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The Inoculation of Probiotics In Vivo Is a Challenge: Strategies to Improve Their Survival, to Avoid Unpleasant Changes, or to Enhance Their Performances in Beverages

Department of the Science of Agriculture, Food and Environment (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli 7 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy
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Beverages 2020, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020020
Received: 22 January 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 27 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
The inoculation of probiotics in beverages (probiotication) requires special technologies, as probiotic microorganisms can experience stress during food processing (acid, cold, drying, starvation, oxidative, and osmotic stresses) and gastrointestinal transit. Survival to harsh conditions is an essential prerequisite for probiotic bacteria before reaching the target site where they can exert their health promoting effects, but several probiotics show a poor resistance to technological processes, limiting their use to a restricted number of food products. Therefore, this paper offers a short overview of the ways to improve bacterial resistance: by inducing a phenotypic modification (adaptation) or by surrounding bacteria through a physical protection (microencapsulation). A second topic briefly addressed is genetic manipulation, while the last section addresses the control of metabolism by attenuation through physical treatments to design new kinds of food. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotic; beverages; stress; attenuation; phenotypic changes; manipulation probiotic; beverages; stress; attenuation; phenotypic changes; manipulation
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Speranza, B.; Campaniello, D.; Petruzzi, L.; Altieri, C.; Sinigaglia, M.; Bevilacqua, A.; Rosaria Corbo, M. The Inoculation of Probiotics In Vivo Is a Challenge: Strategies to Improve Their Survival, to Avoid Unpleasant Changes, or to Enhance Their Performances in Beverages. Beverages 2020, 6, 20.

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