH3 RNAi was used as the rootstock) under control and drought conditions. Under control conditions, 667 up-regulated genes and 176 down-regulated genes were identified in the scion of Fuji/MdGH3 RNAi, as compared to the scion of Fuji/GL-3. Moreover, 941 up-regulated genes and 2226 down-regulated genes were identified in the rootstock of MdGH3 RNAi plants relative to GL-3. GO terms of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in scion and rootstock showed associations with plant growth, fruit development, and stress responses. After drought stress, 220 up-regulated and 452 down-regulated genes were identified in MdGH3 RNAi rootstock, as compared to GL-3. Significantly enriched GO terms included response to abiotic stimulus, cell division, microtubule-based process, metabolic and biosynthetic process of flavonoid, pigment, and lignin. The comparison between the scion of Fuji/MdGH3 RNAi and Fuji/GL-3 yielded a smaller number of DEGs; however, all of them were significantly enriched in stress-related GO terms. Furthermore, 365 and 300 mRNAs could potentially move from MdGH3 RNAi rootstock to scion under control and drought conditions, respectively, including FIDDLEHEAD (FDH), RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 26 (RD26), ARS-binding factor 2 (ABF2), WRKY75, and ferritin (FER). Overall, our work demonstrates the effects of rootstock on scion at the transcriptional level after drought stress and provides theoretical support for further understanding and utilization of MdGH3 RNAi plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances in Plant Stress Biology)
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Article
Comparison of Wild and Introduced Dracocephalum jacutense P.: Significant Differences of Multicomponent Composition
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121211 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 735
Abstract
Dracocephalum jacutense is endemic to eastern Siberia of Russia and is accepted in the rare and endangered category. The plant was first collected by K.S. Baikov in 1985 in the vicinity of the village Sangar (Kobyaysky district, Yakutia) and then described by G.A. [...] Read more.
Dracocephalum jacutense is endemic to eastern Siberia of Russia and is accepted in the rare and endangered category. The plant was first collected by K.S. Baikov in 1985 in the vicinity of the village Sangar (Kobyaysky district, Yakutia) and then described by G.A. Peshkova in “Flora of Siberia” in 1997. D. jacutense has been introduced in the Botanical Garden of Yakutia since 2009. The aim of this work is to conduct a comparative analysis of the chemical composition of aerial parts (leaves, inflorescences, stems) of D. jacutense Peschkova collected both in controlled conditions (the Botanical Garden of Yakutia) and in a natural-grown area (the vicinity of the village of Sangar, Kobyaysky district of Yakutia). A total of 156 bioactive compounds were successfully characterized in extracts of D. jacutense based on their accurate MS (Mass Spectrometry) fragment ions by searching online databases and the reported literature. The detailed study of the composition by tandem mass spectrometry revealed a significant difference in the polyphenol composition of the samples. Wild-grown plant samples had a higher number of polyphenolic compounds (92 compounds) than plant samples grown in the Botanical Garden (56 compounds), which were not previously described in the genus Dracocephalum. In addition, a total of 37 compounds of other chemical groups were identified that were not previously identified in the genus Dracocephalum. In general, the extract of D. jacutense, which was grown in wild conditions, was found to be a richer source of flavones, flavanols, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, and anthocyanidins compared to plants grown in controlled conditions in the Botanical Garden. Our results build on the current understanding of the biochemical richness of wild-grown samples over controlled-grown ones and preserve a rare and endangered D. jacutense in the flora of Yakutia. We proposed to be preserved on the basis of the development of an in vitro micropropagation protocol in our lab in the near future. Full article
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Article
Decontamination of Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus-Contaminated Shoe Soles under Practical Conditions
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121210 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 536
Abstract
Due to its global spread, easy mechanical transmissibility inside greenhouses, and detrimental effects on marketability, Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tomato production. Regarding such crop epidemics, it is essential to identify all [...] Read more.
