Future Food Analysis and Detection

Dear Colleagues,

“Man is What He Eats”: Food represents one of the fundamental needs for human beings, and therefore, food analysis is a field of utmost importance. At the same time, given its inherent complexity, this subject encompasses multiple aspects, e.g., safety of use, health requirements, compliance to laws, organoleptic characteristics, and consumer’s acceptance, often intertwined. For instance, a study could aim at developing an analytical platform for the protection of consumers, or rather be more centered on deeply understanding the characteristics of specific foodstuffs and the effects after their consumption.

In this context, spectroscopy is a suitable tool for food analysis, as it is versatile (different spectral regions provide different and often complementary information on the same set of samples), it is relatively rapid and, in general, cheap if compared to other instrumental techniques, it is almost always nondestructive or, at least, microdestructive, and in many cases, it can even be non-invasive and require minimum sample manipulation or pretreatment, thus representing a green alternative to other state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, if coupled with imaging/microscopic techniques, it can provide information not only about the average quantity/concentration but also about the distribution of constituents within the matrix.

Based on these considerations, this Topic aims at collecting studies describing interesting/relevant problems in food analysis and, ideally, suggesting strategies for solving/handling them. The submitted papers can encompass different aspects and scopes: authenticating and/or characterizing aliments, detecting frauds, and ensuring law/sanitary compliance. Additionally, since chemometrics plays a fundamental role in the application of spectroscopic techniques to food-related issues, papers dealing with new data processing approaches suitable for overcoming specific issues in the spectroscopic analysis of food samples are also more than welcome.

Prof. Dr. Federico Marini
Dr. Alessandra Biancolillo
Topic Editors

Deadline for abstract submissions: 31 December 2021.
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2022.

Topic Board

Prof. Dr. Federico Marini
E-Mail Website
Topic Associate Editor-in-Chief
Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, 00185 Rome, Italy
Interests: chemometrics; analytical chemistry; chemistry; spectroscopy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Alessandra Biancolillo
E-Mail Website
Topic Editor-in-Chief
Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio Coppito, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
Interests: data analysis; chemometrics; food analysis; data-fusion; spectroscopy; classification; variable selection; analytical chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Relevant Journals List

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.679 3.0 2011 13.8 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Foods
foods
4.350 3.0 2012 16.04 Days 2000 CHF Submit
AppliedChem
appliedchem
- - 2021 0 Days 1000 CHF Submit
Methods and Protocols
mps
- 1.7 2018 20.22 Days 1400 CHF Submit

Published Papers (39 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) during Storage, as Evaluated by Headspace Gas Chromatography–Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Principal Component Analysis
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2917; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122917 (registering DOI) - 25 Nov 2021
Abstract
The large yellow croaker is one of the most economically important fish in Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province, and is well known for its high protein and fat contents, fresh and tender meat, and soft taste. However, the mechanisms involved in its flavor changes during [...] Read more.
The large yellow croaker is one of the most economically important fish in Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province, and is well known for its high protein and fat contents, fresh and tender meat, and soft taste. However, the mechanisms involved in its flavor changes during storage have yet to be revealed, although lipid oxidation has been considered to be one important process in determining such changes. Thus, to explore the changes in the flavor of large yellow croaker fish meat during different storage periods, the main physical and chemical characteristics of the fish meat, including the acid value, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, conjugated diene value, and identities of the various flavor substances, were investigated and analyzed by multivariable methods, including headspace gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) and principal component analysis (PCA). It was found that after 60 d storage, the types and contents of the aldehyde and ketone aroma components increased significantly, while after 120 d, the contents of ketones (2-butanone), alcohols (1-propanethiol), and aldehydes (n-nonanal) decreased significantly. More specifically, aldehyde components dominated over ketones and lipids, while the n-nonanal content showed a downward trend during storage, and the 3-methylbutanol (trimer), 3-methylbutanol (dimer, D), 3-pentanone (D), and 3-pentanone (monomer) contents increased, whereas these compounds were identified as the key components affecting the fish meat flavor. Furthermore, after 120 d storage, the number of different flavor components reached its highest value, thereby confirming that the storage time influences the flavor of large yellow croaker fish. In this context, it should be noted that many of these compounds form through the Maillard reaction to accelerate the deterioration of fish meat. It was also found that after storage for 120 d, the physical indices of large yellow croaker meat showed significant changes, and its physicochemical properties varied. These results therefore demonstrate that a combination of GC-IMS and PCA can be used to identify the differences in flavor components present in fish meat during storage. Our study provides useful knowledge for understanding the different flavors associated with fish meat products during and following storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Mapping Aspergillus niger Metabolite Biomarkers for In Situ and Early Evaluation of Table Grapes Contamination
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112870 - 19 Nov 2021
Abstract
The Aspergillus niger exometabolome was recently investigated using advanced gas chromatography in tandem with multivariate analysis, which allowed a metabolite biomarker pattern to be proposed. Microbial metabolomics patterns have gained enormous relevance, mainly due to the amount of information made available, which may [...] Read more.
The Aspergillus niger exometabolome was recently investigated using advanced gas chromatography in tandem with multivariate analysis, which allowed a metabolite biomarker pattern to be proposed. Microbial metabolomics patterns have gained enormous relevance, mainly due to the amount of information made available, which may be useful in countless processes. One of the great challenges in microbial metabolomics is related to applications in more complex systems of metabolomics information obtained from studies carried out in culture media, as complications may occur due to the dynamic nature of biological systems. Thus, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the applicability of the A. niger metabololite biomarkers pattern for in situ and early evaluation of table grapes contamination, used as study model. A. niger is a ubiquitous fungus responsible for food contamination, being reported as one of the main agents of the black mold disease, a serious post-harvest pathology of table grapes. This work included analysis from 1 day of growth time of pure A. niger cultures, A. niger cultures obtained from previously contaminated grapes, and finally, an in situ solid-phase microextraction (SPME) approach directly on previously contaminated table grapes. Supervised multivariate analysis was performed which revealed that after 1 day of inoculation it was possible to detect A. niger biomarkers, which can be extremely useful in making this type of method possible for the rapid detection of food contamination. The results obtained confirm the potential applicability of the pattern of A. niger biomarkers for early detection of the fungi (after 1 day of contamination), and may be further explored for access food susceptibility to fungi contamination, based on direct analysis of the food item. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Influence of Drying Techniques on the Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Morphological Properties of Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) Fillets
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2837; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112837 - 17 Nov 2021
Abstract
Different experiment analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of two drying techniques (oven drying and microwave drying) on the fillets of bighead carp fish (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). The processed and fresh samples were subjected to the chemical analysis of (amino acids, [...] Read more.
