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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 3 (February-1 2022) – 244 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Food 3D printing has been booming in recent years. However, it is often necessary to add texturizing additives to print food of meat origin. Nevertheless, there are alternative methods for printing functional, protein-rich, and nutritionally sound foods that improve the print quality of these matrices while maintaining the predefined geometry. One example is control of the printing process. Very precise adjustments of extrusion speed and controlled cooling of the printing plate are two approaches that offer encouraging results. View this paper
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Article
Microstructural, Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Organoleptic Characteristics of Sugar- and Fat-Free Ice Cream from Buffalo Milk
Foods 2022, 11(3), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030490 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 651
Abstract
Ice cream is a popular dessert product across the world. Structure, body, taste, and odor properties are created by adding non-milk ingredients and milk ingredients. The main aim of the study is to decrease the caloric value of ice cream by using sugar [...] Read more.
Ice cream is a popular dessert product across the world. Structure, body, taste, and odor properties are created by adding non-milk ingredients and milk ingredients. The main aim of the study is to decrease the caloric value of ice cream by using sugar and fat replacements. Ice cream treatments were investigated based on microstructural, chemical, physical, microbiological, sensory, and calorific values. Four different ice creams were used (control ice cream (SC1), ice cream with stevia (SC2), ice cream with sucralose (SC3), and ice cream with sorbitol (SC4)). The chemical properties in all treatments of ice cream were significantly recorded (p < 0.05). The highest sucrose and fat levels were detected in the SC1 treatment compared with the other treatments (p < 0.05). The lowest fat and sugar amounts were observed in the SC2, SC3, and SC4 treatments (p < 0.05). The highest viscosity, overrun, and hardness values (p < 0.05) were detected in the control ice cream. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts were not significantly recorded between different ice cream treatments (p < 0.05). The sensory scores were not significantly affected by sweeteners and bulk agents in the different treatments. The highest calorific value was calculated in the SC1 samples (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the lowest calorific value was calculated in SC2, followed by the SC3 and SC4 treatments. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the gel exhibited a homogeneous structure with a fine network within the SC2, SC3, and SC4 treatments, as it contained a cohesive structure with small-sized pores. Full article
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Article
Osmotic Dehydration, Drying Kinetics, and Quality Attributes of Osmotic Hot Air-Dried Mango as Affected by Initial Frozen Storage
Foods 2022, 11(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030489 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Using frozen mango for osmotic hot air drying is still uncommon due to a lack of knowledge on the effect of the freezing process on the final product’s quality attributes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the freezing method (slow and [...] Read more.
Using frozen mango for osmotic hot air drying is still uncommon due to a lack of knowledge on the effect of the freezing process on the final product’s quality attributes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the freezing method (slow and quick freezing) and frozen storage time at −18 °C (0, 1, and 2 months) on mass transfer kinetics during osmotic dehydration, drying kinetics during hot air drying, and final quality attributes of the dried mango. The results indicated that Peleg’s model could describe the water loss and solid gain during the osmotic dehydration in a 38° Brix sugar solution. Freezing before osmotic dehydration reduced the water loss rate while increasing the solid uptake content. Frozen mangoes showed slightly higher drying rates at 50 and 60 °C than the fresh ones. Freezing and frozen storage also retarded the browning reaction and polyphenol oxidase activities. The osmotic-dried mango obtained from frozen mangoes showed a chewy and gummy texture, which could be considered a distinctive texture characteristic for dried mango. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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Article
Multi-Analytical Approach to Study Fresh-Cut Apples Vacuum Impregnated with Different Solutions
Foods 2022, 11(3), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030488 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 376
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different solutions for vacuum impregnation (VI) of fresh-cut (FC) apples through an innovative multi-analytical approach. In particular, the individual and synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and calcium lactate on the preservation of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different solutions for vacuum impregnation (VI) of fresh-cut (FC) apples through an innovative multi-analytical approach. In particular, the individual and synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and calcium lactate on the preservation of freshness of FC apples was assessed through color, texture, microscopy, isothermal calorimetry, and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) evaluations. The analysis was performed immediately after VI and after 24 h of refrigerated storage. The obtained results showed a good preservation of color and higher firmness in the impregnated samples. Concerning the metabolic heat production, a decrease following the VI treatment was observed, especially when the combined solution was used for the impregnation. The TD-NMR studies showed higher changes in terms of signal intensity and transversal relaxation time T2 after 24 h of storage, evidencing the meta-stability of the plant material for its dynamic tissue nature, and the dewatering/impregnation processes evolution until the achievement of dynamic equilibrium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Article
Dual-Enzyme-Based Signal-Amplified Aptasensor for Zearalenone Detection by Using CRISPR-Cas12a and Nt.AlwI
Foods 2022, 11(3), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030487 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) is harmful to animals and human beings, so it is very important to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of ZEN. In this paper, we proposed a novel ZEN-monitoring method using two aptamers as recognition elements and EnGen [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is harmful to animals and human beings, so it is very important to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of ZEN. In this paper, we proposed a novel ZEN-monitoring method using two aptamers as recognition elements and EnGen LbaCas12a and Nt.AlwI nicking endonuclease as signal amplifiers. When ZEN was present, it bound to the aptamer Z0 and, Z1 was released into solution. The solution was then separated and the Nt.AlwI enzyme was added in order to form a nicking-enzyme cycle, thereby producing large amounts of the ssDNA Z3 for 30 min. The Z3 formed a CRISPR-Cas12a-Z3 complex with CRISPR-Cas12a, activated the trans-cleavage ability of Cas12a, cleaved the Quenched Reporter for 20 min, and underwent fluorescence recovery. The aptasensor was able to sensitively detect ZEN in the linear range of 1–1000 pg/mL, with a detection limit as low as 0.213 pg/mL. The detection time lasted for 2 h. Additionally, this detection technology can also be used to monitor other hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Detection Techniques for Contaminants in Food Science)
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Article
Time Trends of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in a 2008–2021 German National Survey of Hemp Food Products
Foods 2022, 11(3), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030486 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 839
Abstract
9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is known as the main psychotropic compound present in the hemp plant. It also occurs in commercially available hemp food products and may have adverse effects on consumers. This article provides an overview of the current situation of the [...] Read more.
