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Beverages, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This research investigates the influence of two roasting parameters—colour (i.e., roast degree) and time—on coffee flavor, using sensory descriptive analysis. Results from eight studies indicated that roast colour was the stronger predictor of coffee flavour. Darker roasts/longer roasting times were associated with an increase in bitterness and a decrease in acidity, fruitiness, and sweetness. With respect to roasting time, we distinguished two phases, “time to first crack”, corresponding to the time between the onset of roasting and the moment where the accumulated steam pressure causes the beans to crack, and “development time”, corresponding to the time elapsed from the first crack to the end of the roasting process. The results clearly indicated that, keeping colour constant, development time had the largest effect on coffee flavour. View this paper.
This research investigates the influence of two roasting parameters—colour (i.e., roast degree) and time—on coffee flavor, using sensory descriptive analysis. Results from eight studies indicated that roast colour was the stronger predictor of coffee flavour. Darker roasts/longer roasting times were associated with an increase in bitterness and a decrease in acidity, fruitiness, and sweetness. With respect to roasting time, we distinguished two phases, “time to first crack”, corresponding to the time between the onset of roasting and the moment where the accumulated steam pressure causes the beans to crack, and “development time”, corresponding to the time elapsed from the first crack to the end of the roasting process. The results clearly indicated that, keeping colour constant, development time had the largest effect on coffee flavour.
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Review
Musty and Moldy Taint in Wines: A Review
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020041 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
The literature about musty and moldy taint—the so-called cork taint—in wines is varied because there are many different molecules involved in this wine defect. Chloroanisoles are the most relevant compound responsible for cork taint and of these, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) is the most common, [...] Read more.
The literature about musty and moldy taint—the so-called cork taint—in wines is varied because there are many different molecules involved in this wine defect. Chloroanisoles are the most relevant compound responsible for cork taint and of these, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) is the most common, but 2,3,4,6-tetrachloroanisole (TeCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) can also be responsible of this defect. For other compounds involved in cork taint, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) are responsible for earthy off-flavor; pyrazines cause vegetable odors, and guaiacol results in smoked, phenolic and medicinal defects. Off-odors of mushroom in wines are caused by 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octen-3-one coming from grapes contaminated by bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea). The sensory aspects of these molecules are illustrated in this review. Generally, the most important cause of this wine contamination is the natural cork of bottle stoppers, but this is not always true. Different origins of contamination include air pollution of the cellars, wood materials, barrels and chips. A review of the possible prevention or remedial treatments to cork taint is also presented. The best solution for this off-flavor is to prevent the wine contaminations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
Article
Monitoring Cider Aroma Development throughout the Fermentation Process by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020040 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2376
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a crucial role in cider quality. Many variables involved in the fermentation process contribute to cider fragrance, but their relative impact on the finished odor remains ambiguous, because there is little consensus on the most efficient method for [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a crucial role in cider quality. Many variables involved in the fermentation process contribute to cider fragrance, but their relative impact on the finished odor remains ambiguous, because there is little consensus on the most efficient method for cider volatile analysis. Herein, we have optimized and applied a headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GC-MS) method for the chemical analysis of cider VOCs. We determined that the 30 min exposure of a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber at 40 °C yielded detection of the widest variety of VOCs at an extraction efficiency >49% higher than comparable fibers. As a proof-of-concept experiment, we utilized this method to profile cider aroma development throughout the fermentation process for the first time. The results yielded a very practical outcome for cider makers: a pre-screening method for determining cider quality through the detection of off-flavors early in the fermentation process. The aroma profile was found to be well established 72 h after fermentation commenced, with major esters varying by 18.6% ± 4.1% thereafter and higher alcohols varying by just 12.3% ± 2.6%. Lastly, we analyzed four mature ciders that were identically prepared, save for the yeast strain. Twenty-seven key VOCs were identified, off-flavors (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol) were detected, and odorants were quantified at desirable concentrations when compared to perception thresholds. VOCs varied considerably following fermentation with four novel strains of S. cerevisiae, evidencing the central importance of yeast strain to the finished cider aroma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Technologies for Beverages Quality and Control)
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Article
A Digital Approach to Evaluate the Effect of Berry Cell Death on Pinot Noir Wines’ Quality Traits and Sensory Profiles Using Non-Destructive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020039 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Berry cell death (BCD) is linked to the development of flavors and aromas in berries and wine. The BCD pattern and rate within a growing season start at around 90–100 days after anthesis (DAA), and the rate until harvest depends on environmental factors. [...] Read more.
