Physicochemical Properties and Structure Changes of Food Products during Processing

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2020) | Viewed by 98528

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Food Investigation and Innovation Group, Food Technology Department, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: food processing; dehydration; extrusion; physicochemical properties; nutritional and functional value; bioactive compounds; in vitro digestion; natural ingredients; antioxidant capacity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Investigation and Innovation Group, Food Technology Department, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: food engineering; development of new food products; food processing; 3D printing; extrusion; nutrition; gastronomy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Processing food is necessary to extend product shelf life. This includes a wide range of processing operations such as dehydration, thermal treatment, encapsulation, and extrusion. All processing operations lead to changes in physicochemical properties and the structure of the food, which can be desirable or undesirable. The physicochemical properties of food are mainly responsible for the final quality of the product. Moreover, the measurement of these properties is important for design and quality control during the processing of the food.

Physicochemical and structural changes in food during processing depend on the food’s stage (solid or fluid) and its constituents. Although there are numerous physicochemical properties of food, the appropriate property depends on the kind of food and the aim of the chosen assay. This includes, for example, hydration food properties (water activity, water absorption capacity, water retention capacity, hygroscopicity, dispersibility, solubility, etc.), rheological fluid behavior, mechanical properties, optical properties (colour, translucence, etc.), and thermal food properties.

Physical and chemical changes in each constituent and ingredient results from processing operations and often leads to physical, sensory, and nutritional changes in the food and, therefore, in the quality.

Dr. Marta Igual Ramo
Prof. Javier Martínez-Monzó
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food processing
  • physicochemical properties
  • food structure

Published Papers (15 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

4 pages, 216 KiB  
Editorial
Physicochemical Properties and Structure Changes of Food Products during Processing
by Marta Igual and Javier Martínez-Monzó
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152365 - 07 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2768
Abstract
This Special Issue is dedicated toward the understanding of the physicochemical properties and structure changes of food products during processing [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

11 pages, 1306 KiB  
Article
Rheological Behavior of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice) Extract as a Function of Concentration and Temperature: A Critical Reappraisal
by Laleh Nasiri, Mohsen Gavahian, Mahsa Majzoobi and Asgar Farahnaky
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121872 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
In the present study, rheological properties of twelve different licorice root extracts were evaluated using a rotational viscometer as a function of soluble solids content (15–45 °Bx) and temperature (30–70 °C). Response Surface Methodology was used to understand the relationships between the parameters. [...] Read more.
In the present study, rheological properties of twelve different licorice root extracts were evaluated using a rotational viscometer as a function of soluble solids content (15–45 °Bx) and temperature (30–70 °C). Response Surface Methodology was used to understand the relationships between the parameters. The experimental data were then fit into mathematical models. The results, for the first time, revealed that the licorice solutions had non-Newtonian shear-thinning behaviors with flow behavior indexes of 0.24 to 0.91, depending on the licorice extract samples, temperature, and °Bx. These observations were different from those reported in the literature and the present study elaborated on reasons for such observations. Further, the shear-thinning behavior generally increased by increasing the °Bx and decreasing the temperature. In addition, the power-law model was found to be suitable for predicting the experimental data. The newly revealed information can be particularly important in designing the unit operations for licorice extract processing. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 3318 KiB  
Article
Impact of Resistant Maltodextrin Addition on the Physico-Chemical Properties in Pasteurised Orange Juice
by Elías Arilla, Marta Igual, Javier Martínez-Monzó, Pilar Codoñer-Franch and Purificación García-Segovia
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121832 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3659
Abstract
Resistant maltodextrin (RMD) is a water-soluble fibre that can be fermented in the colon and exert prebiotic effects. Therefore, its addition to food and beverage products could be beneficial from both technological and nutritional viewpoints. However, to date, most studies have focused on [...] Read more.