9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is known as the main psychotropic compound present in the hemp plant. It also occurs in commercially available hemp food products and may have adverse effects on consumers. This article provides an overview of the current situation of the THC content in hemp food products in Germany in recent years. The content of THC was evaluated in a data set of 5 different hemp food product groups (tea, seeds, seed oils, food supplements, and nonalcoholic beverages) comprising 511 samples. For the toxicological assessment, the THC intake was estimated and the exhaustion of acute reference dose (ARfD) and lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) was calculated using average daily consumption scenarios. Data show that hemp beverages and seeds typically do not contain amounts of THC that can exceed toxicological thresholds. On the contrary, hemp food supplements, such as cannabidiol (CBD) products, can contain high levels of THC, since the THC content of 18% of the samples has the potential to exceed the LOAEL and 8% even exceed the minimum intoxication dose. However, a significant linear decrease in the THC content of hemp food supplements was observed between 2018 and 2021 (n = 111, R = −0.36, p < 0.0001). A problematic food group is also tea based on flowers, leading to an increase in overall THC levels in recent years. Regulation of low-THC products within the framework of controlled distribution of cannabis for recreational use appears to be advisable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Quality Assessment of Novel Food)
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Article
Heat and Light Stability of Pumpkin-Based Carotenoids in a Photosensitive Food: A Carotenoid-Coloured Beverage
Foods 2022, 11(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030485 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 529
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate carotenoid degradation kinetics in a beverage coloured with pumpkin juice concentrate during storage at dark and illuminated conditions at four temperatures (10, 20, 35 and 45 °C). Carotenoids were quantified by HPLC-DAD, and kinetic parameters for carotenoid degradation [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate carotenoid degradation kinetics in a beverage coloured with pumpkin juice concentrate during storage at dark and illuminated conditions at four temperatures (10, 20, 35 and 45 °C). Carotenoids were quantified by HPLC-DAD, and kinetic parameters for carotenoid degradation were estimated by one-step nonlinear regression analysis. During dark storage, degradation kinetics was modelled by fractional conversion (all-trans-β-carotene) and zero-order equations (all-trans-antheraxanthin, all-trans-lutein, all-trans-violaxanthin and all-trans-neoxanthin). Storage of samples in a climatic chamber with intense light intensity (1875–3000 lux) accelerated the carotenoid losses. At illuminated conditions, degradation followed a first-order (all-trans-lutein, all-trans-violaxanthin and all-trans-neoxanthin) and fractional conversion model (all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-antheraxanthin). Carotenoid degradation followed an Arrhenius temperature-dependency, with Ea values lower than 50 kJ/mol. Degradation was shown to be mainly by oxidative reactions. Packaging under minimal oxygen conditions, use of antioxidants (e.g., ascorbic acid), and proper choice of light sources at retail shelves may be considered to optimize the pigment retention in a carotenoid-coloured beverage during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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Article
Mineral Composition and Bioaccessibility in Rocket and Purslane after Zn Biofortification Process
Foods 2022, 11(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030484 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Zinc (Zn) is an essential key nutrient in different biochemical and physiological processes. The nutritional deficit of this mineral element is estimated to affect the health of over 3 billion people worldwide. Several strategies are available to reduce the negative impact of mineral [...] Read more.
Zinc (Zn) is an essential key nutrient in different biochemical and physiological processes. The nutritional deficit of this mineral element is estimated to affect the health of over 3 billion people worldwide. Several strategies are available to reduce the negative impact of mineral malnutrition; among them, biofortification is the practice of deliberately increasing the nutrients and healthy compounds in the edible parts of vegetables. This study aims to evaluate Zn bioaccessibility in biofortified and non-biofortified rocket and purslane using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process and measure the concentration of other mineral elements (Al, B, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Sr) released during the digestion process from rocket and purslane biofortified with Zn. The bioaccessible Zn in biofortified rocket and purslane ranged from 7.43 to 16.91 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the daily intake, the RDA coverage (%), and the hazard quotient (HQ) for the intake of Zn (resulting from the consumption of 100 g of rocket and purslane) were calculated. The calculated HQ highlights the safety of these baby leaf vegetables. The study confirms that it is possible to obtain Zn-biofortified rocket and purslane with high Zn bioaccessibility by adopting an appropriate mineral plant nutrition solution enriched in Zn. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Breed and Age on the Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Metabolic Profile in Breast Muscle of Chinese Indigenous Chickens
Foods 2022, 11(3), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030483 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Indigenous chickens possess desirable characteristics and account for considerable proportions of the total chicken production in China. The current study examined the growth performance, carcass characteristics and muscle metabolites among a crossbred broiler and two indigenous, yellow-feathered chickens (Mahuang and Tuer) with different [...] Read more.