Berry cell death (BCD) is linked to the development of flavors and aromas in berries and wine. The BCD pattern and rate within a growing season start at around 90–100 days after anthesis (DAA), and the rate until harvest depends on environmental factors. This study assessed the BCD effects on berry and wine composition from a boutique commercial vineyard in Victoria, Australia, using fluorescent imaging. Results showed differences in wine sensory profiles from the two blocks studied, mainly related to variations in BCD, due to differences in altitude between blocks. Furthermore, two machine learning (ML) models were constructed using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) measurements from full berries as inputs and living tissue (LT) and dead tissue (DT) from berries as targets (Model 1). Model 2 was developed using Brix, LT, DT from the east and west sides of canopies as inputs and using 19 sensory descriptors from wines as targets. High correlation and performances were achieved for both models without signs of overfitting (R = 0.94 and R = 0.80, respectively). These models could be used for decision-making purposes as an objective and comprehensive berry maturity assessment obtained in a non-destructive, accurate, and in a real-time fashion close to harvest, to secure specific wine styles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Wine Quality and Safety)
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Article
Development of a Spirit Drink Produced with Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.) Fruit and Honey
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020038 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Food safety and diversification of agri-food products are increasingly important. A new spirit drink produced from the arbutus fruit (strawberry tree fruit) and honey was designed, taking advantage of the best features of these two ingredients and limiting the methanol content. This work [...] Read more.
Food safety and diversification of agri-food products are increasingly important. A new spirit drink produced from the arbutus fruit (strawberry tree fruit) and honey was designed, taking advantage of the best features of these two ingredients and limiting the methanol content. This work reports the first approach to its development, considering in particular its chemical composition, especially the volatile components, and sensory properties. Methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and fusel alcohols were quantified and identified by GC–FID/GC–MS. Sensory analyses were performed by a trained panel. Promising results were obtained, showing that the new spirit has features close to those of honey spirit. Significantly lower contents of methanol, acetaldehyde, and ethyl acetate were observed in the new spirit compared to arbutus spirit (359.0 vs. 994.4 g/hL of pure alcohol (P.A.), 20.5 vs. 25.6 g/hL P.A., and 35.5 vs. 53.9 g/hL P.A., respectively), which is advantageous from the food safety and quality perspectives. The total content of fusel alcohols in the new spirit was significantly lower than in honey spirit (261.4 vs. 388.85 g/hL P.A.). Distinct aroma and flavor profiles were examined, but only four attributes were significantly different between the these spirit drinks: dried fruits, unctuous, varnish (although at very low perception), and sweet. Full article
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Review
Chemical Migration from Beverage Packaging Materials—A Review
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020037 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
The packaging of a beverage is an essential element for customer convenience and the preservation of beverage quality. On the other hand, chemical compounds present in the packaging materials, either intentionally added or non-intentionally, may be transferred to the food. With a huge [...] Read more.