Resistant maltodextrin (RMD) is a water-soluble fibre that can be fermented in the colon and exert prebiotic effects. Therefore, its addition to food and beverage products could be beneficial from both technological and nutritional viewpoints. However, to date, most studies have focused on the stability of the prebiotic fibre rather than its impact in the original food matrices. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the addition of RMD on the physico-chemical properties of pasteurised orange juice (with and without pulp). °Brix, pH, acidity, particle size distribution, density, turbidity, rheology, and colour were measured in orange juices with increasing RMD concentrations (2.5, 5, and 7.5%). Control samples without RMD were also prepared. RMD added soluble solids to the orange juice, affecting the °Brix, density, turbidity, and rheology. Slight colour differences were observed, and lower citric acid content was achieved because of orange juice replacement with RMD. Differences in particle size distribution were exclusively because of pulp content. Further studies are needed to elucidate if potential consumers will appreciate such physico-chemical changes in organoleptic terms. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2406 KiB  
Article
Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) as a Functional Ingredient in Gluten-Free Extruded Snacks
by Nicola Gasparre, James Pan, Priscila Leal da Silva Alves, Cristina M. Rosell and Jose De J. Berrios
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121770 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4263
Abstract
Tiger nut (TN) is a nutritious source of gluten-free flour, used generally in healthy beverages, but its incorporation in gluten-free extruded snacks has not been explored. TN flour was blended at different concentrations (up to 70%) with rice flour and soluble fiber, for [...] Read more.
Tiger nut (TN) is a nutritious source of gluten-free flour, used generally in healthy beverages, but its incorporation in gluten-free extruded snacks has not been explored. TN flour was blended at different concentrations (up to 70%) with rice flour and soluble fiber, for the development of gluten-free snacks on a twin-screw extruder. The effect of TN inclusion in the formulations was evaluated on relevant physiochemical characteristics of the snacks. Viscoamylograph of the raw formulations showed that TN addition increased (p < 0.01) onset temperature and delayed peak viscosity. In the extruded flours, TN contributed to limit the starch degradation during extrusion. Diameter, expansion ratio, true density, and total pore volume of the extrudates were reduced (pf < 0.01) by the increased TN content in the formulations, while bulk density rose. The surfaces of the extruded snacks were modified by the increasing inclusion of TN in substitution of rice in the formulations. Extrudates containing 10% TN showed the best overall texture profile. Moreover, TN addition enhanced the ash and protein content of the snacks and increased their total antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that incorporation of 10% TN flour into rice-based formulation was suitable for making gluten-free snacks with acceptable physical properties. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 3858 KiB  
Article
Starch Retrogradation in Rice Cake: Influences of Sucrose Stearate and Glycerol
by Seon-Min Oh, Hee-Don Choi, Hyun-Wook Choi and Moo-Yeol Baik
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121737 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3047
Abstract
Retrogradation properties and kinetics of rice cakes with the addition of glycerol (GLY) and sucrose fatty acid ester (SE) were investigated. In hardness, both rice cakes with glycerol (RGLY) and rice cakes with sucrose fatty acid ester (RSE) showed lower initial hardening compared [...] Read more.
Retrogradation properties and kinetics of rice cakes with the addition of glycerol (GLY) and sucrose fatty acid ester (SE) were investigated. In hardness, both rice cakes with glycerol (RGLY) and rice cakes with sucrose fatty acid ester (RSE) showed lower initial hardening compared with the control for up to 5 days. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of RSE showed a B+V-type pattern, and the relative crystallinity showed that GLY and SE lowered the initial and final crystallization of rice cake. Both GLY and SE affected the retrogradation enthalpy, glass transition temperature, and ice melting enthalpy in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). However, 1H NMR relaxation time (T2) of rice cake decreased regardless of additives. From these results, the addition of glycerol and sucrose stearate inhibits the retrogradation process of rice cakes, which will solve industrial problems. Applying the Avrami equation for retrogradation kinetics of rice cake was suitable in XRD and DSC with high coefficient of determination (0.9 < R2). Meanwhile, the other retrogradation index improved the R2 when the exponential rise to maximum equation was used. This suggests that there is an alternative of Avrami equation to predict the retrogradation. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

25 pages, 20592 KiB  
Article
Modification of Apple Pomace by Extrusion Processing: Studies on the Composition, Polymer Structures, and Functional Properties
by Vera Schmid, Antje Trabert, Judith Schäfer, Mirko Bunzel, Heike P. Karbstein and M. Azad Emin
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101385 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4666
Abstract
By-products of fruit and vegetable processing are an inexpensive and sustainable source of dietary fiber, potentially offering valuable functional properties such as water binding and thickening. Due to these favorable properties, they can be utilized to reformulate widely-consumed foods, e.g., bakery products or [...] Read more.