Indigenous chickens possess desirable characteristics and account for considerable proportions of the total chicken production in China. The current study examined the growth performance, carcass characteristics and muscle metabolites among a crossbred broiler and two indigenous, yellow-feathered chickens (Mahuang and Tuer) with different ages (60 and 75 days). Results indicated that the crossbred broiler had better feed efficiency, higher breast and thigh muscle yield, as well as a lower abdominal fat percentage than Mahuang and Tuer chickens (p < 0.05). Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and multivariate analysis revealed sugars, amino acids and organic acids were the predominant metabolites that differed among the three chicken breeds. Growth performance and carcass traits of yellow-feathered chickens exhibited significant differences with the extension of the feeding period (p < 0.05). Moreover, differential metabolites reflected altered aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, ATP-binding cassette transporters, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, as well as glutathione metabolism in yellow-feathered chickens affected by age. Collectively, this study contributes to a deeper understanding of the production efficiency and chemical composition of precursor flavor in Chinese indigenous, yellow-feathered chicken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products)
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Article
The Effectiveness of Extruded-Cooked Lentil Flour in Preparing a Gluten-Free Pizza with Improved Nutritional Features and a Good Sensory Quality
Foods 2022, 11(3), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030482 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Extruded-cooked lentil (ECL) flour was used to fortify (10/100 g dough) gluten-free pizza, which was compared with rice/corn-based pizza (control), and with pizza containing native lentil (NL) flour. Viscoamylograph and Mixolab data evidenced the hydrocolloid properties of ECL flour (initial viscosity = 69.3 [...] Read more.
Extruded-cooked lentil (ECL) flour was used to fortify (10/100 g dough) gluten-free pizza, which was compared with rice/corn-based pizza (control), and with pizza containing native lentil (NL) flour. Viscoamylograph and Mixolab data evidenced the hydrocolloid properties of ECL flour (initial viscosity = 69.3 BU), which contained pregelatinized starch. The use of ECL flour made it possible to eliminate hydroxymethylcellulose (E464), obtaining a clean label product. Both NL and ECL pizzas showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher contents of proteins (7.4 and 7.3/100 g, respectively) than the control pizza (4.4/100 g) and could be labelled as “source of proteins” according to the Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006. In addition, NL and ECL pizzas were characterized by higher contents of bioactive compounds, including anthocyanins, and by higher in vitro antioxidant activity (1.42 and 1.35 µmol Trolox/g d.m., respectively) than the control pizza (1.07 µmol Trolox/g d.m.). However, NL and ECL pizzas also contained small amounts of undigestible oligosaccharides, typically present in lentils (verbascose = 0.92–0.98 mg/g d.m.; stachyose = 4.04–5.55 mg/g d.m.; and raffinose = 1.98–2.05 mg/g d.m.). No significant differences were observed in the liking level expressed by consumers between ECL and control pizzas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unconventional Ingredients for Innovative Cereal-Based Products)
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Article
Optimized Roasting Conditions of Germinated Wheat for a Novel Cereal Beverage and Its Sensory Properties
Foods 2022, 11(3), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030481 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using germinated wheat as a nutritionally improved novel cereal beverage. To enhance the health-related functionality of a germinated wheat beverage (GWB), the roasting time and temperature of germinated wheat were optimized using [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using germinated wheat as a nutritionally improved novel cereal beverage. To enhance the health-related functionality of a germinated wheat beverage (GWB), the roasting time and temperature of germinated wheat were optimized using a central composite design and response surface methodology. The optimum roasting conditions were determined as roasting temperature of 180 °C and roasting time of 44.56 min, resulting in maximum total flavonoid content (0.74 mg CE/g), total phenolic content (1.95 mg GE/g), 2,2-diphnyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (5.10 μM TE/g), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (9.45 mM TE/g), and γ-aminobutyric acid content (2.25 mg/g). The germinated wheat roasted with optimum conditions was prepared in two types of GWB (hot and cold), and the sensory characteristics were tested by consumers (n = 102). The cold GWB showed relatively high preferences compared to hot GWB in appearance, odor, taste, and overall acceptabilities. In the intensity results of the sensory properties of GWB, the cold GWB tended to have stronger browning, grain odor, and nutty taste than the hot GWB. Conclusively, this study showed that optimizing the roasting conditions of germinated wheat could achieve desirable sensory properties and consumer acceptance while improving the health-related functionality of GWB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutritional and Functional Properties of Cereal Crops)
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Review
Gluten-Free Bread and Bakery Products Technology
Foods 2022, 11(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030480 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Gluten, a protein fraction from wheat, rye, barley, oats, their hybrids and derivatives, is very important in baking technology. The number of people suffering from gluten intolerance is growing worldwide, and at the same time, the need for foods suitable for a gluten-free [...] Read more.
Gluten, a protein fraction from wheat, rye, barley, oats, their hybrids and derivatives, is very important in baking technology. The number of people suffering from gluten intolerance is growing worldwide, and at the same time, the need for foods suitable for a gluten-free diet is increasing. Bread and bakery products are an essential part of the daily diet. Therefore, new naturally gluten-free baking ingredients and new methods of processing traditional ingredients are sought. The study discusses the use of additives to replace gluten and ensure the stability and elasticity of the dough, to improve the nutritional quality and sensory properties of gluten-free bread. The current task is to extend the shelf life of gluten-free bread and bakery products and thus extend the possibility of its distribution in a fresh state. This work is also focused on various technological possibilities of gluten-free bread and the preparation of bakery products. Full article
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Article
Characterization of the Reduced IgE Binding Capacity in Boiled and Autoclaved Soybeans through Proteomic Approaches
Foods 2022, 11(3), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030479 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 443
Abstract
The study investigated the changes in IgE binding capacity, protein profiles and peptide compositions after soybeans were boiled and autoclaved. The results of ELISA showed that the IgE binding capacity of soybean was reduced by 69.3% and 88.9% after boiling and autoclaving, respectively. [...] Read more.