The packaging of a beverage is an essential element for customer convenience and the preservation of beverage quality. On the other hand, chemical compounds present in the packaging materials, either intentionally added or non-intentionally, may be transferred to the food. With a huge variety of materials used in the production, beverage packaging requires safety assessments with respect to the migration of packaging compounds into the filled beverages. The present article deals with potential migrants from different materials for beverage packaging, including PET bottles, glass bottles, metal cans and cardboard multilayers. The list of migrants comprises monomers and additives, oligomers or degradation products. The article presents a review on scientific literature and summarizes European food regulatory requirements. The review shows no evidence of critical substances migrating from packaging into beverages. Testing the migration in real beverages during and at the end of the shelf life shows compliance with the specific migration limits. Accelerated testing using food simulants, however, shows higher migration in some cases, especially at high temperatures in ethanolic simulants. For some migrants, more realistic testing conditions should be applied in order to show compliance with their specific migration limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
Article
Dynamic of Lachancea thermotolerans Population in Monoculture and Mixed Fermentations: Impact on Wine Characteristics
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020036 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Lachancea thermotolerans is a non-Saccharomyces yeast appreciated for its potential of acidification due to the production of lactic acid; however, this species also synthetizes other metabolites that modulate organoleptic wine properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the strain L. [...] Read more.
Lachancea thermotolerans is a non-Saccharomyces yeast appreciated for its potential of acidification due to the production of lactic acid; however, this species also synthetizes other metabolites that modulate organoleptic wine properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the strain L. thermotolerans Lt93 to ferment ‘Treixadura’ and ‘Mencía’ musts and its impact on yeast population dynamics and wine characteristics. Fermentations using monocultures of L. thermotolerans Lt93 and S. cerevisiae strains, sequential inoculation and spontaneous process were performed. The dynamic of yeast population and wine composition were analyzed following standard methodology. L. thermotolerans Lt93 was unable to overgrow wild yeast population in ‘Treixadura’ white must; however, with ‘Mencía’ red must, Lt93 was the predominant yeast at the beginning of fermentation and remained at high frequency until the end. Lt93 Treixadura wines had slightly higher acidity and higher content of esters and acids than ScXG3 wines. Lt93 Mencía wines presented higher acidity (10.1 g/L) and 0.8% (v/v) lower ethanol content than Sc71B wines. The content of esters and fatty acids was 3.3 and 4.0 times lower, respectively, in Lt93 than in Sc71B Mencía wines. It was possible to increase wine acidity and modulate the chemical wine profile by using Lt93. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Article
Happy Hour? A Preliminary Study of the Effect of Induced Joviality and Sadness on Beer Perception
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020035 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Our emotions influence our perception. In order to determine whether emotion influences the perception of beer, 32 participants watched either a scene from the movie Wall-E to induce joviality, or a short clip from the Shawshank Redemption to induce sadness. The participants were [...] Read more.
Our emotions influence our perception. In order to determine whether emotion influences the perception of beer, 32 participants watched either a scene from the movie Wall-E to induce joviality, or a short clip from the Shawshank Redemption to induce sadness. The participants were then required to sample up to 250 mL of Yenda Pale Ale beer and rate it on a variety of taste and flavor characteristics (e.g., bitterness), before completing the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-X (PANAS-X). The data were analyzed using Bayesian t-tests and Null Hypothesis Significance Tests (NHSTs). After applying conservative corrections for multiple comparisons, NHSTs failed to reach statistical significance. However, the effect sizes suggested that inducing joviality, relative to inducing sadness, resulted in the beer being rated as (a) tasting more pleasant, (b) tasting sweeter, and (c) being of higher quality. Following the induction of joviality, participants were also willing to pay more for the beer. The Bayesian analyses indicated that induced emotion can influence flavor perception for complex taste stimuli. The effect sizes and Bayesian analyses are interpreted in terms of Feelings-as-Information theory. These preliminary findings can tentatively be applied to real-world environments such as venues that serve and/or market alcohol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
Article
Preliminary Study of the Effects of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Treatments in Wines Obtained from Early-Harvested Sangiovese Grapes
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020034 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
In this experiment, the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on the extractability of anthocyanins and polyphenols in early-harvested Sangiovese red grapes (16.9°Bx sugar, 3.26 pH, and 10.4 g/L titratable acidity) from Emilia Romagna (Italy) was investigated. Electric field strengths were in [...] Read more.