Due to its global spread, easy mechanical transmissibility inside greenhouses, and detrimental effects on marketability, Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tomato production. Regarding such crop epidemics, it is essential to identify all conceivable transmission routes and to interrupt them with effective decontamination strategies. We analyzed the potential efficacy of reliable shoe sole cleaning in combination with a disinfection measure. For this purpose, first, a suspension test was undertaken that involved applying different disinfectants to an infected plant homogenate. This was followed by a simulated carrier test. Finally, shoe-sole decontamination was tested under practical conditions. The extent of decontamination was determined by bioassays of the infectivity of the initial load remaining after treatment. Thereby, necrotic local lesions on the susceptible indicator plant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi NN were counted. Recommendations for practical applications, based on suspension or simulated carrier tests, are limited in their applicability, since very short contact times between ToBRFV and disinfectants reduce efficacy. Under practical conditions, the approved disinfectant MENNO Florades was able to achieve complete inactivation of the virus in the disinfection mat following mechanical depletion from the shoe soles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative System for Disinfection in Greenhouses)
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Review
The Potential Roles of the N and P Supplies on the Internal Browning Incidence in Sweet Cherries in the Southern Chile
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121209 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Southern Chile has experienced a strong increase in sweet cherry production in recent years. However, there are climatic gaps that negatively reduce the fruit quality and yield of exportable fruit, such as the high incidence of rains during flowering and pre-harvest. The use [...] Read more.
Southern Chile has experienced a strong increase in sweet cherry production in recent years. However, there are climatic gaps that negatively reduce the fruit quality and yield of exportable fruit, such as the high incidence of rains during flowering and pre-harvest. The use of roof covers has become an agronomic solution that offers protection from weather events, such as rain, which will significantly increase the exportable fruit. However, the use of plastic covers can cause negative impacts on the fruit, such as a loss of firmness and acidity. Currently, the incidence of internal (pulp) browning has reduced the quality of cherries produced in Southern Chile, although research on this subject is largely under explored. Some studies reported that a high content of antioxidants in the fruit, both phenolic and non-phenolic (e.g., ascorbic acid), could reduce the incidence of the physiological disorder of browning. The soils of Southern Chile are characterized by the high content of organic matter, which implies high levels of available nitrogen (N) and a high phosphorus (P) content. Some studies, however, have shown that fertilization with N and P would significantly improve the postharvest quality, shelf life, and the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in fruits, even better than other strategies, including selenium and chitosan applications. However, there needs to be more detailed information on this aspect of the sweet cherry fruit production. The quality attributes and postharvest life of cherries are closely associated with the antioxidant levels of fruits, which could be related to either the soil acidity level of the Chilean Andisols or the levels of P and N in soil or plant tissues. Therefore, the objective of this review was to discuss the role of the N and P supply on the internal browning incidence in sweet cherries and relate it to what is known in other fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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Review
Preharvest Elicitors Spray Improves Antioxidant Activity, Alleviates Chilling Injury, and Maintains Quality in Harvested Fruit
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121208 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Antioxidant activity is an important feature for evaluating fruit quality and tolerance to biotic or abiotic stresses. Moreover, antioxidant activity is involved in chilling injury (CI) response and postharvest quality in fruit. Chemical elicitors can induce systemic acquired resistance in fruit against pathogens, [...] Read more.
Antioxidant activity is an important feature for evaluating fruit quality and tolerance to biotic or abiotic stresses. Moreover, antioxidant activity is involved in chilling injury (CI) response and postharvest quality in fruit. Chemical elicitors can induce systemic acquired resistance in fruit against pathogens, which could partially replace synthetic fungicides. Recently, researchers have found that preharvest sprays with chemical elicitors can improve antioxidant activity, reduce CI, and maintain quality in harvested fruit. In this review, we summarize that preharvest elicitors spray improve antioxidant activity in harvested fruit by promoting antioxidant components biosynthesis as well as antioxidant ability in vitro. Moreover, preharvest elicitors spray alleviates CI in fruit by regulation of membrane lipid metabolism and reactive oxygen species metabolism. In addition, preharvest elicitors spray maintains fruit quality by modulation of respiration and ethylene release. Finally, this review points out the issues existing and proposes an outlook on preharvest elicitors spray to maintain postharvest fruit quality. Full article
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Article
Monitoring Stem Water Potential with an Embedded Microtensiometer to Inform Irrigation Scheduling in Fruit Crops
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121207 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 489
Abstract
The water status of fruit and nut crops is critical to the high productivity, quality and value of these crops. Water status is often estimated and managed with indirect measurements of soil moisture and models of evapotranspiration. However, cultivated trees and vines have [...] Read more.