The study investigated the changes in IgE binding capacity, protein profiles and peptide compositions after soybeans were boiled and autoclaved. The results of ELISA showed that the IgE binding capacity of soybean was reduced by 69.3% and 88.9% after boiling and autoclaving, respectively. Above 43 and 10 kDa proteins disappeared in boiled and autoclaved soybeans from SDS-PAGE, respectively. A Venn diagram and heat map showed that there was no change in allergen types and a reduction in allergen contents in the boiled and autoclaved soybeans. The changes in peptide compositions were also observed in the boiled and autoclaved soybeans through Venn diagram, PCA and heat map. LC/MS-MS and peptide mapping analysis demonstrated that boiling and autoclaving masked many epitopes in Gly m 4 and Gly m 5, such as ALVTDADNVIPK, SVENVEGNGGPGTIKK and KITFLEDGETK of Gly m 4 and VEKEECEEGEIPRPRPRPQHPER of Gly m 5, resulting in a reduction of IgE binding capacity in the extracted proteins. By contrast, the exposure of many epitopes in Gly m 6 was observed in boiled and autoclaved soybeans, which might be mainly responsible for the existing IgE binding capacity in the treated soybean proteins. Interestingly, the IgE binding capacity of soybeans showed a positive correlation with the total contents and number of peptides in Gly m 4–Gly m 6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
3D Printing of Textured Soft Hybrid Meat Analogues
Foods 2022, 11(3), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030478 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Meat analogue is a food product mainly made of plant proteins. It is considered to be a sustainable food and has gained a lot of interest in recent years. Hybrid meat is a next generation meat analogue prepared by the co-processing of both [...] Read more.
Meat analogue is a food product mainly made of plant proteins. It is considered to be a sustainable food and has gained a lot of interest in recent years. Hybrid meat is a next generation meat analogue prepared by the co-processing of both plant and animal protein ingredients at different ratios and is considered to be nutritionally superior to the currently available plant-only meat analogues. Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is becoming increasingly popular in food processing. Three-dimensional food printing involves the modification of food structures, which leads to the creation of soft food. Currently, there is no available research on 3D printing of meat analogues. This study was carried out to create plant and animal protein-based formulations for 3D printing of hybrid meat analogues with soft textures. Pea protein isolate (PPI) and chicken mince were selected as the main plant protein and meat sources, respectively, for 3D printing tests. Then, rheology and forward extrusion tests were carried out on these selected samples to obtain a basic understanding of their potential printability. Afterwards, extrusion-based 3D printing was conducted to print a 3D chicken nugget shape. The addition of 20% chicken mince paste to PPI based paste achieved better printability and fibre structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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Article
Insights into the Metabolomic Diversity of Latilactobacillus sakei
Foods 2022, 11(3), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030477 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Latilactobacillus sakei (L. sakei), widely used as a starter culture in fermented sausages, is a species adapted to meat environments. Its ability to survive for a long time in such products is due to the exploitation of different metabolic pathways to [...] Read more.
Latilactobacillus sakei (L. sakei), widely used as a starter culture in fermented sausages, is a species adapted to meat environments. Its ability to survive for a long time in such products is due to the exploitation of different metabolic pathways to gain energy (hexose and pentose sugar fermentation, amino acids catabolism, etc.). Since L. sakei demonstrates high phenotypic and metabolic strain biodiversity, in this work, a metabolomic approach was used to compare five strains of different origins. They were cultivated in a defined medium with glucose or ribose at two concentrations, and analyzed through nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy to monitor amino acid consumptions and accumulation of organic acids and aroma compounds. The results showed that all the strains were able to use arginine, especially when cultivated with ribose, while serine was consumed mainly in the presence of glucose. Aroma compounds (i.e., diacetyl and acetoin) were mainly accumulated in samples with ribose. These aspects are relevant for starter cultures selection, to confer specific features to fermented sausages, and to optimize the fermentations. Moreover, the use of 1H-NMR allowed the fast identification of different classes of compounds (without derivatization or extraction procedures), providing a powerful tool to increase the knowledge of the metabolic diversity of L. sakei. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Different Processing Methods on Microorganisms in Food)
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Article
An Index for Wine Acetaldehyde Reactive Potential (ARP) and Some Derived Remarks about the Accumulation of Acetaldehyde during Wine Oxidation
Foods 2022, 11(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030476 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 464
Abstract
The amount of acetaldehyde accumulated during wine oxidation was very small, far less than expected. The existence of polyphenols specifically reactive to acetaldehyde was postuled. In order to assess the acetaldehyde reactive potential (ARP) of wines, different reactive conditions have been studied: acetaldehyde [...] Read more.
The amount of acetaldehyde accumulated during wine oxidation was very small, far less than expected. The existence of polyphenols specifically reactive to acetaldehyde was postuled. In order to assess the acetaldehyde reactive potential (ARP) of wines, different reactive conditions have been studied: acetaldehyde concentration, temperature and pH. The evaluation/validation of developed ARP assay was made with 12 wines. Results have shown that high temperatures cannot be used to estimate wine ARP. In fact, at 70 °C acetaldehyde reacts strictly proportionally to wine total polyphenols. A reproducible index by letting wine at pH 2 react with 35 mgL−1 of acetaldehyde for 7 days was obtained and applied to 12 wines. Rosés did not consume any, whites consumed 8% and reds between 18 and 38% of their total acetaldehyde content. After pH correction, whites ARP can be similar to low ARP reds. Basic kinetic considerations derived from the measurement of ARP were applied to interpret observed acetaldehyde accumulation and consumption during the forced oxidation of the 12 wines. It is concluded that wine ARPs cannot explain the huge fraction of acetaldehyde presumably consumed by wine and the fraction of H2O2 produced during oxidation and not consumed by SO2 has to oxidize majorly wine components other than ethanol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Grape Derived Product Aroma and Flavour Chemistry)
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Article
Textural, Color and Sensory Features of Spelt Wholegrain Snack Enriched with Betaine
Foods 2022, 11(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030475 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 429
Abstract
The influence of different extrusion parameters, including screw speed (250–750 rpm), feed rate (15–25 kg/h) and feed moisture content (15–25%), on the textural and color properties of spelt wholegrain snack products produced on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder with added betaine was investigated. In [...] Read more.