In this experiment, the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on the extractability of anthocyanins and polyphenols in early-harvested Sangiovese red grapes (16.9°Bx sugar, 3.26 pH, and 10.4 g/L titratable acidity) from Emilia Romagna (Italy) was investigated. Electric field strengths were in the range of 0.9–3 kV/cm, generated by the application of short, high-voltage pulses, and the grapes were subjected to specific energies from 10.4 to 32.5 kJ/kg immediately after crushing and destemming to produce a pre-fermentative pulsed electric field treatment on a pilot scale. Grape musts and wines were analyzed for color components and polyphenols content from pressing of juices up to 3 months from the end of the fermentation of wines. Furthermore, the freshly-fermented wines were subjected to accelerated aging conditions (i.e., warming under 40 °C for 32 days) to simulate the evolution of color parameters with time. The color intensity was generally higher in treated musts and wines compared to the control, further increased by raising the intensity of the electric field. Results suggested the potentialities of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) as a mild pre-fermentative process to assist maceration and to increase the polyphenolic content of musts obtained by early-harvested Sangiovese grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Wine Quality and Safety)
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Article
Wine Industry’s Attitude towards Oenological Yeasts: Italy as a Case Study
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020033 - 17 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Yeast inoculation is a widespread practice in winemaking in order to control the must fermentation. However, the use of indigenous wine yeasts can enrich wine quality and differentiate wine styles. Yeast cream preparation (CRY), recently accepted by the International Organization of Vine and [...] Read more.
Yeast inoculation is a widespread practice in winemaking in order to control the must fermentation. However, the use of indigenous wine yeasts can enrich wine quality and differentiate wine styles. Yeast cream preparation (CRY), recently accepted by the International Organization of Vine and Wine, could allow an easier usage of autochthonous yeasts. This work aimed at investigating the actual Italian wine industry’s attitude towards the available formulations of commercial wine yeasts with attention to CRY. Moreover, this study evaluated the perception of wineries toward indigenous yeasts in both winemaking and marketing viewpoints. Data show different levels of knowledge and use about the available yeast formulations. In general, there is not a predominantly positive or negative participants’ opinion regarding the use of indigenous yeasts. Wineries using CRY (4% of the sample) mainly adopt them as a part of the production in order to compare the wines with the ones traditionally obtained with commercial yeasts. CRY is perceived by some interviewees as a potential tool to increase communication and product differentiation. This survey could have anticipated future trends in the use of yeast formulations, determined by the market demands for diversified, unique, and environmentally sustainable products, that can allow an accessible application of precision enology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Review
Recent Trends in the Analysis of Chemical Contaminants in Beverages
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020032 - 17 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
Chemical contaminants should not be present in beverages for human consumption, but could eventually be ingested by consumers as they may appear naturally from the environment or be produced by anthropogenic sources. These contaminants could belong to many different chemical sources, including heavy [...] Read more.
Chemical contaminants should not be present in beverages for human consumption, but could eventually be ingested by consumers as they may appear naturally from the environment or be produced by anthropogenic sources. These contaminants could belong to many different chemical sources, including heavy metals, amines, bisphenols, phthalates, pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, inks, ethyl carbamate, and others. It is well known that these hazardous chemicals in beverages can represent a severe threat by the potential risk of generating diseases to humans if no strict quality control is applied during beverages processing. This review compiles the most updated knowledge of the presence of potential contaminants in various types of beverages (both alcoholic and non-alcoholic), as well as in their containers, to prevent undesired migration. Special attention is given to the extraction and pre-concentration techniques applied to these samples, as well as to the analytical techniques necessary for the determination of chemicals with a potential contaminant effect. Finally, an overview of the current legislation is carried out, as well as future trends of research in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Contaminants and Residues in Beverages)
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Article
Analysis of Lambic Beer Volatiles during Aging Using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and Gas Chromatography–Olfactometry (GCO)
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020031 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Lambic beer is produced using spontaneous fermentation. Gueuze is a style of lambic beer that blends “young” (1 year old) and “aged” (2+ years old) beers. Little is known about the development of volatile aroma compounds in lambic beer during aging. Solid-phase microextraction [...] Read more.