The water status of fruit and nut crops is critical to the high productivity, quality and value of these crops. Water status is often estimated and managed with indirect measurements of soil moisture and models of evapotranspiration. However, cultivated trees and vines have characteristics and associated cultural practices that complicate such methods, particularly variable discontinuous canopies, and extensive but low-density, variable root systems with relatively high hydraulic resistance. Direct and continuous measurement of plant water status is desirable in these crops as the plant integrates its unique combination of weather, soil and cultural factors. To measure plant water potential with high temporal sampling rates, a stem-embedded microchip microtensiometer sensor has been developed and tested in several fruit crops for long-term continuous monitoring of stem water potential. Results on several fruit crops in orchards and vineyards have been good to excellent, with very good correlations to the pressure chamber standard method. The primary challenge has been establishing and maintaining the intimate contact with the xylem for long periods of time, with variable stem anatomies, stem growth and wound reactions. Sources of variability in the measurements and utilization of the continuous data stream, in relation to irrigation scheduling, are discussed. Direct continuous and long-term field measurements are possible and provide unique opportunities for both research and farming. Full article
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Article
The Composition of Anthocyanins and Carotenoids Influenced the Flower Color Heredity in Asiatic Hybrid Lilies
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121206 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Flower color, including color hues and spot patterns, is an extremely important trait in Asiatic hybrid lilies. Investigating flower color variation across different cross combinations may help us select breeding parents efficiently. Thus, three hybridizations with different compositions of anthocyanins and carotenoids were [...] Read more.
Flower color, including color hues and spot patterns, is an extremely important trait in Asiatic hybrid lilies. Investigating flower color variation across different cross combinations may help us select breeding parents efficiently. Thus, three hybridizations with different compositions of anthocyanins and carotenoids were performed, and 65, 289 and 125 offspring were obtained, respectively. For the parents and progenies, flower color hues were quantified by the CIELAB system, and the total number of raised spots on tepals was counted. Then, a cluster analysis and a statistical analysis were used to explore the inheritance patterns of flower color. The results showed that an orange flower color with high levels of carotenoids was highly heritable and that the progenies were less segregated, showing orange, orange-red, and yellow flowers. Parents showing red and purple-red flowers with differing levels of carotenoids and anthocyanins produced offspring with extensive segregation, including pink-white, pink, orange-pink, orange-red, yellow, and orange flowers. Meanwhile, different contents of anthocyanins and carotenoids resulted in variable proportions in color groups. Additionally, for F1 generation, the number of raised spots was continuously separated, demonstrating distinct quantitative genetic characteristics. For parents with few or intermediate spots, the hybrid plants showed both prominent negative and positive heterosis. For parents with many spots that covered almost the full tepals, the hybrid seedlings all exhibited raised spots. Full article
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Article
Leaf Removal Impacted Jasmonic Acid Metabolism and AsA-GSH in the Roots of Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. under Suboptimal Low Root-Zone Temperatures
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121205 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
In the early growing season in northern China, suboptimal low root-zone temperatures is a common abiotic stress that impairs root function and leaf development in fruit trees. In this study, we investigate the physiological role of leaves in jasmonate metabolism and the capacity [...] Read more.