Different experiment analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of two drying techniques (oven drying and microwave drying) on the fillets of bighead carp fish (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). The processed and fresh samples were subjected to the chemical analysis of (amino acids, minerals, volatile compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins) as well as scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, and color measurement, in order to identify nutritional components that can be additives or supplementary in food industries. The drying techniques increased the protein content significantly. Amino acids were identified, and the level of essential amino acid (EAA) was higher under the microwave treatment compared with the oven drying process. The Ca+2 and K+1 were presented in high values, followed by Na+1 and Mg+2. In addition, the drying techniques showed and released more volatile compounds in the processed samples compared with the unprocessed samples. Under the drying process, polyunsaturated fatty acids were increased in the processed fillets, whereas the level of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids reduced. Thermal degradation occurred from 100 to 150 °C. However, the processed samples were subjected to an intensive endothermic response, but remained stable until 100 °C. Therefore, the microwave technique showed some enhancements in the nutritional value and has the potential to be applied as an effective preservation method of bighead carp fish. Furthermore, dried fillets could be an alternative source of bighead carp fish for the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Geographic Origin Discrimination of Millet Using Vis-NIR Spectroscopy Combined with Machine Learning Techniques
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2767; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112767 - 11 Nov 2021
Abstract
Millet is a primary food for people living in the dry and semi-dry regions and is dispersed within most parts of Europe, Africa, and Asian countries. As part of the European Union (EU) efforts to establish food originality, there is a global need [...] Read more.
Millet is a primary food for people living in the dry and semi-dry regions and is dispersed within most parts of Europe, Africa, and Asian countries. As part of the European Union (EU) efforts to establish food originality, there is a global need to create Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) of crops and agricultural products to ensure the integrity of the food supply. In the present work, Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (Vis-NIR) combined with machine learning techniques was used to discriminate 16 millet varieties (n = 480) originating from various regions of China. Five different machine learning algorithms, namely, K-nearest neighbor (K-NN), Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Logistic regression (LR), Random Forest (RF), and Support vector machine (SVM), were used to train the NIR spectra of these millet samples and to assess their discrimination performance. Visible cluster trends were obtained from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the spectral data. Cross-validation was used to optimize the performance of the models. Overall, the F-Score values were as follows: SVM with 99.5%, accompanied by RF with 99.5%, LDA with 99.5%, K-NN with 99.1%, and LR with 98.8%. Both the linear and non-linear algorithms yielded positive results, but the non-linear models appear slightly better. The study revealed that applying Vis-NIR spectroscopy assisted by machine learning technique can be an essential tool for tracing the origins of millet, contributing to a safe authentication method in a quick, relatively cheap, and non-destructive way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dissipation Dynamics, Terminal Residues and Dietary Risk Assessment of Two Isomers of Dimethacarb in Rice by HPLC-MS/MS
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2615; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112615 - 28 Oct 2021
Abstract
Dimethacarb is a carbamate insecticide developed in China that contains 3,5-dimethylphenyl methylcarbamate (XMC) and 3,4-dimethylphenyl methylcarbamate (MPMC) isomers. Dimethacarb has been registered for use in rice in China, but no residue or degradation of dimethacarb in rice has been reported and the maximum [...] Read more.
Dimethacarb is a carbamate insecticide developed in China that contains 3,5-dimethylphenyl methylcarbamate (XMC) and 3,4-dimethylphenyl methylcarbamate (MPMC) isomers. Dimethacarb has been registered for use in rice in China, but no residue or degradation of dimethacarb in rice has been reported and the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for rice have not been established. A versatile high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed with modified QuEChERS sample preparation to determine two isomers of dimethacarb in rice. The average recovery of XMC and MPMC in brown rice, rice husk, and rice straw ranged from 71.69 to 100.60%, with spike levels of 0.01 to 1 mg/kg and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.21 to 8.41%. Field experiments showed that the half-lives of XMC and MPMC in rice straw were 4.08 to 4.23 days and 3.48 to 3.69 days, respectively. Final residues of XMC and MPMC in rice husk after 21 days of spraying at six sites ranged from 0.23–2.65 mg/kg and 0.06–1.10 mg/kg, and <0.01–0.16 mg/kg and <0.01–0.04 mg/kg in brown rice. The ratio of XMC to MPMC content in the rice husk differed from the original 50% dimethacarb EC, indicating the difference in the degradation rate of XMC and MPMC. The estimated risk quotient (RQ) for both XMC and MPMC was less than 30%. These data for residues from six representative locations could provide a reference for establishing the MRL of dimethacarb in rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Colorimetric Strategy Based on Aptamer-Catalyzed Hairpin Assembly for the On-Site Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in Milk
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2539; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112539 - 22 Oct 2021
Abstract
Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is a foodborne pathogen that has caused numerous outbreaks worldwide, necessitating the development of on-site strategy to prevent early contamination. Here, we set up an enzyme-free strategy for aptamer-catalyzed hairpin assembly in which salt-induced aggregation of unmodified [...] Read more.
Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is a foodborne pathogen that has caused numerous outbreaks worldwide, necessitating the development of on-site strategy to prevent early contamination. Here, we set up an enzyme-free strategy for aptamer-catalyzed hairpin assembly in which salt-induced aggregation of unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) served as a colorimetric signal output, allowing on-site detection of S. typhimurium in milk. The aptamer-functionalized magnetic beads were used as a vehicle of specifically enriching target bacteria which conjugated with target aptamer to trigger the “Y” shape catalytic hairpin assembly (Y-CHA) circuit. Due to the hairpins desorbing from the surface of AuNPs to the formation of a large amount of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), AuNPs turned from dispersion to aggregation in the presence of S. typhimurium, resulting in a change of the colorimetric signal from red to blue-gray. The signal output showed a linear relationship for S. typhimurium over a concentration range of 102 to 106 CFU/mL, with a sensitivity of 2.4 × 102 CFU/mL under optimal conditions. The visual protocol has excellent selectivity even in the presence of other competitive bacteria and has been validated in real milk samples with a sensitivity of 2.8 × 103 CFU/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Development of a Double Nanobody-Based Sandwich Immunoassay for the Detecting Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C in Dairy Products
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102426 - 13 Oct 2021
Abstract
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) represent the leading reason for staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) and various other diseases. Reports often indicate Staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) as the most frequently found enterotoxin in dairy products. To minimize consumer exposure to SEC, this paper aimed to create [...] Read more.
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) represent the leading reason for staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) and various other diseases. Reports often indicate Staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) as the most frequently found enterotoxin in dairy products. To minimize consumer exposure to SEC, this paper aimed to create a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on nanobodies (sandwich Nbs-ELISA) to accurately detect SEC in dairy products without the influence of staphylococcal protein A (SpA). Therefore, after inoculating a Bactrian camel with SEC, a phage display Nb library was created. Eleven Nbs against SEC were identified in three biopanning steps. Based on their affinity and pairing level, a sandwich Nbs-ELISA was developed using the C6 anti-SEC Nb as the capture antibody, while the detection antibody was represented by the C11 phage display anti-SEC Nb. In optimal conditions, the quantitative range of the present sandwich ELISA was 4-250 ng/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 2.47 ng/mL, obtained according to the blank value plus three standard deviations. The developed technique was subjected to specific measurements, revealing minimal cross-reactivity with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and SpA. The proposed method exhibited high specificity and an excellent recovery rate of 84.52~108.06% in dairy products. Therefore, the sandwich Nbs-ELISA showed significant potential for developing a specific, sensitive technique for SEC detection in dairy products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
A New Workflow to Generate Monoclonal Antibodies against Microorganisms
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9359; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209359 - 09 Oct 2021
Abstract
Monoclonal antibodies are used worldwide as highly potent and efficient detection reagents for research and diagnostic applications. Nevertheless, the specific targeting of complex antigens such as whole microorganisms remains a challenge. To provide a comprehensive workflow, we combined bioinformatic analyses with novel immunization [...] Read more.
Monoclonal antibodies are used worldwide as highly potent and efficient detection reagents for research and diagnostic applications. Nevertheless, the specific targeting of complex antigens such as whole microorganisms remains a challenge. To provide a comprehensive workflow, we combined bioinformatic analyses with novel immunization and selection tools to design monoclonal antibodies for the detection of whole microorganisms. In our initial study, we used the human pathogenic strain E. coli O157:H7 as a model target and identified 53 potential protein candidates by using reverse vaccinology methodology. Five different peptide epitopes were selected for immunization using epitope-engineered viral proteins. The identification of antibody-producing hybridomas was performed by using a novel screening technology based on transgenic fusion cell lines. Using an artificial cell surface receptor expressed by all hybridomas, the desired antigen-specific cells can be sorted fast and efficiently out of the fusion cell pool. Selected antibody candidates were characterized and showed strong binding to the target strain E. coli O157:H7 with minor or no cross-reactivity to other relevant microorganisms such as Legionella pneumophila and Bacillus ssp. This approach could be useful as a highly efficient workflow for the generation of antibodies against microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Interaction of Carbon Dots from Grilled Spanish Mackerel with Human Serum Albumin, γ-Globulin and Fibrinogen
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2336; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102336 - 30 Sep 2021
Abstract
The potential biological effects of food-borne carbon dots (FCDs) generated during food heating procedures on human health has received great attention. The FCDs will be inevitably exposed to blood proteins along with our daily diet to produce unknown biological effects. In this study, [...] Read more.
The potential biological effects of food-borne carbon dots (FCDs) generated during food heating procedures on human health has received great attention. The FCDs will be inevitably exposed to blood proteins along with our daily diet to produce unknown biological effects. In this study, the interaction between FCDs extracted from grilled Spanish mackerel and three main types of human plasma proteins including human serum albumin (HSA), human γ-globulin (HGG) and human fibrinogen (HF) was reported. It was found that the grilled Spanish mackerel FCDs could affect the morphology, size and surface electrical properties of the three proteins. The interaction between the FCDs and proteins had different effects on the secondary structure of the three proteins through a static mechanism. The tested HSA, HGG, and HF could adsorb FCDs to reach saturation state within 0.5 min after the adsorption happened. The binding affinity of the FCDs to the plasma proteins was sorted as follows: HF > HGG > HSA. The results of FCDs interacted with plasma proteins provided useful information in the assessment of the safety of FCDs in our daily diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Nondestructive Detection of Weight Loss Rate, Surface Color, Vitamin C Content, and Firmness in Mini-Chinese Cabbage with Nanopackaging by Fourier Transform-Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2309; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102309 - 29 Sep 2021
Abstract
A nondestructive optical method is described for the quality assessment of mini-Chinese cabbage with nanopackaging during its storage, using Fourier transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. The sample quality attributes measured included weight loss rate, surface color index, vitamin C content, and firmness. The level [...] Read more.