Lambic beer is produced using spontaneous fermentation. Gueuze is a style of lambic beer that blends “young” (1 year old) and “aged” (2+ years old) beers. Little is known about the development of volatile aroma compounds in lambic beer during aging. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry were used to analyze volatile compounds from 3, 6, 9, 12, and 28-month-old commercial samples of lambic beer. Compounds were identified using standardized retention time and mass spectra of standards. Gas chromatography–olfactometry was used to characterize the aroma profiles of the samples. A total of 41 compounds were identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Ethyl lactate, ethyl acetate, 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol were identified in the 9, 12, and 28-month old samples. These four compounds have been linked to the microorganism Brettanomyces. Twenty-one aroma active compounds were identified using Gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O). As the age of the gueuze samples increased, a larger number of aroma compounds were identified by the panelists; the compounds identified increased from seven for the 3-month-old samples to nine for the 6-month-old samples, and eleven for both the nine and twelve-month-old samples, and seventeen for the twenty-eight-month-old samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
Review
Wine Authenticity and Traceability with the Use of FT-IR
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020030 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has gained popularity in the wine sector due to its simplicity and ability to provide a wine’s fingerprint. For this reason, it is often used for authentication and traceability purposes with more than satisfactory results. In this review, [...] Read more.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has gained popularity in the wine sector due to its simplicity and ability to provide a wine’s fingerprint. For this reason, it is often used for authentication and traceability purposes with more than satisfactory results. In this review, an outline of the reasons why authenticity and traceability are important to the wine sector is given, along with a brief overview of the analytical methods used for their attainment; statistical issues and compounds, on which authentication usually is based, are discussed. Moreover, insight on the mode of action of FT-IR is given, along with successful examples from its use in different areas of interest for classification. Finally, prospects and challenges for suggested future research are given. For more accurate and effective analyses, the construction of a large database consisting of wines from different regions, varieties and winemaking protocols is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Article
Roasting Conditions and Coffee Flavor: A Multi-Study Empirical Investigation
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020029 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 8173
Abstract
This research investigates the relative importance of two roasting parameters—colour (i.e., roast degree) and time—on the sensory properties of coffee. The paper draws on data from eight studies conducted using sensory descriptive analysis with trained (in six studies) or semi-trained (in two studies) [...] Read more.
This research investigates the relative importance of two roasting parameters—colour (i.e., roast degree) and time—on the sensory properties of coffee. The paper draws on data from eight studies conducted using sensory descriptive analysis with trained (in six studies) or semi-trained (in two studies) assessors, focusing on a common set of attributes. The results indicated that, while both parameters significantly affected coffee flavour, colour was the stronger predictor of the two. The effects direction for both colour and time were similar and related to the rate of non-enzymatic browning, with darker roasts/longer roasting times associated with an increase in bitterness and a decrease in acidity, fruitiness, and sweetness. With respect to roasting time, we distinguished two phases, “time to first crack”, corresponding to the time between the onset of roasting and the moment where the accumulated steam pressure causes the beans to crack, and “development time”, corresponding to the time elapsed from the first crack to the end of the roasting process. The results clearly indicated that, under the same colour, time variation also influenced flavour, and in particular, development time, rather than time to first crack, had the largest effect on coffee flavour. Full article
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Article
Development of a Rapid Method to Assess Beer Foamability Based on Relative Protein Content Using RoboBEER and Machine Learning Modeling
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020028 - 03 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
Foam-related parameters are associated with beer quality and dependent, among others, on the protein content. This study aimed to develop a machine learning (ML) model to predict the pattern and presence of 54 proteins. Triplicates of 24 beer samples were analyzed through proteomics. [...] Read more.