The influence of different extrusion parameters, including screw speed (250–750 rpm), feed rate (15–25 kg/h) and feed moisture content (15–25%), on the textural and color properties of spelt wholegrain snack products produced on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder with added betaine was investigated. In order to determine the relative influence of input variables in the artificial neural network (ANN) model, Yoon’s interpretation method was used, and it was concluded that feed moisture content has the greatest influence on L* values, while screw speed has the greatest influence on a* and b* values. The softest samples were obtained at the lowest moisture content. Sensory analysis was carried out on selected samples, and it showed that betaine addition did not intensify the bitter taste. The sample with the largest expansion exhibited the lowest hardness and chewiness before and after immersion in milk, and this sample is the most suitable for enrichment with betaine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Article
Chemical Characterization of the Oil Separated by Mechanical Pressing from Strychnos madagascariensis Dried Fruit Pulp Flour
Foods 2022, 11(3), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030474 - 06 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 417
Abstract
In Mozambique, rural communities produce flours from the dried pulp of Strychnos madagascariensis fruits. Owing to its high lipid content, the oil from this flour is frequently separated by pressing to be used as seasoning and medicine. Aiming to characterize this oil, flour [...] Read more.
In Mozambique, rural communities produce flours from the dried pulp of Strychnos madagascariensis fruits. Owing to its high lipid content, the oil from this flour is frequently separated by pressing to be used as seasoning and medicine. Aiming to characterize this oil, flour samples (n = 24), dried at two different temperatures (55 °C and 65 °C), were collected from four local communities, together with a control sample prepared in the lab (50 °C). The resulting oil was fluid at room temperature, deep orange, and characterized by a high content of oleic acid (62–63%), followed by palmitic (20%) and linoleic (7%). It contained considerable amounts of tocols (25–34 mg/100 g) and carotenoids (8–10 mg/100 g), as well as sterols (431 ± 10 mg/100 g) and triterpenic alcohols (823 ± 4 mg/100 g mg/100 g). The overall composition was highly consistent between origins and temperatures, with only small statistically significant differences (p < 0.05), mostly between the community dried flours and control group. However, its high free fatty acid content (22–25%) reveals intensive enzymatic hydrolysis during the drying/fermentation steps, whose extension can be reduced by optimizing its technological process. Its chemical profile supports some of its folklore uses, revealing that it can be a promising source of edible oil, with health and technological potential that is worth optimizing and exploring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Exploring Chemical Markers Related to the Acceptance and Sensory Profiles of Concentrated Liquid Coffees: An Untargeted Metabolomics Approach
Foods 2022, 11(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030473 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 657
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to apply an untargeted LC/QTOF-MS analysis for the identification of compounds that positively and negatively affect the acceptance of coffee beverages from liquid coffee concentrates (CLCs) before and after storage. The metabolomic results were integrated with physicochemical and [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to apply an untargeted LC/QTOF-MS analysis for the identification of compounds that positively and negatively affect the acceptance of coffee beverages from liquid coffee concentrates (CLCs) before and after storage. The metabolomic results were integrated with physicochemical and sensory parameters, such as color, pH, titratable acidity, and oxygen contents, by a bootstrapped version of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to select and classify the most relevant variables regarding the rejection or acceptance of CLC beverages. The OPLS-DA models for metabolite selection discriminated between the percent sensory acceptance (the Accepted group) and rejection (the Rejected group). Eighty-two molecular features were considered statistically significant. Our data suggest that coffee sample rejection is associated with chlorogenic acid hydrolysis to produce ferulic and quinic acids, consequently generating methoxybenzaldehydes that impact the perceived acidity and aroma. Furthermore, acceptance was correlated with higher global scores and sweetness, as with lactones such as feruloyl-quinolactone, caffeoyl quinolactone, and 4-caffeoyl-1,5-quinolactone, and significant oxygen levels in the headspace. Full article
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Article
Analysis and Comparison of Nutrition Profiles of Canine Milk with Bovine and Caprine Milk
Foods 2022, 11(3), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030472 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Pet foods are gaining ground in China. Canine milk substitute formulations are based on their milk chemistry. This study aimed to analyze and compare the differences in proteins, fatty acids, minerals, and basic chemical composition between canine, bovine, and caprine milk. Canine milk [...] Read more.
Pet foods are gaining ground in China. Canine milk substitute formulations are based on their milk chemistry. This study aimed to analyze and compare the differences in proteins, fatty acids, minerals, and basic chemical composition between canine, bovine, and caprine milk. Canine milk contains higher contents of protein (6.62–17.34%), fat (8.92–14.31%), and ash (1.11–1.81%), and a lower content of lactose (1.56–3.92%) compared to bovine and caprine milk. The protein profiles of canine, bovine, and caprine milk were similar as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel (SDS-PAGE). The quantification of proteins in canine, bovine, and caprine milk were significantly different when analyzed by inverse high-performance liquid chromatography. Canine milk showed higher contents of monounsaturated fatty acids (29.71–32.95% of total fatty acids) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (16.83–20.56% of total fatty acids), but a lower proportion of saturated fatty acids (47.57–53.18% of total fatty acids) than bovine and caprine milk. The essential fatty acids ARA and DHA were also found in canine milk in the ranges of 0.82–1.77% and 0.12–0.43% of total fatty acids, respectively. Canine milk had higher levels of Mg, K, Na, Fe, and Zn than those in bovine and caprine milk. The nutrient profile of canine milk was different from that of bovine and caprine milk. There were differences in nutritional compositions of the milk samples from four breeds, and Rottweiler milk had the highest nutritional content. The data of this study may provide useful information about the nutritional needs of puppies during their first months of life and the basic information for formulations of puppy milk substitutes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Product Processing and Hazard Control)
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Article
Application of Pulsed Electric Fields and High-Pressure Homogenization in Biorefinery Cascade of C. vulgaris Microalgae
Foods 2022, 11(3), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030471 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 512
Abstract
In this study, a cascaded cell disintegration process, based on pulsed electric fields (PEF - 20 kV/cm, 100 kJ/kgSUSP.) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH - 150 MPa, 5 passes) was designed for the efficient and selective release of intracellular compounds (water-soluble proteins, [...] Read more.