By-products of fruit and vegetable processing are an inexpensive and sustainable source of dietary fiber, potentially offering valuable functional properties such as water binding and thickening. Due to these favorable properties, they can be utilized to reformulate widely-consumed foods, e.g., bakery products or beverages. In this study, apple pomace was used as a model system to study whether extrusion technology affects food by-product functionality and thus has the potential to broaden the application of by-products in foods. The effect of the process parameters and the extent of thermo-mechanical treatment on the structural and functional properties of apple pomace were analyzed after extrusion trials using various screw speeds, water contents, and barrel temperatures. Compared to the raw material, apple pomace extruded at Tbarrel = 100 °C, n = 700 min−1 and mH2O = 17% showed an increased water solubility up to 33%. The water absorption increased from 5 to 19 Pa·s and the paste viscosity from 5 to 339 Pa·s by extrusion processing. Analyses of dietary fiber contents and fiber polysaccharide structures revealed that thermo-mechanical stress (n = 700 min−1, mH2O = 22%) increased the content of soluble dietary fiber from 12.5 to 16.7 g/100 g dry matter, and that the harshest conditions even enabled the formation of low-molecular-weight dietary fiber. Arabinans (as neutral rhamnogalacturonan I side chains) appeared to be most sensitive to thermo-mechanical stress, whereas xylans (i.e., a group of minor polysaccharides) were an example of a more stable fiber polysaccharide. Also, the degree of methylation of the pectic polysaccharides was strongly reduced from 50% to 15% when thermo-mechanical stress was applied. Imaging and pore size analysis showed that extrusion processing could disrupt the rigid cell wall macromolecular structure. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 2888 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis as a Complementary Technique for Stickiness Determination in Model Whey Protein Powders
by Laura T. O’Donoghue, Md. Kamrul Haque, Sean A. Hogan, Fathima R. Laffir, James A. O’Mahony and Eoin G. Murphy
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091295 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2924
Abstract
The α-relaxation temperatures (Tα), derived from the storage and loss moduli using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), were compared to methods for stickiness and glass transition determination for a selection of model whey protein concentrate (WPC) powders with varying protein contents. Glass [...] Read more.
The α-relaxation temperatures (Tα), derived from the storage and loss moduli using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), were compared to methods for stickiness and glass transition determination for a selection of model whey protein concentrate (WPC) powders with varying protein contents. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and stickiness behavior was characterized using a fluidization technique. For the lower protein powders (WPC 20 and 35), the mechanical Tα determined from the storage modulus of the DMA (Tα onset) were in good agreement with the fluidization results, whereas for higher protein powders (WPC 50 and 65), the fluidization results compared better to the loss modulus results of the DMA (Tα peak). This study demonstrates that DMA has the potential to be a useful technique to complement stickiness characterization of dairy powders by providing an increased understanding of the mechanisms of stickiness. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 3776 KiB  
Article
Impact of Almond Variety on “Amaretti” Cookies as Assessed through Image Features Modeling, Physical Chemical Measures and Sensory Analyses
by Marco Campus, Manuela Sanna, Giandomenico Scanu, Riccardo Di Salvo, Luciano De Pau, Daniela Satta, Antonio Demarcus and Tonina Roggio
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091272 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
In the present study, the influence of almond variety on color, chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of “amaretti” cookies during the shelf life, was assessed. Four varieties were chosen for the study, two of which were local (Cossu, Arrubia) and two widely cultivated [...] Read more.