Foam-related parameters are associated with beer quality and dependent, among others, on the protein content. This study aimed to develop a machine learning (ML) model to predict the pattern and presence of 54 proteins. Triplicates of 24 beer samples were analyzed through proteomics. Furthermore, samples were analyzed using the RoboBEER to evaluate 15 physical parameters (color, foam, and bubbles), and a portable near-infrared (NIR) device. Proteins were grouped according to their molecular weight (MW), and a matrix was developed to assess only the significant correlations (p < 0.05) with the physical parameters. Two ML models were developed using the NIR (Model 1), and RoboBEER (Model 2) data as inputs to predict the relative quantification of 54 proteins. Proteins in the 0–20 kDa group were negatively correlated with the maximum volume of foam (MaxVol; r = −0.57) and total lifetime of foam (TLTF; r = −0.58), while those within 20–40 kDa had a positive correlation with MaxVol (r = 0.47) and TLTF (r = 0.47). Model 1 was not as accurate (testing r = 0.68; overall r = 0.89) as Model 2 (testing r = 0.90; overall r = 0.93), which may serve as a reliable and affordable method to incorporate the relative quantification of important proteins to explain beer quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Review
The State of Automated Facial Expression Analysis (AFEA) in Evaluating Consumer Packaged Beverages
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020027 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
In the late 1970s, analysis of facial expressions to unveil emotional states began to grow and flourish along with new technologies and software advances. Researchers have always been able to document what consumers do, but understanding how consumers feel at a specific moment [...] Read more.
In the late 1970s, analysis of facial expressions to unveil emotional states began to grow and flourish along with new technologies and software advances. Researchers have always been able to document what consumers do, but understanding how consumers feel at a specific moment in time is an important part of the product development puzzle. Because of this, biometric testing methods have been used in numerous studies, as researchers have worked to develop a more comprehensive understanding of consumers. Despite the many articles on automated facial expression analysis (AFEA), literature is limited in regard to food and beverage studies. There are no standards to guide researchers in setting up materials, processing data, or conducting a study, and there are few, if any, compilations of the studies that have been performed to determine whether any methodologies work better than others or what trends have been found. Through a systematic Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) review, 38 articles were found that were relevant to the research goals. The authors identified AFEA study methods that have worked and those that have not been as successful and noted any trends of particular importance. Key takeaways include a listing of commercial AFEA software, experimental methods used within the PRISMA analysis, and a comprehensive explanation of the critical methods and practices of the studies analyzed. Key information was analyzed and compared to determine effects on the study outcomes. Through analyzing the various studies, suggestions and guidance for conducting and analyzing data from AFEA experiments are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Perspective
Ready to Use Therapeutical Beverages: Focus on Functional Beverages Containing Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020026 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
The growing global interest in functional foods containing nutrients capable of adding possible beneficial health effects is rapidly increasing both interest and consumer demand. In particular, functionalized beverages for their potential positive effect on health e.g., decreasing cholesterol level, lowering sugar, high fiber [...] Read more.
The growing global interest in functional foods containing nutrients capable of adding possible beneficial health effects is rapidly increasing both interest and consumer demand. In particular, functionalized beverages for their potential positive effect on health e.g., decreasing cholesterol level, lowering sugar, high fiber content, ability to enhance the immune system, and help digestion, have recently received special attention. Among the different beverages available on the market, probiotic dairy and non-dairy products have attracted much attention because of their affordable cost and their numerous therapeutic activities. Fermented milk and yogurt are currently worth €46 billion, with 77% of the market reported in Europe, North America, and Asia. Consumption of dairy beverages has some limitations due for example to lactose intolerance and allergy to milk proteins, thereby leading consumers to use non-dairy beverages such as fruit, grains, and vegetable juices to add probiotics to diet as well as driving the manufacturers to food matrices-based beverages containing probiotic cultures. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate the therapeutic performance and properties of dairy and non-dairy beverages in terms of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Review
A Review of the Potential Health Benefits of Low Alcohol and Alcohol-Free Beer: Effects of Ingredients and Craft Brewing Processes on Potentially Bioactive Metabolites
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020025 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4462
Abstract
Beer is a beverage of significant historical and cultural importance. Interest in the potential health effects of alcoholic beverages has largely focused on wine; however, there are a number of potentially beneficial bioactives that beer may contain that warrant further investigation. The challenge [...] Read more.
