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Article

Monitoring Cider Aroma Development throughout the Fermentation Process by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Fort Lewis College, 1000 Rim Drive, Durango, CO 81301, USA
2
EsoTerra Cider, P.O. Box 156, Hesperus, CO 81326, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020040
Received: 19 April 2020 / Revised: 30 April 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 16 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Technologies for Beverages Quality and Control)
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a crucial role in cider quality. Many variables involved in the fermentation process contribute to cider fragrance, but their relative impact on the finished odor remains ambiguous, because there is little consensus on the most efficient method for cider volatile analysis. Herein, we have optimized and applied a headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GC-MS) method for the chemical analysis of cider VOCs. We determined that the 30 min exposure of a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber at 40 °C yielded detection of the widest variety of VOCs at an extraction efficiency >49% higher than comparable fibers. As a proof-of-concept experiment, we utilized this method to profile cider aroma development throughout the fermentation process for the first time. The results yielded a very practical outcome for cider makers: a pre-screening method for determining cider quality through the detection of off-flavors early in the fermentation process. The aroma profile was found to be well established 72 h after fermentation commenced, with major esters varying by 18.6% ± 4.1% thereafter and higher alcohols varying by just 12.3% ± 2.6%. Lastly, we analyzed four mature ciders that were identically prepared, save for the yeast strain. Twenty-seven key VOCs were identified, off-flavors (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol) were detected, and odorants were quantified at desirable concentrations when compared to perception thresholds. VOCs varied considerably following fermentation with four novel strains of S. cerevisiae, evidencing the central importance of yeast strain to the finished cider aroma. View Full-Text
Keywords: aroma; cider; fermentation; yeast; gas chromatography; solid phase microextraction aroma; cider; fermentation; yeast; gas chromatography; solid phase microextraction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bingman, M.T.; Stellick, C.E.; Pelkey, J.P.; Scott, J.M.; Cole, C.A. Monitoring Cider Aroma Development throughout the Fermentation Process by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis. Beverages 2020, 6, 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020040

AMA Style

Bingman MT, Stellick CE, Pelkey JP, Scott JM, Cole CA. Monitoring Cider Aroma Development throughout the Fermentation Process by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis. Beverages. 2020; 6(2):40. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020040

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bingman, Matthew T., Claire E. Stellick, Jordanne P. Pelkey, Jared M. Scott, and Callie A. Cole 2020. "Monitoring Cider Aroma Development throughout the Fermentation Process by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis" Beverages 6, no. 2: 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020040

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