A nondestructive optical method is described for the quality assessment of mini-Chinese cabbage with nanopackaging during its storage, using Fourier transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. The sample quality attributes measured included weight loss rate, surface color index, vitamin C content, and firmness. The level of freshness of the mini-Chinese cabbage during storage was divided into three categories. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and the least squares support vector machine were applied to spectral datasets in order to develop prediction models for each quality attribute. For a comparative analysis of performance, the five preprocessing methods applied were standard normal variable (SNV), first derivative (lst), second derivative (2nd), multiplicative scattering correction (MSC), and auto scale. The SNV-PLSR model exhibited the best prediction performance for weight loss rate (Rp2 = 0.96, RMSEP = 1.432%). The 1st-PLSR model showed the best prediction performance for L* value (Rp2 = 0.89, RMSEP = 3.25 mg/100 g), but also the lowest accuracy for firmness (Rp2 = 0.60, RMSEP = 2.453). The best classification model was able to predict freshness levels with 88.8% accuracy in mini-Chinese cabbage by supported vector classification (SVC). This study illustrates that the spectral profile obtained by FT-NIR spectroscopy could potentially be implemented for integral assessments of the internal and external quality attributes of mini-Chinese cabbage with nanopacking during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Moroccan Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.) Fruits: Nutritional Value and Mineral Composition
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2263; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102263 - 24 Sep 2021
Abstract
The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.), grown throughout the Mediterranean, produces edible fruit; as it is easily bruised, the sweet, reddish fruit is used mostly to prepare jams, marmalades and alcoholic beverages. As the genus is paraphyletic, phytochemical analysis can assist in [...] Read more.
The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.), grown throughout the Mediterranean, produces edible fruit; as it is easily bruised, the sweet, reddish fruit is used mostly to prepare jams, marmalades and alcoholic beverages. As the genus is paraphyletic, phytochemical analysis can assist in defining the fruit composition with the species Arbutus unedo L. (A. unedo). Here we report on the carbohydrate, total sugar, protein, fat, fiber, ash, and mineral content of wild fruit, harvested from 45 specimens from five locations. The dominant nutrients were carbohydrates (78.2–84.8 g/100 g), total sugars (52.1–67.2 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (11.0–20.1 g/100 g). Other important nutrients supplied by A. unedo fruit include P, K, and Fe. The fruit was observed to contain health-promoting components providing 42 and 36%, of recommended daily allowance (RDA) for fiber and zinc, respectively, as well as iron and manganese, at levels exceeding minimum RDA. The free-sugar profile revealed high glucose followed by fructose content with minor amounts of sucrose (14, 11, and 6 g/100 g, respectively). Significant differences both between regions and within individuals were observed for several traits. The richness of fruit nutrients in A. unedo confers nutritional value and as such, a promising alternative fruit source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Risk Assessment and Analytical Methods Using QuEchERS Pretreatment for the Evaluation of Herbal Medicine Ingredients in Korea
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092200 - 16 Sep 2021
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds that are often formed during the thermal processing of herbal medicine ingredients. In this study, the concentrations of four PAHs (PAH4) in various herbal medicine ingredients were monitored. Further, the QuEChERS method was used [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds that are often formed during the thermal processing of herbal medicine ingredients. In this study, the concentrations of four PAHs (PAH4) in various herbal medicine ingredients were monitored. Further, the QuEChERS method was used to replace conventional pretreatment, a more complex and cumbersome approach. The recovery range of the QuEChERS method ranged between 89.65–118.59%, and the average detection levels of benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in 50 herbal medicine ingredients were 0.18, 0.27, 1.13, and 0.17 μg/kg, respectively. The BaP and PAH4 levels in all tested samples were deemed safe according to risk characterization analyses based on European Union and Korean guidelines. Therefore, our findings indicated that the QuEChERS method could be used as an effective alternative to conventional sample pretreatment for the analysis of herbal medicine ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Article
Non-Targeted LC-MS Metabolomics Approach towards an Authentication of the Geographical Origin of Grain Maize (Zea mays L.) Samples
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2160; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092160 - 13 Sep 2021
Abstract
Safety along the food and feed supply chain is an emerging topic and closely linked to the ability to analytical trace the geographical origin of food or feed. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used [...] Read more.
Safety along the food and feed supply chain is an emerging topic and closely linked to the ability to analytical trace the geographical origin of food or feed. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to trace back the geographical origin of 151 grain maize (Zea mays L.) samples from seven countries using a high resolution non-targeted metabolomics approach. Multivariate data analysis and univariate statistics were used to identify promising marker features related to geographical origin. Classification using only 20 selected markers with the Random Forest algorithm led to 90.5% correctly classified samples with 100 times repeated 10-fold cross-validation. The selected markers were assigned to the class of triglycerides, diglycerides and phospholipids. The marker set was further evaluated for its ability to separate between one sample class and the rest of the dataset, yielding accuracies above 89%. This demonstrates the high potential of the non-polar metabolome to authenticate the geographic origin of grain maize samples. Furthermore, this suggests that focusing on only a few lipids with high potential for grain maize authentication could be a promising approach for later transfer of the method to routine analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Optimisation of Stingless Bee Honey Nanoemulsions Using Response Surface Methodology
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092133 - 09 Sep 2021
Abstract
Nanoemulsions (NEs) have been used in a wide range of products, such as those produced by the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries, due to their stability and long shelf life. In the present study, stingless bee honey (SBH) NEs were formulated using SBH, [...] Read more.