In this study, a cascaded cell disintegration process, based on pulsed electric fields (PEF - 20 kV/cm, 100 kJ/kgSUSP.) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH - 150 MPa, 5 passes) was designed for the efficient and selective release of intracellular compounds (water-soluble proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) from C. vulgaris suspensions during extraction in water (25 °C, 1 h) and ethyl acetate (25 °C, 3 h). Recovery yields of target compounds from cascaded treatments (PEF + HPH) were compared with those observed when applying PEF and HPH treatments individually. Particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that PEF treatment alone did not induce any measurable effect on cell shape/structure, whereas HPH caused complete cell fragmentation and debris formation, with an undifferentiated release of intracellular matter. Spectra measurements demonstrated that, in comparison with HPH alone, cascaded treatments increased the selectivity of extraction and improved the yields of carbohydrates and lipids, while higher yields of water-soluble proteins were measured for HPH alone. This work, therefore, demonstrates the feasibility of sequentially applying PEF and HPH treatments in the biorefinery of microalgae, projecting a beneficial impact in terms of process economics due to the potential reduction of the energy requirements for separation/purification stages. Full article
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Article
Pilot Study for the Dietary Assessment of Xenobiotics Derived from Food Processing in an Adult Spanish Sample
Foods 2022, 11(3), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030470 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Background: Although xenobiotics from food processing have gained support as possible drivers of the relationship between diet and some types of cancer, there are still few studies characterizing the intake of these compounds among different populations. Aim: To describe the intake of heterocyclic [...] Read more.
Background: Although xenobiotics from food processing have gained support as possible drivers of the relationship between diet and some types of cancer, there are still few studies characterizing the intake of these compounds among different populations. Aim: To describe the intake of heterocyclic amines (HAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrates, nitrites, nitrosamines, and acrylamide; and to identify dietary and lifestyle related factors. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study in 70 adult volunteers. Intake was registered by means of a food frequency questionnaire, including cooking methods, temperature, and degree of browning. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) and the Computerized Heterocyclic Amines Resource for Research in Epidemiology of Disease (CHARRED) databases were used for xenobiotic estimation in conjunction with data from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Results: Dietary HAs (amino-alpha-carboline (AαC), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5,f) quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8 dimethylimidazo (4,5,f) quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8 trime-thylimidazo (4,5,f) quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo (4,5,b) pyridine (PhIP)) were mainly derived from meat and meat products, while benzo (a) pyrene (B(a)P), dibenzo (a) anthracene (DiB(a)A), and total PAHs were explained by oils and fats, alcoholic beverages, and milk, respectively. Microwaved, fried, grilled, broiled, barbecued, and braised cooking methods were mainly responsible for HAs and PAHs consumption. Conclusion: Based on the wide presence and levels of intake of these compounds in different sources, more efforts should be made to adjust their intake to the levels recommended by health agencies. Full article
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Article
Preparation and Characterization of a Novel Soy Protein Isolate-Sugar Beet Pectin Emulsion Gel and Its Application as a Multi-Phased Nutrient Carrier
Foods 2022, 11(3), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030469 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 591
Abstract
Emulsion gel, a novel oral delivery carrier, provides the possibility to co-load hydrophilic and lipophilic nutrients simultaneously. In this study, duo-induction methods of laccase and glucono-δ-lactone (L&GDL) or laccase and transglutaminase (L&MTG) were used to prepare the soy protein isolate-sugar beet pectin (SPI-SBP) [...] Read more.
Emulsion gel, a novel oral delivery carrier, provides the possibility to co-load hydrophilic and lipophilic nutrients simultaneously. In this study, duo-induction methods of laccase and glucono-δ-lactone (L&GDL) or laccase and transglutaminase (L&MTG) were used to prepare the soy protein isolate-sugar beet pectin (SPI-SBP) emulsion gel. The textural data of the emulsion gel was normalized to analyze the effect of different induction methods on the gel property of the SPI-SBP emulsion gels. The characterization studies showed the structure of L&MTG emulsion gel was denser with a lower swelling ratio and reduced degree of digestion, compared with L&GDL emulsion gel. Moreover, the release profiles of both β-carotene and riboflavin co-loaded in the SPI-SBP emulsion gels were correlated to the digestion patterns of the gel matrix; the controlled-release of encapsulated functional factors was regulated by a gel network induced by different induction methods, mainly due to the resulting porosity of the structure and swelling ratio during digestion. In conclusion, SPI-SBP emulsion gels have the capability of encapsulating multiple functional factors with different physicochemical properties. Full article
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Article
Properties of Sweet Buttermilk Released from the Churning of Cream Separated from Sheep or Cow Milk or Sheep Cheese Whey: Effect of Heat Treatment and Storage of Cream
Foods 2022, 11(3), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030465 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
The objective of the study was to compare the buttermilk released from the churning of sweet cream separated from sheep milk (BSM) or whey (BSW) with the buttermilk from sweet cow milk cream (BCM). Additional experimental factors were the heat treatment (68 °C [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to compare the buttermilk released from the churning of sweet cream separated from sheep milk (BSM) or whey (BSW) with the buttermilk from sweet cow milk cream (BCM). Additional experimental factors were the heat treatment (68 °C for 10 or 30 min) and storage of cream (refrigeration or freezing). The composition of BSM was the most advantageous in terms of non-fat solids, protein—which was the most abundant solid component—casein, calcium and phosphorus contents. No significant differences were observed in the phospholipids (PL) content of BSM, BCM and BSW. Antioxidant potential and emulsion stability (ES) of BSM were the highest. The radical scavenging activity (RSA) of BSW was high opposite to chelating activity (CA). Some functional properties of BSW were similar to those of BSM and BCM. The freezing of cream affected the churning, the fat content, the soluble nitrogenous fraction at pH 4.6 (WSN) and some functional properties of buttermilk, but not in a consistent manner. The properties of BSM were marginally affected or unaffected by the use of frozen cream. The freezing of whey cream caused significant changes (p < 0.05) in the protein profile and the functional behaviour of BSW. Cream heat treatment affected the WSN of BSW opposite to its sweet cream counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Article
Purification and Characterization of a Novel Calcium-Binding Heptapeptide from the Hydrolysate of Tilapia Bone with Its Osteogenic Activity
Foods 2022, 11(3), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030468 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 594
Abstract
In this study, a calcium-binding peptide was obtained by hydrolyzing tilapia bone and its osteogenic activity was evaluated. Animal protease was selected from nine enzymes, and its hydrolysate was purified through preparative and semi-preparative reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The purified peptide was [...] Read more.