In the present study, the influence of almond variety on color, chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of “amaretti” cookies during the shelf life, was assessed. Four varieties were chosen for the study, two of which were local (Cossu, Arrubia) and two widely cultivated (Tuono, Texas). Almonds have been characterized in the content of proteins, crude fat, amygdalin and fatty acids profile. The evolution of the characteristics during the shelf life hasbeen measured through image data modeling, texture, physical chemical and sensory analyses. Data were then treated with a multivariate approach performing a PCA. Image analysis and fitting on log normal and powerlaw functions highlighted the influence of the variety on the total area affected by surface breakages, and on the distribution of the cracking surfaces dimension classes. Texture parameters (crust hardness, thickness and work of deformation) were negatively correlated to moisture content. Sensory profile confirmed the differences in tactile features measured through instrumental texture, while slight to no differences were found in odor profile. Consumer test showed an higher acceptability for Arrubia, Texas and Tuono samples throughout the shelf life, while Cossu samples were less accepted. Overall, the choice of almond variety influences product features and liking of almond products, therefore it represents an important phase to direct the choice of both farmers and confectionery manufacturers. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 2641 KiB  
Article
Impact of Fermentation and Phytase Treatment of Pea-Oat Protein Blend on Physicochemical, Sensory, and Nutritional Properties of Extruded Meat Analogs
by Aleksei Kaleda, Karel Talvistu, Martti Tamm, Maret Viirma, Julia Rosend, Kristel Tanilas, Marie Kriisa, Natalja Part and Mari-Liis Tammik
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081059 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 8361
Abstract
Plant materials that are used for the production of extruded meat analogs are often nutritionally incomplete and also contain antinutrients, thus there is a need to explore alternative plant proteins and pre-treatments. This study demonstrates application of phytase and fermentation to a pea-oat [...] Read more.
Plant materials that are used for the production of extruded meat analogs are often nutritionally incomplete and also contain antinutrients, thus there is a need to explore alternative plant proteins and pre-treatments. This study demonstrates application of phytase and fermentation to a pea-oat protein blend with a good essential amino acid profile and subsequent texturization using extrusion cooking. Enzymatic treatment reduced the content of antinutrient phytic acid by 32%. Extrusion also degraded phytic acid by up to 18%, but the effect depended on the material. Differences in physicochemical, sensorial, and textural properties between untreated and phytase-treated extruded meat analogs were small. In contrast, fermented material was more difficult to texturize due to degradation of macromolecules; physicochemical and textural properties of extrudates were markedly different; sensory analysis showed enhancement of flavor, but also detected an increase in some unwanted taste attributes (bitterness, cereal and off-taste). Phytic acid was not degraded by fermentation. Analysis of volatile compounds showed extrusion eliminated volatiles from the raw material but introduced Maillard reaction products. Overall, phytase treatment and fermentation demonstrated the potential for application in extruded meat analogs but also highlighted the necessity of optimization of process conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2051 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Properties and Consumer Acceptance of Bread Enriched with Alternative Proteins
by Purificación García-Segovia, Marta Igual and Javier Martínez-Monzó
Foods 2020, 9(7), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070933 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 9744
Abstract
A projected global population growth by 2050 and climate change crises have led to increasing demand in edible protein sources; thus, scientific research and food industries are searching for alternatives. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of plant- and insect-based protein sources [...] Read more.
A projected global population growth by 2050 and climate change crises have led to increasing demand in edible protein sources; thus, scientific research and food industries are searching for alternatives. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of plant- and insect-based protein sources in wheat-based formulations. The Alveographic properties of dough and the effects on bread physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analysed. Including pea protein or insect powder improved the nutritional value, increasing protein content, but influenced the dough and bread properties. Pea protein significantly increased the dough extensibility (L), tenacity (P), and their ratio (P/L) in dough with insect blends and the control. Bread texture properties were significantly affected by the addition of pea and insect flour. Higher amounts of pea protein incorporation increased hardness values and showed a mean cell area lower than the control bread. Crust colour analysis showed significant differences concerning the control bread, while crumb colour was affected by the flour colour. Word association analysis showed insect bread was associated with an emotional dimension, wheat bread was linked with “tradition”, and pea bread was associated with “fruit and vegetable”. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 724 KiB  
Article
Physiochemical Characteristics of Hot and Cold Brew Coffee Chemistry: The Effects of Roast Level and Brewing Temperature on Compound Extraction
by Niny Z. Rao, Megan Fuller and Meghan D. Grim
Foods 2020, 9(7), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070902 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 11788
Abstract
The role of roasting in cold brew coffee chemistry is poorly understood. The brewing temperature influences extraction processes and may have varying effects across the roast spectrum. To understand the relationship between brew temperature and roast temperature, hot and cold brew coffees were [...] Read more.