Nanoemulsions (NEs) have been used in a wide range of products, such as those produced by the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries, due to their stability and long shelf life. In the present study, stingless bee honey (SBH) NEs were formulated using SBH, oleic acid, tween 80, glycerol, and double-distilled water. SBH NEs were prepared using a high-pressure homogeniser and were characterised by observing their stability and droplet size. Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) analysis was used to observe the functional groups of the SBH NEs after being subjected to high-pressure homogenisation. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images were then used to confirm the particle size of the SBH NEs and to investigate their morphology. The effects of the independent variables (percentage of oleic acid, storage time, and storage temperature) on the response variables (particle size and polydispersity index) were investigated using the response surface methodology, along with a three-level factorial design. The results showed that the models developed via the response surface methodology were reliable, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of more than 0.90. The experimental validation indicated an error of less than 10% in the actual results compared to the predicted results. The FTIR analysis showed that SBH NEs have the same functional group as SBH. Observation through TEM indicated that the SBH NEs had a similar particle size, which was between 10 and 100 nm. Thus, this study shows that SBH NEs can be developed using a high-pressure homogeniser, which indicates a new direction for SBH by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
3D Printing of Steak-like Foods Based on Textured Soybean Protein
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2011; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092011 - 26 Aug 2021
Abstract
Due to the lack of a sufficient amount of animal protein and the pursuit of health and reduced environmental impact, the global demand for plant protein is increasing. This study endeavors to using textured soybean protein (TSP) or drawing soy protein (DSP) as [...] Read more.
Due to the lack of a sufficient amount of animal protein and the pursuit of health and reduced environmental impact, the global demand for plant protein is increasing. This study endeavors to using textured soybean protein (TSP) or drawing soy protein (DSP) as raw materials to produce steak-like foods through 3D printing technology. The textural difference between fried 3D printed samples and fried commercial chicken breast (control) was studied. The results show that different ink substrates (TSP and DSP) and hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, konjac gum, sodium alginate, guar gum, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose) were the keys to successful printing. The ink composed of TSP and xanthan gum had the best printing characteristics and sample integrity after frying. It was found that different infilling patterns and infill rates had a significant effect on the texture properties of the fried samples. When the triangle infilling pattern was used at an infill rate of 60%, the product had had the closest hardness (2585.13 ± 262.55), chewiness (1227.18 ± 133.00), and gumminess (1548.09 ± 157.82) to the control sample. This work proved the feasibility of using 3D printing based on plant protein to produce steak-like food with texture properties similar to chicken breast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Types of Polysaccharide Coatings and Their Mixtures as a Factor Affecting the Stability of Bioactive Compounds and Health-Promoting Properties Expressed as the Ability to Inhibit the α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase of Chokeberry Extracts in the Microencapsulation Process
Foods 2021, 10(9), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091994 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of microencapsulating chokeberry extract by extrusion, and assess the effects of the selected carrier substance on the contents of polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, color of microspheres, and ability of microspheres to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, after [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of microencapsulating chokeberry extract by extrusion, and assess the effects of the selected carrier substance on the contents of polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, color of microspheres, and ability of microspheres to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, after 14 and 28 days of storage. The results showed that appropriate selection of the polysaccharide coating is of great importance for the proper course of the microencapsulation process, the polyphenolic content of chokeberry capsules, and their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. The addition of guar gum to a sodium alginate solution significantly increased the stability of polyphenolic compounds in microspheres during storage, whereas the addition of chitosan had a significantly negative effect on the stability of polyphenols. The coating variant composed of sodium alginate and guar gum was also found to be the most favorable for the preservation of the antioxidant activity of the capsules. On the other hand, capsules composed of sodium alginate, guar gum, and chitosan showed the best antidiabetic properties, which is related to these tricomponent microspheres having the best α-glucosidase inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Vertical and Horizontal Sample Orientations on Uniformity of Microwave Heating Produced by Magnetron and Solid-State Generators
Foods 2021, 10(9), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091986 - 25 Aug 2021
Abstract
In this study, the effect of different horizontal and vertical orientations of a model sample (cuboid gellan gel samples containing Maillard reactants) on microwave heat processing was investigated in the solid-state and magnetron microwave systems. To achieve this target, seven orientations inside both [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of different horizontal and vertical orientations of a model sample (cuboid gellan gel samples containing Maillard reactants) on microwave heat processing was investigated in the solid-state and magnetron microwave systems. To achieve this target, seven orientations inside both microwave cavities were defined. Two of the investigated sample orientations were in a vertical position with and without turntable rotation, and five in a horizontal position. Furthermore, samples at horizontal orientations were put at an angle position without turntable rotation. To analyze the microwave heating patterns, infrared (IR) pictures and photographs of the gellan gel samples were taken after processing to document IR-based thermal and Maillard color changes, respectively. Three main factors for improvement of the heating homogeneity were identified: first, processing samples in the solid-state microwave system; second, position variation of the sample by turntable activated; and third, horizontal orientation. In addition, it was observed that placing the gellan gel samples in a vertical position in the magnetron microwave system resulted in considerably more absorbed power and a more uniform microwave heat processing compared to other horizontal orientations in this system. This indicated a non-uniform microwave field distribution. The results of this study can also confirm the importance of designing suitable food packaging: a vertical shape for more microwave energy absorbance and thus, more energy efficiency, and a horizontal shape for more uniform microwave heat processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Sensitive SERS Method for Determination of Pymetrozine in Apple and Cabbage Based on an Easily Prepared Substrate
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1874; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081874 - 13 Aug 2021
Abstract
Residual pesticides are one of the major food safety concerns around the world. There is a demand for simple and reliable methods to monitor pesticide residues in foods. In this study, a sensitive method for determination of pymetrozine in apple and cabbage samples [...] Read more.
Residual pesticides are one of the major food safety concerns around the world. There is a demand for simple and reliable methods to monitor pesticide residues in foods. In this study, a sensitive method for determination of pymetrozine in apple and cabbage samples using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based on decanethiol functionalized silver nanoparticles was established. The proposed method performed satisfactorily with the linear detection range of 0.01–1.00 mg/L and limit of detection (LOD) of 0.01 mg/L in methanol. In addition, it was successfully used to detect pymetrozine in apple and cabbage samples, the LOD was 0.02 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively, and the recoveries of spiked cabbage and apple ranged 70.40–104.00%, with relative standard deviations below 12.18% and 10.33% for intra-day and inter-day tests. Moreover, the results of the correlation test with real cabbage samples of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry showed that they were highly correlated (slope = 0.9895, R2 = 0.9953). This study provides a sensitive approach for detection of pymetrozine in apple and cabbage, which has great potential for determination of pymetrozine residues in food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Physicochemical, Mineral and Sensory Characteristics of Instant Citrullus lanatus mucosospermus (Egusi) Soup
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081817 - 06 Aug 2021
Abstract
Defatted egusi flour offers a food option high in protein and essential micronutrients. An instant processing method was adopted in a ready-to-eat instant soup using egusi grit, hydrocolloid, and defatted flour. A D-optimal quadratic mixture model was used to study the effect of [...] Read more.
Defatted egusi flour offers a food option high in protein and essential micronutrients. An instant processing method was adopted in a ready-to-eat instant soup using egusi grit, hydrocolloid, and defatted flour. A D-optimal quadratic mixture model was used to study the effect of the independent variables (grit, flour, and hydrocolloid) qualities. The quadratic model was adequate to navigate the design space for taste and appearance. The numerical optimization for appearance and taste of instant soup (IES) was used to obtain the optimal soup mix of 10 g of hydrocolloid, 57.2 of defatted flour and 17 g of grits. Sixteen trace and five major mineral elements were found in the egusi soup, with a high concentration of phosphorus (1220.4, 1326.2 and 1277.9 mg/100 g), potassium (1220.4, 1326.2 and 1277.9 mg/100 g), magnesium (822.2, 905.3 and 863.70 mg/100 g), calcium (172.3, 190.9 and 183.4 mg/100 g) and iron (53.7, 57.5 and 29.5 mg/100 g), and for instant egusi soups from boiled egusi grit (IESBG), instant egusi grit from spherified grit (IESSG) and instant egusi grit from extruded grit (IESEG), respectively. The amino acid profile of instant egusi soup offers all essential amino acids necessary to nourish the body. Phosphorus content was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) high across the three soups: 1742, 1836 and 1838 mg/100 g for IESBG, IESSG, and IESEG, respectively; IESSG and IESEG were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in minerals when compared with IESBG. Instant egusi soup differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in lightness (L*), while the redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) did not vary significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Mathematical Model for Describing Corn Grain Dehydration Kinetics after a Nixtamalization Process
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081771 - 30 Jul 2021
Abstract
In this research, the mathematical model associated with the hydrothermal dehydration process of Nixtamalized Corn Grains (NCG) with different Steeping Time (ST) values, allows the fitting of experimental data with initial moisture M0 and the equilibrium moisture ME as a function [...] Read more.
In this research, the mathematical model associated with the hydrothermal dehydration process of Nixtamalized Corn Grains (NCG) with different Steeping Time (ST) values, allows the fitting of experimental data with initial moisture M0 and the equilibrium moisture ME as a function of Isothermal Dehydration Time (IDT). The moisture percentage for any time t and dehydration rate (isolines M(t) and isolines vI respectively) of the NCG is shown by means of matrix graphics as a simultaneous function of IDT and ST. The relationship between initial dehydration rate v0 and initial moisture M0 establishes as a function of ST. Also, the mathematical model associated with the solution of the second Fick’s law allows calculating the diffusivity rate vk (H2O molecules out of NCG) and verify that the rate of change in moisture and the dynamical proportionality constant k has a non-linear dependence on the IDT and that k is directly proportional to Deff. The k values strongly relate to ST and the calcium ions percentage into NCG according to solubility lime values into cooking water (or nejayote) as a function of decreasing temperature when ST increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Detection of Carrageenan in Cheese Using Lectin Histochemistry
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6903; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156903 - 27 Jul 2021
Abstract
Carrageenan is a substance widely used as an additive in the food industry. Among other things, it is often added to processed cheese, where it has a positive effect on texture. Processing of such cheese involves grinding, melting and emulsifying the cheese. There [...] Read more.
Carrageenan is a substance widely used as an additive in the food industry. Among other things, it is often added to processed cheese, where it has a positive effect on texture. Processing of such cheese involves grinding, melting and emulsifying the cheese. There is currently no official method by which carrageenan can be detected in foodstuffs, but there are several studies describing its negative health impact on consumers. Lectin histochemistry is a method that is used mainly in medical fields, but it has great potential to be used in food analysis as well. It has been demonstrated that lectin histochemistry can be used to detect carrageenan in processed cheese by Human Inspection and Computer-Assisted Analysis (CIE L*a*b*). The limit of detection (LoD) was established at 100 mg kg−1 for Human Inspection and 43.64 for CIE L*a*b*. The CIE L*a*b* results indicate that Computer-Assisted Analysis may be an appropriate alternative to Human Inspection. The most suitable parameter for Computer-Assisted Analysis was the b* parameter in the CIE L*a*b* color space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Volatile and Sensory Characterization of La Mancha Trujillo Melons over Three Consecutive Harvests
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081683 - 21 Jul 2021
Abstract
In this work, Trujillo melons were harvested across three years (2011–2013) in La Mancha region. Instrumental and sensory analysis were used for studying Trujillo melons. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for isolating free aroma compounds, and then, they were analysed by gas [...] Read more.
In this work, Trujillo melons were harvested across three years (2011–2013) in La Mancha region. Instrumental and sensory analysis were used for studying Trujillo melons. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for isolating free aroma compounds, and then, they were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifty-five (55) volatile compounds were identified and quantified in La Mancha Trujillo melons over this three-year period. Experienced tasters evaluated the sensory profile of Trujillo melons, and it was characterized by jam/marmalade, cucumber, fresh fruit, sweet, green, honey and ripe fruit aroma descriptors and sweet, honey, jam/marmalade, cucumber, fresh fruit ripe fruit, spice and green flavour by mouth descriptors. This study represents the first complete aromatic characterization of Trujillo melons from La Mancha region. The obtained data suggested that these melons presented a great aromatic profile and that they represent a viable alternative for expanding the traditional market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effect of In Vitro Digestion on the Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Potential of Buffalo Milk Processed Cheddar Cheese
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071661 - 19 Jul 2021
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop an in-vitro digestion protocol to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the peptides found in processed cheddar cheese using digestion enzymes. We first studied antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and antioxidant activities of processed cheddar [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to develop an in-vitro digestion protocol to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the peptides found in processed cheddar cheese using digestion enzymes. We first studied antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and antioxidant activities of processed cheddar cheese with the addition of spices e.g., cumin, clove, and black pepper made from buffalo milk and ripened for 9 months. Then we conducted an in vitro digestion of processed cheddar cheese by gastric and duodenal enzymes. Freeze-dried water (WSE) and ethanol-soluble fractions (ESE) of processed cheddar cheese were also monitored for their ACE inhibition activity and antioxidant activities. In our preliminary experiments, different levels of spices (cumin, clove, and black pepper) were tested into a cheese matrix and only one level 0.2 g/100 g (0.2%) based on cheese weight was considered good after sensory evaluation. Findings of the present study revealed that ACE-inhibitory potential was the highest in processed cheese made from buffalo milk with the addition of 0.2% cumin, clove, and black pepper. A significant increase in ACE-inhibition (%) of processed cheddar cheese, as well as its WSE and ESE, was obtained. Lower IC50 values were found after duodenal phase digestion compared to oral phase digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Multiple Light Scattering Measurements for Online Monitoring of Milk Fermentation
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071582 - 07 Jul 2021
Abstract
The present paper investigates the use of multiple light scattering for the monitoring of milk fermentation. The experiments were performed on milk fermented with different starter concentrations (0.05% to 4.5% (w/w) at temperatures from 36 to 44 °C and in the [...] Read more.
The present paper investigates the use of multiple light scattering for the monitoring of milk fermentation. The experiments were performed on milk fermented with different starter concentrations (0.05% to 4.5% (w/w) at temperatures from 36 to 44 °C and in the presence of antibiotics at concentrations up to 100 µg/kg. The fermentation was monitored continuously by using a multiple light scattering technique and simultaneously by a pH meter, a rheometer and a texture analyzer. The backscattering signal recorded by multiple light scattering measurements was correlated with the changes in pH, rheological parameters and firmness of the samples along the fermentation. A gelation time of 120 min was obtained when the highest concentration of starter (4.5%, w/w) and incubation temperature of 44 °C were used. These results were confirmed by the pH, rheological and texture monitoring. The analysis of backscattering spectra allowed the detection of the effect of antibiotic on the gel formation even at low concentrations (1.3 µg/kg). Overall, the results highlighted the advantages of using a multiple light scattering technique as quality control tool for online monitoring of milk fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Comparison of Egg Yolk and Soybean Phospholipids on Hepatic Fatty Acid Profile and Liver Protection in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071569 - 06 Jul 2021
Abstract
Perturbed lipid metabolism leads to ectopic lipid accumulation in tissues, such as the liver, thereby causing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and negatively influencing circulating lipid profile-inducing dyslipidemia. Phospholipids (PLs) with special biological activity are used to treat chronic diseases such as cardiovascular [...] Read more.
Perturbed lipid metabolism leads to ectopic lipid accumulation in tissues, such as the liver, thereby causing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and negatively influencing circulating lipid profile-inducing dyslipidemia. Phospholipids (PLs) with special biological activity are used to treat chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. PLs derived from egg yolk and soya bean have significant antioxidant and lipid-lowering abilities. This study examined the therapeutic effects of them on hyperlipidemia using a high-fructose-fed rat model; lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory effects were also analyzed. The results showed that both egg yolk and soya bean phospholipids (EPLs and SPLs) reduced liver weight, hepatic TG, and MDA content as well as serum ALT, AST, TBA, and CRP levels (p < 0.05). The PLs also showed hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects. EPLs and SPLs could inhibit the accumulation of hepatic fatty acids C18:1N9C, C18:0, and C22:6NS of rats fed a high-fat-and-sucrose diet. The intake of EPLs could significantly increase acetylcholine content in the blood and brain tissue. Histological examination showed that PLs intake could ameliorate the damage to liver tissue. This study suggested that EPLs and SPLs had a certain capacity of hypolipidemic and liver protection, and the therapeutic benefits of EPLs tended to be more effective than that of soybean phospholipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Formation of Volatile and Aroma Compounds during the Dehydration of Membrane-Clarified Sugarcane Juice to Non-Centrifugal Sugar
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071561 - 05 Jul 2021
Abstract
The development of volatile compounds and their precursors during the dehydration process of membrane-clarified sugarcane juice to non-centrifugal sugar (NCS) was investigated. Head-space solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC–MS) coupled with chemometrics was employed to assess the differences at the various stages of [...] Read more.
The development of volatile compounds and their precursors during the dehydration process of membrane-clarified sugarcane juice to non-centrifugal sugar (NCS) was investigated. Head-space solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC–MS) coupled with chemometrics was employed to assess the differences at the various stages of the dehydration process. A total of 111 volatile compounds were identified, among which 57 were endogenous compounds from sugarcane juice and displayed an attenuated abundance in the first 30 min. Typical oxygen and nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, including furans and pyrazines, and aldehydes derived were found to be the main volatiles contributing to the formation of NCS characteristic aroma, with phenols, alcohols, esters, acids, and sulfur compounds as supplementary odor. Free amino acids and reducing sugars were identified as important precursors for the aroma development process. The low temperature (90–108 °C) and micro vacuum condition (−0.03 MPa) approach used in this study could be an alternative option for the manufacture of NCS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
A Comparison of Microfluidic-Jet Spray Drying, Two-Fluid Nozzle Spray Drying, and Freeze-Drying for Co-Encapsulating β-Carotene, Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Fish Oil
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071522 - 01 Jul 2021
Abstract
Various microencapsulation techniques can result in significant differences in the properties of dried microcapsules. Microencapsulation is an effective approach to improve fish oil properties, including oxidisability and unpleasant flavour. In this study, β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and fish oil were co-encapsulated by microfluidic-jet [...] Read more.