In this study, a calcium-binding peptide was obtained by hydrolyzing tilapia bone and its osteogenic activity was evaluated. Animal protease was selected from nine enzymes, and its hydrolysate was purified through preparative and semi-preparative reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The purified peptide was identified as DGPSGPK (656.32 Da) and its calcium-binding capacity reached 111.98 µg/mg. The peptide calcium chelate (DGPSGPK-Ca) was obtained, and its structure was characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and mass spectrometry (MS). The results of XRD and SEM showed that DGPSGPK-Ca was formed as a new compound. The carboxyl and amino groups of Lys and Asp residues may be the chelating sites of DGPSGPK according to the FTIR and MS results. The molecular simulation showed the carbonyl groups of Asp, Pro, Ser, and Lys residues involved in the binding of calcium. The interaction of DGPSGPK and different integrins was evaluated by molecular docking simulation, and the main forces involved were electrostatic interaction forces, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, DGPSGPK could inhibit the differentiation of osteoclast and promote the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food By-Products as a Source of Proteins and Peptides)
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Review
Economic Impact of Temperature Control during Food Transportation—A COVID-19 Perspective
Foods 2022, 11(3), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030467 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Temperature fluctuation and abuse in the food cold chain (FCC) is becoming an increasingly crucial factor in the process of food production and for the logistic business, especially in COVID-19 pandemic. The quality of perishable food products depends largely on accurate transport and [...] Read more.
Temperature fluctuation and abuse in the food cold chain (FCC) is becoming an increasingly crucial factor in the process of food production and for the logistic business, especially in COVID-19 pandemic. The quality of perishable food products depends largely on accurate transport and maintenance temperature. The evidence for temperature-related food waste and loss is extensive. The research problem is thus: how to decrease and control food losses caused by temperature abuse in the FCC and restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The primary objective is to propose a framework for real-time temperature measurement protocols supported by passive RFID, IoT and Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts. This method allows not only the signaling of temperature abuse alerts but, in addition to hitherto methods, investigation and mitigation of the causes of process instability of individual FCC links in the future. The secondary objective is to delineate the necessary data sources and ways of their collection and utilization in order to decrease food losses and waste via process stabilization of temperature in transport and storage. As contribution to current literature and practice, we offer an in-depth analysis of threats in the FCC in food transport and storage infrastructure and a solution supplemented by SPC charts and tested in controlled experiments that is practicable from economic and technical standpoints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Food Safety during COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
The Quantification of IgG Specific to α-Gal Could Be Used as a Risk Marker for Suffering Mammalian Meat Allergy
Foods 2022, 11(3), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030466 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The alpha-Gal Syndrome is a delayed meat allergy characterized by the presence of sIgE against α-Gal epitope. It is known that the α-Gal present in tick saliva induces the sensitization to this epitope ending in the production of sIgG and sIgE to α-Gal. [...] Read more.
The alpha-Gal Syndrome is a delayed meat allergy characterized by the presence of sIgE against α-Gal epitope. It is known that the α-Gal present in tick saliva induces the sensitization to this epitope ending in the production of sIgG and sIgE to α-Gal. It could be considered that the more times a person is bitten by tick species, the higher the probability of making the switch from sIgG to sIgE to α-Gal and developing allergy, but it is no clear when the switch occurs. To determine the likelihood that a subject bitten by ticks but without AGS be at risk of developing this allergy, we quantified the levels of sIgG to α-Gal by an automated system (ImmunoCap). To stablish a cut-off value for sIgG to α-Gal, a receiving operating curve (ROC) was constructed. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the risk of suffering AGS in individuals bitten by ticks was 35% when the sIgG to α-Gal was greater than or equal to 40 µg/mL. Our data indicate that the sIgG values against α-Gal could be used as a prognostic marker for developing mammalian meat allergy. Full article
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Review
Essential Oils and Their Major Components: An Updated Review on Antimicrobial Activities, Mechanism of Action and Their Potential Application in the Food Industry
Foods 2022, 11(3), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030464 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
A novel alternative to synthetic preservatives is the use of natural products such as essential oil (EO) as a natural food-grade preservative. EOs are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS), so they could be considered an alternative way to increase the shelf-life of highly [...] Read more.
