Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 27772

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China
Interests: meat science and technology; food microbiology; identification of volatile compounds; new product development; protein and lipid oxidation; meat quality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Flavor is one of the most important attributes for meat and meat products, which directly influences the acceptability of food to consumers. The compositions, properties, and development of flavor compounds, and the influencing factors of flavor formation during processing and storage in meat and meat products, are attracting increasing attention. Recent advancements in detection techniques and chemometric analysis techniques make the analysis of volatile compounds more exciting.

Therefore, this Special Issue of Foods, entitled “Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products”, invites works (original research papers or reviews) on the current state of knowledge on the subject. Specifically, this Special Issue should include but is not limited to the following points:

  1. In-depth characterization of the flavor profile of any type of meat and meat products;
  2. Pathways and mechanisms of flavor formation in meat and meat products, including processing and storage;
  3. Interactions and mechanisms between meat components and flavor compounds;
  4. Analytical, sensorial, and data analysis approaches to meat flavor.

Prof. Dr. Baohua Kong
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • meat and meat products
  • flavor
  • aroma
  • taste
  • volatile compounds
  • processing
  • storage
  • formation pathway
  • interaction mechanism
  • analytical approaches

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1477 KiB  
Article
The Use of Electronic Nose in the Quality Evaluation and Adulteration Identification of Beijing-You Chicken
by Jingru Chen, Wenjie Yan, Yu Fu, Liang Wang, Xueze Lv, Ruitong Dai, Xingmin Li and Fei Jia
Foods 2022, 11(6), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11060782 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2413
Abstract
The objective of this study was to reveal the secrets of the unique meat characteristics of Beijing-you chicken (BJY) and to compare the difference of quality and flavor with Luhua chicken (LH) and Arbor Acres broiler (AA) at their typical market ages. The [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to reveal the secrets of the unique meat characteristics of Beijing-you chicken (BJY) and to compare the difference of quality and flavor with Luhua chicken (LH) and Arbor Acres broiler (AA) at their typical market ages. The results showed the meat of BJY was richer in essential amino acids, arachidonic acid contents, inosine monophosphate (IMP), and guanosine monophosphate (GMP). The total fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid contents of BJY chicken and LH chicken were lower than that of AA broilers, whereas the ratios of unsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (2.31) and polyunsaturated fatty acids/monounsaturated fatty acids (1.52) of BJY chicken were the highest. The electronic nose and SPME-GC/MS analysis confirmed the significant differences among these three chickens, and the variety and relative content of aldehydes might contribute to a richer flavor of BJY chicken. The meat characteristics of BJY were fully investigated and showed that BJY chicken might be favored among these three chicken breeds with the best flavor properties and the highest nutritional value. This study also provides an alternative way to identify BJY chicken from other chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products)
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15 pages, 1840 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Breed and Age on the Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Metabolic Profile in Breast Muscle of Chinese Indigenous Chickens
by Shaolin Deng, Tong Xing, Chunbao Li, Xinglian Xu and Guanghong Zhou
Foods 2022, 11(3), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030483 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3072
Abstract
Indigenous chickens possess desirable characteristics and account for considerable proportions of the total chicken production in China. The current study examined the growth performance, carcass characteristics and muscle metabolites among a crossbred broiler and two indigenous, yellow-feathered chickens (Mahuang and Tuer) with different [...] Read more.
Indigenous chickens possess desirable characteristics and account for considerable proportions of the total chicken production in China. The current study examined the growth performance, carcass characteristics and muscle metabolites among a crossbred broiler and two indigenous, yellow-feathered chickens (Mahuang and Tuer) with different ages (60 and 75 days). Results indicated that the crossbred broiler had better feed efficiency, higher breast and thigh muscle yield, as well as a lower abdominal fat percentage than Mahuang and Tuer chickens (p < 0.05). Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and multivariate analysis revealed sugars, amino acids and organic acids were the predominant metabolites that differed among the three chicken breeds. Growth performance and carcass traits of yellow-feathered chickens exhibited significant differences with the extension of the feeding period (p < 0.05). Moreover, differential metabolites reflected altered aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, ATP-binding cassette transporters, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, as well as glutathione metabolism in yellow-feathered chickens affected by age. Collectively, this study contributes to a deeper understanding of the production efficiency and chemical composition of precursor flavor in Chinese indigenous, yellow-feathered chicken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products)
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14 pages, 1058 KiB  
Article
Volatile Profile of Dry and Wet Aged Beef Loin and Its Relationship with Consumer Flavour Liking
by Zhenzhao Li, Minh Ha, Damian Frank, Peter McGilchrist and Robyn Dorothy Warner
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3113; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123113 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2924
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of ageing method and ageing time on the volatile profiles of grilled beef striploins (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and their relationship with consumer flavour liking. Volatiles were measured in grilled steaks subjected to 35 days of [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of ageing method and ageing time on the volatile profiles of grilled beef striploins (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and their relationship with consumer flavour liking. Volatiles were measured in grilled steaks subjected to 35 days of dry ageing, 35 days of wet ageing, 56 days of dry ageing or 56 days of wet ageing, using headspace-solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry was also conducted on 35-day wet and dry aged samples to identify volatiles with high odour impact. The concentration of many odour impact volatiles, e.g., 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and various alkyl-pyrazines, was significantly higher in dry aged beef compared to wet aged beef (p < 0.05). Several odour impact volatiles, e.g., 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and alkyl-pyrazines, decreased significantly with ageing time (p < 0.05), while volatile products of lipid oxidation and microbial metabolism increased with ageing time. Partial least-squares regression analysis showed that the higher consumer flavour liking for 35-day dry aged beef was associated with higher concentrations of desirable odour-active volatiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products)
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12 pages, 1099 KiB  
Article
Flavor Characterization of Animal Hydrolysates and Potential of Glucosamine in Flavor Modulation
by Kathrine H. Bak, Sandra S. Waehrens, Yu Fu, Ching Yue Chow, Mikael A. Petersen, Jorge Ruiz-Carrascal, Wender L. P. Bredie and René Lametsch
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3008; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123008 - 4 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2867
Abstract
Bovine (meat and heart) and porcine (hemoglobin and plasma) raw materials were hydrolyzed by Protease A (both endo- and exopeptidase activity), with or without glucosamine added during the enzyme inactivation step. Hydrolysates were characterized via peptide analysis (yield, UV- and fluorescence scanning spectroscopy, [...] Read more.
Bovine (meat and heart) and porcine (hemoglobin and plasma) raw materials were hydrolyzed by Protease A (both endo- and exopeptidase activity), with or without glucosamine added during the enzyme inactivation step. Hydrolysates were characterized via peptide analysis (yield, UV- and fluorescence scanning spectroscopy, and peptide size distribution via size exclusion chromatography), sensory evaluation, and volatile compound analysis via gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine if glucosamine-induced Maillard reaction improved taste and flavor. Porcine hemoglobin produced the most flavor-neutral hydrolysate, and could expectedly have the broadest application in food products. Both bovine meat and -heart hydrolysates were high in umami, and thereby good candidates for savory applications. Porcine plasma hydrolysate was high in liver flavor and would be suitable for addition to certain meat products where liver flavor is desirable. All hydrolysates had low perceived bitterness. Glucosamine-induced Maillard reaction had just a minor influence on the sensory profile via an increased perception of sweet taste (p = 0.038), umami taste (p = 0.042), and yolk flavor (p = 0.038) in the hydrolysates, irrespective of raw material. Glucosamine addition had a statistically significant effect on 13 of 69 volatiles detected in the hydrolysates, but the effect was minor and raw material-specific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products)
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14 pages, 2007 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim) on the Taste Perception of Stewed Sheep Tail Fat by LC-QTOF-MS/MS and a Chemometrics Analysis
by Yan Huang, Dandan Pu, Zhilin Hao, Xiao Yang and Yuyu Zhang
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2709; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112709 - 5 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1857
Abstract
This work aims to explore the contribution of prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim) on the taste perception of stewed sheep tail fat. Liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was applied to analyze the taste-related compounds. A total of 99 [...] Read more.
This work aims to explore the contribution of prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim) on the taste perception of stewed sheep tail fat. Liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was applied to analyze the taste-related compounds. A total of 99 compounds in different sheep tail fat samples were identified. The semi-quantitative results showed that there were differences between the samples. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model without overfitting was used to investigate the effect of prickly ash. Eleven marker compounds were predicted with a variable importance for projection > 1, fold change > 2 and p < 0.05. An additional experiment showed that guanosine 5′-monophosphate, malic acid, inosine and adenosine 5′-monophosphate could improve the umami and saltiness taste of stewed sheep tail fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products)
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9 pages, 528 KiB  
Article
Odor Emissions from Raw Meat of Freshly Slaughtered Cattle during Inspection
by Francesca Conte, Fabrizio Cincotta, Concetta Condurso, Antonella Verzera and Antonio Panebianco
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2411; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102411 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Raw meat of Freshly Slaughtered Cattle (FSC) is characterized by a very weak odor defined as slightly sweet, which could interfere in off-odor assessment during post-mortem inspection by an official veterinarian. Despite this, no information is reported in the literature on the volatiles [...] Read more.
Raw meat of Freshly Slaughtered Cattle (FSC) is characterized by a very weak odor defined as slightly sweet, which could interfere in off-odor assessment during post-mortem inspection by an official veterinarian. Despite this, no information is reported in the literature on the volatiles which are emitted by FSC meat. Thus, this research aimed to study the volatile profile of raw cattle meat at different times within 24 h of slaughtering. Volatiles were analyzed and quantified using HS-SPME-GC-MS. γ-Butyrolactone, acetoin, and to a lesser extent, acid acetic were found to be the odor-active compounds of raw meat from freshly slaughtered cattle. Quantitative differences were observed up to 24 h; since the lowest levels of the odor-active compounds were reached between two and three hours from slaughtering, this period could be the most suitable for the post-mortem inspection process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products)
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18 pages, 14295 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Specific Spoilage Organism in Farmed Sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) Fillets and Its Associated Quality and Flavour Change during Ice Storage
by Zhichao Zhang, Ruiyun Wu, Meng Gui, Zhijie Jiang and Pinglan Li
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2021; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092021 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2676
Abstract
Hybrid sturgeon, a popular commercial fish, plays important role in the aquaculture in China, while its spoilage during storage significantly limits the commercial value. In this study, the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) from ice stored-sturgeon fillet were isolated and identified by analyzing their [...] Read more.
Hybrid sturgeon, a popular commercial fish, plays important role in the aquaculture in China, while its spoilage during storage significantly limits the commercial value. In this study, the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) from ice stored-sturgeon fillet were isolated and identified by analyzing their spoilage related on sensory change, microbial growth, and biochemical properties, including total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and proteolytic degradation. In addition, the effect of the SSOs on the change of volatile flavor compounds was evaluated by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas mandelii, and Shewanella putrefaciens were the main SSOs in the ice stored-sturgeon fillet, and significantly affect the odors by changing the volatile compounds in the sturgeon. Compared with the fresh sturgeon, the appreciable increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tetramethyl-pyrazine might be the spoilage indicators of the sturgeon contaminated by P. fluorescens; the appreciable increase of 1-octen-3-ol and (z)-2-penten-1-o might be the potential marker of the sturgeon contaminated by P. mandelii; and the appreciable increase of 1-(3,3-dimethylbicyclo [2.2.1] hept-2-yl)-ethanon and butylated hydroxytoluene were associated with S. putrefaciens. This study reveals the relationship between the SSOs and flavor changes in sturgeon fillets, which will contribute to the sturgeon preservation and shelf-life extension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products)
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13 pages, 8765 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Determination of Capsaicinoids Content in Soy Sauce and Pot-Roast Meat Products Based on Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Β-Cyclodextrin/Carboxylated Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
by Qianhui Gu, Chaoqun Lu, Kangwen Chen, Xingguang Chen, Pengfei Ma, Zhouping Wang and Baocai Xu
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081743 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
The rapid quantification of capsaicinoids content is very important for the standardization of pungent taste degree and flavor control of soy sauce and pot-roast meat products. To rapidly quantify the capsaicinoids content in soy sauce and pot-roast meat products, an electrochemical sensor based [...] Read more.
The rapid quantification of capsaicinoids content is very important for the standardization of pungent taste degree and flavor control of soy sauce and pot-roast meat products. To rapidly quantify the capsaicinoids content in soy sauce and pot-roast meat products, an electrochemical sensor based on β-cyclodextrin/carboxylated multi-wall carbon nanotubes was constructed and the adsorptive stripping voltammetry method was used to enrich samples in this study. The results showed that the excellent performance of the established electrochemical sensor was mostly because β-cyclodextrin caused the relative dispersion of carboxylated multi-wall carbon nanotubes on the glassy carbon electrode surface. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin had similar electrochemical behavior, so the proposed method could determine the total content of capsaicinoids. The linearity of capsaicinoids content was from 0.5 to 100 μmol/L and the detection limit was 0.27 μmol/L. The recovery rates of different capsaicinoids content were between 83.20% and 136.26%, indicating the proposed sensor could realize trace detection of capsaicinoids content in sauce and pot-roast meat products. This work provides a research basis for pungent taste degree standardization and flavor control in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products)
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18 pages, 1383 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Evaluation of Volatile and Nonvolatile Compounds in Oyster Cuts of Roasted Lamb at Different Processing Stages Using Traditional Nang Roasting
by Yujun Xu, Dequan Zhang, Huan Liu, Zhenyu Wang, Teng Hui and Jilu Sun
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071508 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
Nang roasting is a traditional lamb processing method in Xinjiang (China) with a history of thousands of years. This study comprehensively evaluated the volatile and nonvolatile compounds of oyster cuts of roasted lamb at different processing stages of Nang roasting using gas chromatography [...] Read more.
Nang roasting is a traditional lamb processing method in Xinjiang (China) with a history of thousands of years. This study comprehensively evaluated the volatile and nonvolatile compounds of oyster cuts of roasted lamb at different processing stages of Nang roasting using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and amino acid automatic analyzer, respectively. Results indicated that aldehydes were the dominant profiles of volatile compounds, and hexanal, nonanal, octanal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, (E, E)-2,4-nonadienal and 1-octen-3-ol were the key volatile compounds or aroma contributors to roasted oyster cuts. Isoamylol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone could differentiate fresh and marinated oyster cuts from roasted ones; (E)-2-nonenal, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal, octanal, nonanal and (E, E)-2,4-nonadienal could differentiate Nang roasted oyster cuts of 60 min from those of 15, 30 and 45 min. Umami amino acids and sweet amino acids are the dominant profiles of nonvolatile compounds; glutamic acid, alanine and 5′-IMP were the key free amino acids or taste contributors to roasted oyster cuts. Glutamic acid, alanine and 5′-IMP could differentiate fresh and marinated oyster cuts from roasted samples. This work provided theoretical support for the control of flavor attributes of roasted lamb with traditional Nang roasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products)
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16 pages, 4456 KiB  
Article
Influences of Smoking in Traditional and Industrial Conditions on Flavour Profile of Harbin Red Sausages by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
by Xiaoyu Yin, Qian Chen, Qian Liu, Yan Wang and Baohua Kong
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061180 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4216
Abstract
Smoking is mainly used to impart desirable flavour, colour and texture to the products. Various food smoking methods can be divided into traditional and industrial methods. The influences of three different smoking methods, including traditional smouldering smoke (TSS), industrial smouldering smoke (ISS) and [...] Read more.
Smoking is mainly used to impart desirable flavour, colour and texture to the products. Various food smoking methods can be divided into traditional and industrial methods. The influences of three different smoking methods, including traditional smouldering smoke (TSS), industrial smouldering smoke (ISS) and industrial liquid smoke (ILS), on quality characteristics, sensory attributes and flavour profiles of Harbin red sausages were studied. The smoking methods had significant effects on the moisture content (55.74–61.72 g/100 g), L*-value (53.85–57.61), a*-value (11.97–13.15), b*-value (12.19–12.92), hardness (24.25–29.17 N) and chewiness (13.42–17.32). A total of 86 volatile compounds were identified by headspace solid phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC × GC-qMS). Among them, phenolic compounds were the most abundant compounds in the all sausages. Compared with sausages smoked with smouldering smoke, the ILS sausages showed the highest content of volatile compounds, especially phenols, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Principal component analysis showed that the sausages smoked with different methods had a good separation based on the quality characteristics and GC × GC-qMS data. These results will facilitate optimising the smoking methods in the industrial production of smoked meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavor of Meat and Meat Products)
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