The role of roasting in cold brew coffee chemistry is poorly understood. The brewing temperature influences extraction processes and may have varying effects across the roast spectrum. To understand the relationship between brew temperature and roast temperature, hot and cold brew coffees were prepared from Arabica Columbian coffee beans roasted to light, medium, and dark levels. Chemical and physical parameters were measured to investigate the relationships among degree of roast, water temperature, and key characteristics of resulting coffees. Cold brew coffees showed differential extraction marked by decreased acidity, lower concentration of browned compounds, and fewer TDS indicating that cold water brewing extracts some compounds less effectively than hot water brewing. Compounds in coffee did exhibit sensitivity to degree of roast, with darker roasts resulting in decreased concentrations for both hot and cold brew coffees. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only sensitive to degree of roast in cold brew coffees, while hot brew coffees had a constant TAC for all three roast levels. This indicates that the solid bean matrix and its chemical constituents interact with cold water differently than with hot water. Surface wetting, pore dynamics, and solubility all contribute to the extraction potential during brewing and are all functions of water temperature. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2482 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical and Microstructural Changes during the Drying of Persimmon Fruit cv. Rojo Brillante Harvested in Two Maturity Stages
by Nariane Q. Vilhena, Rebeca Gil, Empar Llorca, Gemma Moraga and Alejandra Salvador
Foods 2020, 9(7), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070870 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3280
Abstract
The physico-chemical and microstructural changes of “Rojo Brillante” persimmons in two maturity stages (S1 and S2) were evaluated during air drying. The maturity stage influences moisture loss. A Moisture level of approximately 50%, a limit at which persimmons are considered semidried, was reached [...] Read more.
The physico-chemical and microstructural changes of “Rojo Brillante” persimmons in two maturity stages (S1 and S2) were evaluated during air drying. The maturity stage influences moisture loss. A Moisture level of approximately 50%, a limit at which persimmons are considered semidried, was reached after 21 and 28 days for S1 and S2, respectively. Shrinkage resulting from water removal led to secondary epidermis formation concomitantly to internal flesh gelling, which was related to moisture loss and water activity changes of each fruit part. The thicker epidermis and the lower volume of gelled area inside the S1 fruits led to harder fruit compared to the S2 fruits. The microstructural study revealed parenchyma degradation during drying in both the outermost area (secondary epidermis) and internal flesh, and this process was faster in S1 than in S2. The second peel presented hollows, generated by water outflow, which were bigger in S1 and explained the faster internal dehydration in S1. During drying, slight browning occurred, as reflected in the declining color parameters (L*, h* and C*). Water removal led to soluble solids tannin reduction to non-astringency values on day 28. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

9 pages, 1134 KiB  
Article
Use of Milk Fat/Cellulose Ether Emulsions in Spreadable Creams and the Effect of In Vitro Digestion on Texture and Fat Digestibility
by Maria Espert, Teresa Sanz and Ana Salvador
Foods 2020, 9(6), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060796 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3888
Abstract
This study investigated the texture properties and fat digestibility of new spreadable chocolate creams formulated with an emulsion composed of milk fat and a cellulose ether as a fat source. The spreadability was analysed at 20 °C and compared with a commercial spreadable [...] Read more.