A novel alternative to synthetic preservatives is the use of natural products such as essential oil (EO) as a natural food-grade preservative. EOs are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS), so they could be considered an alternative way to increase the shelf-life of highly perishable food products by impeding the proliferation of food-borne pathogens. The mounting interest within the food industry and consumer preference for “natural” and “safe” products means that scientific evidence on plant-derived essential oils (EOs) needs to be examined in-depth, including the underlying mechanisms of action. Understanding the mechanism of action that individual components of EO exert on the cell is imperative to design strategies to eradicate food-borne pathogens. Results from published works showed that most EOs are more active against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria due to the difference in the cell wall structure. In addition, the application of EOs at a commercial scale has been minimal, as their flavour and odour could be imparted to food. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the research carried out on EOs, emphasizing the antibacterial activity of fruit peel EOs, and the antibacterial mechanism of action of the individual components of EOs. A brief outline of recent contributions of EOs in the food matrix is highlighted. The findings from the literature have been encouraging, and further research is recommended to develop strategies for the application of EO at an industrial scale. Full article
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Article
Plant and Dairy-Based Yogurts: A Comparison of Consumer Sensory Acceptability Linked to Textural Analysis
Foods 2022, 11(3), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030463 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
Yogurt, readily available in plant and dairy-based formulations, is widely consumed and linked with health benefits. This research is aimed to understand the sensory and textural spectrum of commercially available dairy and plant-based yogurts. In a preliminary study, qualitative focus group discussions (4 [...] Read more.
Yogurt, readily available in plant and dairy-based formulations, is widely consumed and linked with health benefits. This research is aimed to understand the sensory and textural spectrum of commercially available dairy and plant-based yogurts. In a preliminary study, qualitative focus group discussions (4 groups; n = 32) were used to determine perceptions of 28 dairy and plant-based yogurts, identifying positive consumer perceptions of plant-based yogurts. A smaller subset of five spoonable and one drinkable yogurts—(Reference, Soy, Coconut, Cookies, Berry, and Drinkable) was subsequently selected for rheological and structural measurements, showing wide variations in the microstructure and rheology of selected yogurt samples. A quantitative blind sensory tasting (n = 117) showed varying yogurt acceptability, with Berry being the least-liked and Cookies being the most-liked yogurt, in terms of overall liking. The multi-factor analysis confirmed that compositional and textural elements, including protein content, gel firmness, and consistency coefficient, displayed a positive relationship with overall liking. In contrast, fat, sugar, and calories were negatively correlated to the overall liking. This research showed that texture and other compositional factors are significant determinants of the consumer acceptability of yogurt products and are essential properties to consider in product development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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Article
Reclaim and Valorization of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) By-Product: Antioxidant Activity and Chemical Characterization
Foods 2022, 11(3), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030462 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
The by-product resulting from the production of the sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) juice may be a functional food ingredient, being a valuable source of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, minerals, and fatty acids. For checking this hypothesis, two extracts were obtained [...] Read more.
The by-product resulting from the production of the sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) juice may be a functional food ingredient, being a valuable source of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, minerals, and fatty acids. For checking this hypothesis, two extracts were obtained by two different methods using 50% ethyl alcohol solvent, namely through maceration–recirculation (E-SBM) and through ultrasound extraction (E-SBUS), followed by concentration. Next, sea-buckthorn waste (SB sample), extracts (E-SBM and E-SBUS samples) and the residues obtained from the extractions (R-SBM and R-SBUS samples) were characterized for the total polyphenols, flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity, mineral contents, and fatty acids profile. The results show that polyphenols and flavonoids were extracted better by the ultrasound process than the other methods. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of the E-SBUS sample was 91% higher (expressed in Trolox equivalents) and approximately 45% higher (expressed in Fe2+ equivalents) than that of the E-SBM sample. Regarding the extraction of minerals, it was found that both concentrated extracts had almost 25% of the RDI value of K and Mg, and also that the content of Zn, Mn, and Fe is significant. Additionally, it was found that the residues (R-SBM and R-SBUS) contain important quantities of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ca, and Fe. The general conclusion is that using the ultrasound extraction method, followed by a process of concentrating the extract, a superior recovery of sea-buckthorn by-product resulting from the juice extraction can be achieved. Full article
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Article
Effect and Mechanism of Acid-Induced Soy Protein Isolate Gels as Influenced by Cellulose Nanocrystals and Microcrystalline Cellulose
Foods 2022, 11(3), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030461 - 03 Feb 2022
Viewed by 510
Abstract
The effects of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) on the gel properties and microstructure of glucono-δ-lactone-induced soy protein isolate (SPI) gels were investigated. The water-holding capacity, gel strength, and viscoelastic modulus of CNC–SPI gels were positively associated with CNC concentration from [...] Read more.
The effects of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) on the gel properties and microstructure of glucono-δ-lactone-induced soy protein isolate (SPI) gels were investigated. The water-holding capacity, gel strength, and viscoelastic modulus of CNC–SPI gels were positively associated with CNC concentration from 0 to 0.75% (w/v). In contrast, MCC–SPI gels exhibited decreased water-holding capacity, gel strength, and viscoelastic modulus. All composite gels displayed high frequency dependence and the typical type I (strain thinning) network behavior. Changes in viscoelasticity under large strain were correlated with differences in the microstructure of SPI composite gels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that CNC were more evenly and steadily distributed in the protein matrix and formed a compact network structure. In contrast, MCC–SPI gels exhibited a discontinued and rough gel network with some large aggregates and pores, in which MCC was randomly entrapped. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and molecular forces results revealed that no new chemical bonds were formed in the gelation process and that the disulfide bond was of crucial importance in the gel system. With the addition of CNC, electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen bonds in the SPI gel network were significantly strengthened. However, the incorporation of MCC might obstruct the connection of the protein network. It is concluded that both cellulose type and concentration affect gelling properties. Full article
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