Beer is a beverage of significant historical and cultural importance. Interest in the potential health effects of alcoholic beverages has largely focused on wine; however, there are a number of potentially beneficial bioactives that beer may contain that warrant further investigation. The challenge of considering any potential health benefits of beer are restricted by the negative consequences of its alcohol and energy content. There is potential to enhance the bioactive qualities of beer whilst reducing the alcohol and energy content through novel brewing approaches often used in craft brewing, in terms of ingredients, brewing methods and type of fermentation. Consumer demand to produce a greater variety of beer types, including alcohol-free beers, may also help to increase the number of beers which may have greater potential to improve health, with lower levels of alcohol, while still being tasty products. As low alcohol, prebiotic and bioactive containing beers are developed, it is important that their potential health benefits and risks are fully assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Communication
A Preliminary Evaluation to Establish Bath Pasteurization Guidelines for Hard Cider
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020024 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Though in-package water bath heat pasteurization for hard cider production is commonly employed to improve product safety and stability, there is a considerable lack of research-based guidelines to inform industry practices. In this study, fermented cider was bottled and inoculated with high populations [...] Read more.
Though in-package water bath heat pasteurization for hard cider production is commonly employed to improve product safety and stability, there is a considerable lack of research-based guidelines to inform industry practices. In this study, fermented cider was bottled and inoculated with high populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii yeast. The bottles were then subjected to water bath pasteurization 60 °C at varying lengths of time. For both yeast species, populations were reduced to undetectable levels after just 1 min of processing time. Though validation of each individual process is recommended, cider producers may be able to sufficiently reduce the risks of spoilage organisms with minimal water bath pasteurization, especially when combined with other methods to reduce the presence of spoilage organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Review
Lactobacillus plantarum, a New Biological Tool to Control Malolactic Fermentation: A Review and an Outlook
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020023 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine is an important step in the vinification of most red and some white wines, as stands for the biological conversion of l-malic acid into l-lactic acid and carbon dioxide, resulting in a decrease in wine acidity. [...] Read more.
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine is an important step in the vinification of most red and some white wines, as stands for the biological conversion of l-malic acid into l-lactic acid and carbon dioxide, resulting in a decrease in wine acidity. MLF not only results in a biological deacidification, it can exert a significant impact on the organoleptic qualities of wine. This paper reviews the biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in wine, their origin, and the limiting conditions encountered in wine, which allow only the most adapted species and strains to survive and induce malolactic fermentation. Of all the species of wine LAB, Oenococcus oeni is probably the best adapted to overcome the harsh environmental wine conditions and therefore represents the majority of commercial MLF starter cultures. Wine pH is most challenging, but, as a result of global warming, Lactobacillus sp. is more often reported to predominate and be responsible for spontaneous malolactic fermentation. Some Lactobacillus plantarum strains can tolerate the high alcohol and SO2 levels normally encountered in wine. This paper shows the potential within this species for the application as a starter culture for induction of MLF in juice or wine. Due to its complex metabolism, a range of compositional changes can be induced, which may positively affect the quality of the final product. An example of a recent isolate has shown most interesting results, not only for its capacity to induce MLF after direct inoculation, but also for its positive contribution to the wine quality. Degrading hexose sugars by the homo-fermentative pathway, which poses no risk of acetic acid production from the sugars, is an interesting alternative to control MLF in high pH wines. Within this species, we can expect more strains with interesting enological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Beverage Processing)
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Review
Potential Application of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) in Designing Highly Flavoured and Bioactive Pito with Functional Properties
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020022 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3040
Abstract
Sorghum beer (pito) is an indigenous alcoholic beverage peculiar to northern Ghana and parts of other West African countries. It is overwhelmed with calories, essential amino acids (such as lysine, etc.), B-group vitamins, and minerals. In recent years, there has been a growing [...] Read more.