This study investigated the texture properties and fat digestibility of new spreadable chocolate creams formulated with an emulsion composed of milk fat and a cellulose ether as a fat source. The spreadability was analysed at 20 °C and compared with a commercial spreadable cream formulated with palm fat. Structural changes in the creams after the in vitro oral and gastric digestion stages were evaluated; lipid digestibility was determined by titration with NaOH during intestinal digestion. Spreadability tests showed the spreads were similar. After oral digestion, the commercial spread showed an increase in extrusion force because of flocculation induced by saliva, an effect not observed in spreads with cellulose ether. Digestibility determination showed lower values for the reformulated spreads. Therefore, milk fat-cellulose ether based emulsions offer an alternative to achieve reformulated spreadable creams, with physical properties similar to those of commercial products but providing reduced fat content and lower lipid digestibility, without compromising the quality of the final product. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 2119 KiB  
Article
Development of High-Moisture Meat Analogues with Hemp and Soy Protein Using Extrusion Cooking
by Izalin Zahari, Ferawati Ferawati, Amanda Helstad, Cecilia Ahlström, Karolina Östbring, Marilyn Rayner and Jeanette K. Purhagen
Foods 2020, 9(6), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060772 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 134 | Viewed by 17174
Abstract
The interest in plant-based products is growing in Western countries, mostly due to health and environmental issues that arise from the consumption and production of animal-based food products. Many vegan products today are made from soy, but drawbacks include the challenges of cultivating [...] Read more.
The interest in plant-based products is growing in Western countries, mostly due to health and environmental issues that arise from the consumption and production of animal-based food products. Many vegan products today are made from soy, but drawbacks include the challenges of cultivating soy in colder climates such as northern Europe. Therefore, the present study investigates whether industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) could substitute soy in the production of high moisture meat analogues (HMMA). A twin screw co-rotating extruder was used to investigate to what extent hemp protein concentrate (HPC) could replace soy protein isolate (SPI) in HMMAs. The substitution levels of HPC were 20 wt%, 40 wt% and 60 wt%. Pasting properties and melting temperature of the protein powders were characterized by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), respectively and the produced HMMA was analysed by determining the texture and colour attributes. The results showed that it is possible to extrude a mixture with up to 60% HPC. HPC absorbed less water and needed a higher denaturing temperature compared to SPI. Increasing the moisture content by 5% would have resulted in a reduction of hardness and chewiness. The lightness (L* value) was found to be significantly higher in SPI product and decreased in the mixture with higher HPC (p < 0.05). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1149 KiB  
Article
Textural and Sensory Features Changes of Gluten Free Muffins Based on Rice Sourdough Fermented with Lactobacillus spicheri DSM 15429
by Maria Simona Chiş, Adriana Păucean, Simona Maria Man, Vlad Mureşan, Sonia Ancuţa Socaci, Anamaria Pop, Laura Stan, Bogdan Rusu and Sevastiţa Muste
Foods 2020, 9(3), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030363 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4602
Abstract
Gluten free products available on the market have a low textural quality associated with high crumbly structure, low-flavor, aroma, poor mouthfeel, less appearance, in comparison with the conventional final baked products. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of rice [...] Read more.
Gluten free products available on the market have a low textural quality associated with high crumbly structure, low-flavor, aroma, poor mouthfeel, less appearance, in comparison with the conventional final baked products. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of rice sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus spicheri DSM 15429 strain on textural, volatile profile, and sensorial properties of gluten free muffins in order to obtain baked goods with improved quality characteristics. Lactobacillus spicheri is a novel strain isolated from industrial rice sourdough but unexploited for bakery products manufacturing. The results showed that Lactobacillus spicheri DSM 15429 was able to growth in the rice flour influencing the texture and the volatile profile of gluten free muffins as well as their sensory characteristics. Both, textural parameters and volatiles recorded significant differences comparing to muffins obtained with a spontaneously fermented rice sourdough. Hardness and cohesiveness decreased while springiness and resilience of gluten free muffins improved their values. The volatile profile of gluten free muffins was significantly improved by utilization of the rice sourdough fermented with Lactobacilus spicheri DSM 15429. 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, acetophenone and limonene were the main volatile derivatives responsible for aroma and odor scores of sensory analysis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop