Challenges for Upcycled Foods: Definition, Inclusion in the Food Waste Management Hierarchy and Public Acceptability
2. Defining Upcycled Food
3. Upcycled Food Production in the Food Waste Management Hierarchy
3.1. Food Waste Management Hierarchy
3.2. Inclusion of Upcycled Food Production in Food Waste Management Hierarchy
4. Public Acceptability of Upcycled Food
4.1. Consumer Sociodemographic Characteristics and Beliefs
4.2. Upcycled Food Quality Cues and Attributes
4.2.1. Food Quality Cues
4.2.2. Food Quality Attributes
5. Critical Discussion
Conflicts of Interest
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|Bhatt et al. ||Foods made from surplus ingredients or ingredients obtained during the manufacturing of other foods that would have been otherwise wasted.||Research||Assessing the effects of product descriptions, labels, and benefits on consumer evaluation of upcycled foods|
|Spratt et al. ||“Upcycled ingredients and food products elevate food that would otherwise be wasted to higher uses, and have tangible benefits to the environment and society.”||Manufacturer||Developing a definition for upcycled food products from a manufacturer perspective|
|Upcycled Food Association ||“Upcycled foods use ingredients that otherwise would not have gone to human consumption, are procured and produced using verifiable supply chains, and have a positive impact on the environment.”||Multi-stakeholder including the third-party certification||Providing industry, academia, government, and other interested parties with a standardised and workable definition|
|Source||Waste Management Hierarchy|
(from Most to Least Favourable Action)
|Teigiserova and Hamelin ||Prevention, human reuse, animal reuse, material recycling, nutrient recovery, energy recovery and disposal (landfill/incineration)||Circular economy|
|Papargyropoulou et al. ||Prevention, reuse (human consumption), recycle (animal feed and composting), energy recovery (via anaerobic digestion) and disposal (landfill)||Management of food surplus and food waste|
|Garcia-Garcia, et al. ||Prevention of food waste generation, redistribution for human consumption, animal feed, extraction of compounds of interest, industrial use, anaerobic digestion, composting, thermal treatment with energy recovery, land spreading, thermal treatment without energy recovery and landfilling||Supporting decision-making process and industrial food waste management|
|Zu Ermgassen et al. ||Reduce food waste, reuse and redistribute, recycle (animal feed and compost), recovery (anaerobic digestion), disposal||Animal Feed|
|Zero Waste Europe ||Source prevention, food redistribution, repurposing, anaerobic digestion and composting, mechanical biological mixed waste treatment and landfill/incineration||Food waste policies|
|United States Environmental Protection Agency ||Source reduction, feed hungry people, feed animals, industrial use, composting, landfill/incineration||Prioritize organization actions to prevent and divert wasted food|
|UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs ||Prevent, redistribute, make animal feed, recycle (anaerobic digestion), recycle (composting), recycle (land spreading), incinerate to generate energy, incinerate without generating energy, send to landfill or sewer||Statutory guidance for food producers, |
retailers to prevent food surplus, recycle and dispose of food waste
|Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality ||Prevention, use for human food, conversion to human food, use in animal feed, raw materials for industry (biobased economy), processing to make fertilizer for co-fermentation (and energy generation), processing to make fertilizer by composting, use for sustainable energy (objective is energy generation), burning as waste (aim is destruction, with possible energy production), dumping||Guideline for optimum utilisation of residual flows based on ethical norms|
|European Commission’s Knowledge Centre for Bioeconomy ||Prevention, reuse for human consumption, reuse for animal consumption, reuse by-products and recycle food waste, recycle for nutrients recovery, energy recovery, disposal (landfill/incineration/sewage)||Food waste valorisation|
|United Nations Environment Programme ||Prevention, optimisation (redistribution to people and animal feed), recycling (anaerobic digestion and compost), energy recovery, disposal (landfill/incineration/sewage)||Guidance for governments, businesses and other organisations to develop food waste management strategies|
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Moshtaghian, H.; Bolton, K.; Rousta, K. Challenges for Upcycled Foods: Definition, Inclusion in the Food Waste Management Hierarchy and Public Acceptability. Foods 2021, 10, 2874. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112874
Moshtaghian H, Bolton K, Rousta K. Challenges for Upcycled Foods: Definition, Inclusion in the Food Waste Management Hierarchy and Public Acceptability. Foods. 2021; 10(11):2874. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112874Chicago/Turabian Style
Moshtaghian, Hanieh, Kim Bolton, and Kamran Rousta. 2021. "Challenges for Upcycled Foods: Definition, Inclusion in the Food Waste Management Hierarchy and Public Acceptability" Foods 10, no. 11: 2874. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112874