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Review

The Pharmacological Activity, Biochemical Properties, and Pharmacokinetics of the Major Natural Polyphenolic Flavonoid: Quercetin

1
National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13, Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555, Japan
2
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, Egypt
3
Department of Chemistry, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan 23200, Pakistan
4
Department of Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Hofuf 31982, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
6
Department of Animal Husbandry and Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina 22758, Egypt
7
Department of Bacteriology, Immunology and Mycology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
8
Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
9
Laboratory of Anatomy, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Foods 2020, 9(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030374
Received: 21 February 2020 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
Flavonoids are a class of natural substances present in plants, fruits, vegetables, wine, bulbs, bark, stems, roots, and tea. Several attempts are being made to isolate such natural products, which are popular for their health benefits. Flavonoids are now seen as an essential component in a number of cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medicinal formulations. Quercetin is the major polyphenolic flavonoid found in food products, including berries, apples, cauliflower, tea, cabbage, nuts, and onions that have traditionally been treated as anticancer and antiviral, and used for the treatment of allergic, metabolic, and inflammatory disorders, eye and cardiovascular diseases, and arthritis. Pharmacologically, quercetin has been examined against various microorganisms and parasites, including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and Plasmodium, Babesia, and Theileria parasites. Additionally, it has shown beneficial effects against Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and this activity is due to its inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase. It has also been documented to possess antioxidant, antifungal, anti-carcinogenic, hepatoprotective, and cytotoxic activity. Quercetin has been documented to accumulate in the lungs, liver, kidneys, and small intestines, with lower levels seen in the brain, heart, and spleen, and it is extracted through the renal, fecal, and respiratory systems. The current review examines the pharmacokinetics, as well as the toxic and biological activities of quercetin. View Full-Text
Keywords: quercetin; herbal remedies; pharmacological activities; pharmacokinetics; Alzheimer’s disease quercetin; herbal remedies; pharmacological activities; pharmacokinetics; Alzheimer’s disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Batiha, G.E.-S.; Beshbishy, A.M.; Ikram, M.; Mulla, Z.S.; El-Hack, M.E.A.; Taha, A.E.; Algammal, A.M.; Elewa, Y.H.A. The Pharmacological Activity, Biochemical Properties, and Pharmacokinetics of the Major Natural Polyphenolic Flavonoid: Quercetin. Foods 2020, 9, 374. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030374

AMA Style

Batiha GE-S, Beshbishy AM, Ikram M, Mulla ZS, El-Hack MEA, Taha AE, Algammal AM, Elewa YHA. The Pharmacological Activity, Biochemical Properties, and Pharmacokinetics of the Major Natural Polyphenolic Flavonoid: Quercetin. Foods. 2020; 9(3):374. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030374

Chicago/Turabian Style

Batiha, Gaber El-Saber, Amany Magdy Beshbishy, Muhammad Ikram, Zohair S. Mulla, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Ayman E. Taha, Abdelazeem M. Algammal, and Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa. 2020. "The Pharmacological Activity, Biochemical Properties, and Pharmacokinetics of the Major Natural Polyphenolic Flavonoid: Quercetin" Foods 9, no. 3: 374. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030374

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