In the early growing season in northern China, suboptimal low root-zone temperatures is a common abiotic stress that impairs root function and leaf development in fruit trees. In this study, we investigate the physiological role of leaves in jasmonate metabolism and the capacity of scavenging reactive oxygen species in Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. roots under suboptimal low root-zone temperatures. In the presence of intact leaves, suboptimal low root-zone temperatures significantly increased allene oxide synthase (AOS), jasmonate-resistant 1 (JAR), and jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) activities and transcription in jasmonate biosynthesis. Meanwhile, elevated endogenous jasmonic acid (JA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and jasmonate-isoleucine (JA-Ile) contents were also observed, as were significantly decreased glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities and AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG ratios. Conversely, leaf removal substantially reduced AOS, JMT, and JAR activities and transcription at most time points and JA (6–24 h), MeJA (1–24 h), and JA-Ile (1–24 h) levels in roots, affecting key enzymes in the AsA–GSH cycle and the AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG ratios in response to low-temperature treatment, as a result of a significant increase in malondialdehyde content. Thus, leaves are crucial for jasmonate metabolism in roots under suboptimal low root-zone temperatures, with leaf removal exacerbating root oxidative stress by altering JA signaling and AsA–GSH cycle activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Article
Multitiered Fresh Produce Supply Chain: The Case of Tomatoes
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1204; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121204 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 496
Abstract
The United States is one of the world’s top producers of fresh tomatoes. However, the industry supply chain is not well understood with little attention in the literature. To attend to this literature gap and to better inform business decisions and policy making, [...] Read more.
The United States is one of the world’s top producers of fresh tomatoes. However, the industry supply chain is not well understood with little attention in the literature. To attend to this literature gap and to better inform business decisions and policy making, it is crucial to understand the industry structure on a deeper level. Applying a supply chain mapping approach, this study presents a complete picture of the U.S. fresh tomato supply chain with valuable insights into the fresh produce industry and lays the groundwork for future research on solving supply chain issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economics and Management of Fruit and Vegetable Production)
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Article
Comparison of Different Physical Methods and Preservatives for Control of Fusarium proliferatum Rot in Garlic
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121203 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Dry rot is an emerging issue for garlic production worldwide and Fusarium proliferatum is its major causal agent. Since the disease is seed-transmitted, sowing healthy cloves is crucial. In this study, some disinfection strategies were tested on garlic seeds, including steam, dry heat, [...] Read more.
Dry rot is an emerging issue for garlic production worldwide and Fusarium proliferatum is its major causal agent. Since the disease is seed-transmitted, sowing healthy cloves is crucial. In this study, some disinfection strategies were tested on garlic seeds, including steam, dry heat, chemical disinfectants and gaseous ozone (O3). Steam reduced the Colony Forming Units·g−1 (CFUs·g−1) by up to 92% in garlic seeds, but, at the same time, it affected their germination (−36%). Similarly, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peracetic acid (C2H4O3) reduced the CFUs·g−1 by up to 83%; however, these methods also severely impaired germination (−40%). Dry heat did not negatively impact germination, but fungal contamination was not significantly reduced. The most promising strategy was gaseous O3 treatment; it decreased CFUs·g−1 by up to 96%, without causing any reduction of germination. The treatments applied were partially effective because the fungus is predominantly located in the outer layer of the seed, although it is also found in the inner portions. Some of these treatments can contribute to garlic protection from seed-borne pathogens and possibly reduce the occurrence of garlic dry rot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horticultural Plants Pathology and Advances in Disease Management)
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Article
Prediction of the Potential Distribution of Vaccinium uliginosum in China Based on the Maxent Niche Model
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121202 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Vaccinium uliginosum L. is a wild fruit tree, mainly distributed in the extremely cold climate region of China, such as the Greater Khingan Mountains, Lesser Khingan Mountains, and Changbai Mountains. Most fruit trees are largely unsustainable in these regions, but wild V. uliginosum [...] Read more.
Vaccinium uliginosum L. is a wild fruit tree, mainly distributed in the extremely cold climate region of China, such as the Greater Khingan Mountains, Lesser Khingan Mountains, and Changbai Mountains. Most fruit trees are largely unsustainable in these regions, but wild V. uliginosum thrives in the region. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the precious wild V. uliginosum resources. With the effect of global warming, the suitable habitat of V. uliginosum has also changed. A total of 287 pieces of data with 22 environmental variables were collected on the geographical distribution of wild V. uliginosum. The Maxent model was applied to predict the potential distribution of V. uliginosum in China under different climate scenarios (Socioeconomic Pathways 1-2.6 (SSP1-2.6), SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5) in the current and future two periods (the 2050s and 2070s). The predicted results show that the distribution and area of the suitable area-change range is small. The results show that the cumulative contribution rates of BIO07 (annual temperature range), BIO12 (annual precipitation), and BIO10 (mean temperature of warmest quarter) reach 74.1%, indicating that temperature and precipitation are the key factors affecting the distribution of V. uliginosum. This study can provide a reference for relevant departments to take conservation measures with respect to climate change and the adaptation of V. uliginosum to habitat changes. Full article
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Article
Reduction of High-Temperature Damage on Paeonia ostii through Intercropping with Carya illinoinensis
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121201 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Paeonia ostii is an emerging woody oil crop, but the high temperature in summer is extremely unfavorable for its growth and development. Understory intercropping cultivation would provide shaded environments which could effectively reduce the ambient temperature. In order to explore whether understory intercropping [...] Read more.
Paeonia ostii is an emerging woody oil crop, but the high temperature in summer is extremely unfavorable for its growth and development. Understory intercropping cultivation would provide shaded environments which could effectively reduce the ambient temperature. In order to explore whether understory intercropping cultivation would reduce the effects of high-temperature stress on P. ostii, the changes of leaf physiological indicators and leaf microstructures of sole-cropping and intercropping P. ostii were investigated. P. ostii that intercropping cultivated under Illinois pecans (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) with 4 m × 4 m and 4 m × 8 m rowing spaces were used as samples in this study. The results showed that with continuous high temperature, the high-temperature damage index of P. ostii kept increasing, whereas the leaf relative water content continued to decline. Compared to sole-cropping, the high-temperature damage index, relative electrical conductivity, proline content, antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities of intercropping P. ostii under C. illinoinensis were significantly decreased, whereas the leaf relative water content was higher. Moreover, compared to sole-cropping, intercropping P. ostii under C. illinoinensis increased SPAD and chlorophyll contents, made mesophyll cell ultrastructures more intact, and made the chloroplasts rounder and more filled with starch granules and lipid globules, leading to enhanced photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration rates (Tr). Notably, the reduction of high-temperature damage on intercropping P. ostii under C. illinoinensis with 4 m × 4 m rowing spaces was more significant than that under C. illinoinensis with 4 m × 8 m rowing spaces. This research provides some reference values for efficient plantation of P. ostii in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Article
Organic Substrates Differentially Affect Growth and Macronutrient Concentrations of Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Seedlings
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121200 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 411
Abstract
We tested the effect of varying percentages (v/v) of peatmoss and compost (60/40, T1; 40/60, T2; and 20/80, T3) on growth and macronutrient concentration of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) seedlings in a completely randomized experiment with ten replicates [...] Read more.
We tested the effect of varying percentages (v/v) of peatmoss and compost (60/40, T1; 40/60, T2; and 20/80, T3) on growth and macronutrient concentration of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) seedlings in a completely randomized experiment with ten replicates under greenhouse conditions. Lulo seedlings displayed higher plant height and stem diameter when grown in T1 and T2, as compared to T3. In root tissues, N concentration was higher in plants grown in T1, and the same trend was observed in leaves, though differences were not significant in the latter. All other nutrient concentrations analyzed in root tissues were higher in plants under T3. These results are directly related to a higher biomass production in roots as compared to shoots (52.5% higher) found in T3. In leaf tissues, however, significant increases in plants exposed to T3 were only evident for Ca and S concentrations (i.e., 10.6 and 2.6 g kg−1 DBW). Considering dry biomass weight (DBW), lulo plants exhibited a significant and positive correlation between shoot (ShDBW) and total dry biomass (TDBW), whereas low and negative correlations were observed between root DBW and ShDBW. Therefore, a peatmoss/compost ratio of 0.66 (40/60, T2) results in a better plant growth performance, ensuring a good plant nutrient status for lulo seedlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horticultural Plant Nutrition, Fertilization, Soil Management)
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Article
Extraction Optimization of Crocin from Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis)Fruits Using Response Surface Methodology and Quality Evaluation of Foam-Mat Dried Powder
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121199 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
The crocin in gardenia, as a medical plant, has drawnthe attention of researchers and scientists due to its color and high antioxidant activity. To optimize the extraction parameters of crocin from gardenia fruits, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed.The effects of four independent [...] Read more.
The crocin in gardenia, as a medical plant, has drawnthe attention of researchers and scientists due to its color and high antioxidant activity. To optimize the extraction parameters of crocin from gardenia fruits, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed.The effects of four independent variables, namely extraction temperature (45–55 °C), time (40–60 min), percentage of gardenia fruits(15–25%), and ethanol concentration (50–60%),on a crocin compound were investigated. The extract from the gardenia fruit was dried at different temperatures (55–70 °C) by the foam-mat drying method. The optimal extraction parameters were an extraction temperature of 55 °C, time of 57 min, percent of fruits in solvent at 24%, and an ethanol concentration of 56%. The results showed that the dried gardenia powder had maintained the crocin content well(6.64 mg/g), and the product with low water activity and moisture content of 0.33 and 5.72%, respectively, is suitable for storage. The foam-mat dried product also maintains the natural color and characteristics inherent in the raw materials, which could also be used as supplemental ingredients for other food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends and Innovations in Medicinals, Herbs, and Specialty Crops)
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Article
Response of Nutritional Status and Tea Quality to the Rate and Substitution of Chemical Fertilizers with Organic Manure
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121198 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Proper fertilization is important to sustainable tea production. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the response of quality components in a chlorotic tea variety (Zhonghuang-2) to rates of fertilizers and the substitution ratio of chemical fertilizers by organic manure based on rapeseed [...] Read more.
Proper fertilization is important to sustainable tea production. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the response of quality components in a chlorotic tea variety (Zhonghuang-2) to rates of fertilizers and the substitution ratio of chemical fertilizers by organic manure based on rapeseed cake. Chlorotic tea varieties have unique metabolic characteristics and produce superior tea containing high contents of free amino acids. Results showed that fertilization significantly increased yield and contents of free amino acid (TFAA) but reduced contents of total polyphenol (TP) and the ratio of TP/TFAA. Contents of TFAA and TP and the TP/TFAA ratio were closely related to nitrogen (N) concentrations in plant tissues in response to the rate of N fertilizers. The results suggest that the quality-related components in the chlorotic tea variety respond to fertilizers in a similar way as normal tea varieties. The optimal rates of N, phosphorus (P), and potassium fertilizers were discussed and recommended based on the response of quality components of tea and the contents of nutrients in plants and soil. The full substitution of chemical fertilizers by organic manure showed no special benefit on tea quality and had lower N and P agronomic use efficiency due to a low bioavailability of nutrients. The partial substitution of chemical fertilizers by organic manure significantly improved tea yield, quality, profit, and economic and environmental sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Tea Plant Biology and Tea Quality Regulation)
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Article
Transcriptome Analysis on the Underlying Physiological Mechanism of Calcium and Magnesium Resolving “Sugar Receding” in ‘Feizixiao’ Litchi Pulp
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121197 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 354
Abstract
The sugar contents of ‘Feizixiao’ litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) decrease at full maturity; calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) foliar fertilizer can resolve this “sugar receding”. To investigate the physiological mechanism of Ca and Mg foliar fertilizer used to resolve the “sugar receding” [...] Read more.
The sugar contents of ‘Feizixiao’ litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) decrease at full maturity; calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) foliar fertilizer can resolve this “sugar receding”. To investigate the physiological mechanism of Ca and Mg foliar fertilizer used to resolve the “sugar receding” phenomenon in ‘Feizixiao’ litchi pulp, 16-year-old litchi trees were treated with 0.3% CaCl2 + 0.3% MgCl2 foliar spraying or water as a control. We determined the pulp sugar content over a two-year period in 2020 and 2021. Pulp total RNA was extracted for transcriptome sequencing in 2020, and the expression pattern of 10 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was verified by real-time PCR in 2020 and 2021. The results showed that the fertilizer treatment significantly increased pulp fructose and total soluble sugar contents at maturity in both years. According to Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis, there were 155 DEGs divided into 35 GO categories, among which 49 DEGs were divided into 49 pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. We isolated sugar-metabolism-related enzyme genes, including sucrose synthase (SS), acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and hexokinase (HK). All sucrose-metabolism-related enzyme (NI, AI, SS, SPS) genes were downregulated, and six of the seven HK genes were downregulated. The expression patterns of the 10 DEGs were verified by real-time PCR, which showed significant linear relationships (r2020 = 0.9127, r2021 = 0.8705). In conclusion, the fertilizer treatment inhibited the synthesis of sucrose and phosphorylation of hexose by downregulating the expression of the SS, SPS, and HK genes, thus increasing the fructose and total soluble sugar contents in ‘Feizixiao’ litchi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Tropical Fruit Cultivation and Breeding)
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Review
Antecedents of Livelihood Development Using Cold Chains in the Horticultural Sector of the Emerging Markets: A Systematic Literature Review
by , , , , and
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1196; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121196 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Diversification into horticulture has become the primary source of livelihood for smallholders. The study analyses trends, theories, settings, constructions, research methods, and findings based on Keynes’ “confidence theory”, the absolute income hypothesis, and the human development index. Using the Theory, Constructs, Characteristics, and [...] Read more.
Diversification into horticulture has become the primary source of livelihood for smallholders. The study analyses trends, theories, settings, constructions, research methods, and findings based on Keynes’ “confidence theory”, the absolute income hypothesis, and the human development index. Using the Theory, Constructs, Characteristics, and Methodology (TCCM) framework, the paper offers a Systematic Literature Review of 67 scholarly research papers with fifty or more citations published between 2000 and 2021 in EBSCO, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. The study advocates that a Cold Chain must be considered with the intervention of contract farming, government, cooperative or farmer-producer organisations to reap maximum benefits from horticultural production during the off-and-on seasons rather than selling to opportunistic intermediaries. The study also has important implications for future researchers and policy-makers but, most importantly, offers motivation to the investors for safe investment decisions in the cold chain infrastructure development for higher returns to producers cutting across their geographical, sociological, or economic contexts. Full article
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Review
Hazelnut-Associated Bacteria and Their Implications in Crop Management
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121195 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 504
Abstract
In recent years, the cultivation of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) has expanded in several areas of Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America following the increased demand for raw materials by the food industry. Bacterial diseases caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. [...] Read more.
In recent years, the cultivation of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) has expanded in several areas of Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America following the increased demand for raw materials by the food industry. Bacterial diseases caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina and Pseudomonas avellanae are threats of major concern for hazelnut farmers. These pathogens have been controlled with copper-based products, which are currently being phased out in the European Union. Following the need for alternative practices to manage these diseases, some progress has been recently achieved through the exploitation of the plant’s systemic acquired resistance mechanisms, nanoparticle technology, as well as preventive measures based on hot water treatment of the propagation material. However, bacteria are not only agents of the biotic adversities of hazelnut. In fact, the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria at the seedling level could enhance better performance of the tree. Likewise, endophytic and epiphytic microorganisms are considered to play a notable role in plant nutrition and protection, and their effects on hazelnut fitness deserve to be further investigated. Finally, bacterial associations may also be relevant in the post-harvest phase, particularly with reference to the processes of lipid oxidation and fat degradation suffered by the kernels after grinding. Full article
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Editorial
Improving Quality of Fruit
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121194 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Fruits are necessary for a balanced diet, and they are consumed for their vitamins, fiber, and other beneficial compounds [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Quality of Fruit)
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