Sorghum beer (pito) is an indigenous alcoholic beverage peculiar to northern Ghana and parts of other West African countries. It is overwhelmed with calories, essential amino acids (such as lysine, etc.), B-group vitamins, and minerals. In recent years, there has been a growing demand for highly flavoured yet functional pito in Ghana; however, the local producers lack the prerequisite scientific expertise in designing such products. We propose the utilization of Tetrapleura tetraptera (TT) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) as cheap and readily available materials in designing functional flavoured pito. The addition of TT and HS would not alter the fermentation profile but rather augment the starter with nutrients, thus improving the fermentation performance and shelf life of the final pito. In vitro and in vivo studies provide substantive evidence of antioxidant, nephro- and hepato-protective, renal/diuretic effect, anticholesterol, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive effects among others of the TT and HS, hence enriching the pito with health-promoting factors and consequently boosting the health of the consumer. Herein, we summarise the phytochemical, biological, pharmacological, and toxicological aspects of TT and HS as well as the technology involved in brewing the novel bioactive-flavoured pito. In addition, we also report the incidence of heavy metal in conventional pito. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds and Functional Beverages)
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Review
Functional Beverages in Selected Countries of Asia Pacific Region: A Review
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020021 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
Functional beverages have gained increasing market share over the last decade. As the Asia Pacific region is one of the largest and most important markets for functional foods, it is critical when developing and promoting new products that food manufacturers/marketers have a good [...] Read more.
Functional beverages have gained increasing market share over the last decade. As the Asia Pacific region is one of the largest and most important markets for functional foods, it is critical when developing and promoting new products that food manufacturers/marketers have a good understanding of the Asia Pacific market, including the legislative requirements and consumers’ perceptions of functional beverages. A literature review was undertaken to elucidate legislation criteria and consumers’ perceptions of functional beverages in Asia Pacific countries. Topics reviewed included the origin and definitions of functional foods and beverages; the legislative criteria for functional foods and beverages in four representative countries—Australia, New Zealand, China, and Japan; and consumers’ perceptions of functional beverages. There was no concrete definition of “functional food” or “functional beverage” region-wide and correspondingly, the legislative terms and regulatory frameworks for functional foods and beverages varied from country to country and showed divergence due to cultural differences. The systematic review of consumer perceptions of functional beverages showed that product acceptance and purchase intention for different functional beverages was heterogeneous among consumers in the Asian Pacific Region, with many factors playing a role including product attributes (e.g., functional attributes, sensory attributes, and product form) and consumer perceptions (e.g., health motivation, trust in food industry, and food neophobia). The findings from this review will help guide product development and inform marketing strategies for functional beverages targeting the Asia Pacific region by providing information on legislation and consumers’ perceptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Review
The Inoculation of Probiotics In Vivo Is a Challenge: Strategies to Improve Their Survival, to Avoid Unpleasant Changes, or to Enhance Their Performances in Beverages
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020020 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
The inoculation of probiotics in beverages (probiotication) requires special technologies, as probiotic microorganisms can experience stress during food processing (acid, cold, drying, starvation, oxidative, and osmotic stresses) and gastrointestinal transit. Survival to harsh conditions is an essential prerequisite for probiotic bacteria before reaching [...] Read more.
The inoculation of probiotics in beverages (probiotication) requires special technologies, as probiotic microorganisms can experience stress during food processing (acid, cold, drying, starvation, oxidative, and osmotic stresses) and gastrointestinal transit. Survival to harsh conditions is an essential prerequisite for probiotic bacteria before reaching the target site where they can exert their health promoting effects, but several probiotics show a poor resistance to technological processes, limiting their use to a restricted number of food products. Therefore, this paper offers a short overview of the ways to improve bacterial resistance: by inducing a phenotypic modification (adaptation) or by surrounding bacteria through a physical protection (microencapsulation). A second topic briefly addressed is genetic manipulation, while the last section addresses the control of metabolism by attenuation through physical treatments to design new kinds of food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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