Various microencapsulation techniques can result in significant differences in the properties of dried microcapsules. Microencapsulation is an effective approach to improve fish oil properties, including oxidisability and unpleasant flavour. In this study, β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and fish oil were co-encapsulated by microfluidic-jet spray drying (MFJSD), two-fluid nozzle spray drying (SD), and freeze-drying (FD), respectively. The aim of the current study is to understand the effect of different drying techniques on microcapsule properties. Whey protein isolate (WPI) and octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch were used as wall matrices in this study for encapsulating carotenoids and fish oil due to their strong emulsifying properties. Results showed the MFJSD microcapsules presented uniform particle size and regular morphological characteristics, while the SD and FD microcapsules presented a large distribution of particle size and irregular morphological characteristics. Compared to the SD and FD microcapsules, the MFJSD microcapsules possessed higher microencapsulation efficiency (94.0–95.1%), higher tapped density (0.373–0.652 g/cm3), and higher flowability (the Carr index of 16.0–30.0%). After a 4-week storage, the SD microcapsules showed the lower retention of carotenoids, as well as ω-3 LC-PUFAs than the FD and MFJSD microcapsules. After in vitro digestion trial, the differences in the digestion behaviours of the microcapsules mainly resulted from the different wall materials, but independent of drying methods. This study has provided an alternative way of delivering visual-beneficial compounds via a novel drying method, which is fundamentally essential in both areas of microencapsulation application and functional food development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Combination of Direct Viable Count and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (DVC-FISH) as a Potential Method for Identifying Viable Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters and Mussels
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071502 - 29 Jun 2021
Abstract
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a human food-borne pathogen with the ability to enter the food chain. It is able to acquire a viable, non-cultivable state (VBNC), which is not detected by traditional methods. The combination of the direct viable count method and a fluorescent [...] Read more.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a human food-borne pathogen with the ability to enter the food chain. It is able to acquire a viable, non-cultivable state (VBNC), which is not detected by traditional methods. The combination of the direct viable count method and a fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (DVC-FISH) makes it possible to detect microorganisms that can present VBNC forms in complex samples The optimization of the in vitro DVC-FISH technique for V. parahaemolyticus was carried out. The selected antibiotic was ciprofloxacin at a concentration of 0.75 μg/mL with an incubation time in DVC broth of 5 h. The DVC-FISH technique and the traditional plate culture were applied to detect and quantify the viable cells of the affected pathogen in artificially contaminated food matrices at different temperatures. The results obtained showed that low temperatures produced an important logarithmic decrease of V. parahaemolyticus, while at 22 °C, it proliferated rapidly. The DVC-FISH technique proved to be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of V. parahaemolyticus in the two seafood matrices of oysters and mussels. This is the first study in which this technique has been developed to detect viable cells for this microorganism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Ginger on Chemical Composition, Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Chicken Soup
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071456 - 23 Jun 2021
Abstract
In order to investigate the effect of ginger on taste components and sensory characteristics in chicken soup, the content of amino acids, organic acids, 5′-nucleotides, and mineral elements were determined in chicken soup sample. With the ginger added, free amino acids in chicken [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the effect of ginger on taste components and sensory characteristics in chicken soup, the content of amino acids, organic acids, 5′-nucleotides, and mineral elements were determined in chicken soup sample. With the ginger added, free amino acids in chicken soup obviously increased and exceeded the total amounts in ginger soup and chicken soup. The content of glutamic acid (122.74 μg/mL) was the highest among 17 free amino acids in ginger chicken soup. Meanwhile, six organic acids detected in chicken soup all obviously increased, among which lactic acid (1523.58 μg/mL) and critic acid (4692.41 μg/mL) exceeded 1000 μg/mL. The content of 5′-nucleotides had no obvious difference between ginger chicken soup and chicken soup. Compared with chicken soup, ginger chicken soup had a smaller particle size (136.43 nm) and color difference (79.69), but a higher viscosity. With ginger added in chicken soup, the content of seven mineral elements was reduced, and the content of total sugar increased. Results from an electronic tongue indicated a difference in taste profiles among the soups. The taste components and sensory quality of chicken soup were obviously affected by adding the ginger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Short-Term Implications of Climate Shocks on Wheat-Based Nutrient Flows: A Global “Nutrition at Risk” Analysis through a Stochastic CGE Model
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061414 - 18 Jun 2021
Abstract
Food security analyses of international trade largely overlook the importance of substantial heterogeneity and complexity of nutrient content in food products. This paper quantifies the extent to which wheat-based nutrient supplies, including energy, protein, iron, zinc, and magnesium, are exposed to the risks [...] Read more.
Food security analyses of international trade largely overlook the importance of substantial heterogeneity and complexity of nutrient content in food products. This paper quantifies the extent to which wheat-based nutrient supplies, including energy, protein, iron, zinc, and magnesium, are exposed to the risks of realistic productivity and trade shocks. By employing a static and stochastic world trade computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we find that productivity shocks may result in losses in households’ nutrient consumption of up to 18% for protein, 33.1% for zinc, and 37.4% for magnesium. Significant losses are observed in countries mostly in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia. Since the main centers of wheat exports have recently been shifting to former Soviet Union countries, we also simulated the nutritional risks of export restrictions imposed by the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan, which have resorted to this policy instrument in recent years. We find that partial export restrictions increase the probability of nutrient shocks by five times or more in most countries that we studied. Increased nutrient deficiencies have a range of public health implications in the affected countries, which could be mitigated and/or avoided by adjusting production and trade policies and by targeting high nutritional risk groups, such as women and children. Since the potential implications of supply shocks are diffused across countries through international trade, the stricter regulation of export restrictions to enhance the predictably and reliability of global food supplies is also needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Proton Low Field NMR Relaxation Time Domain Sensor for Monitoring of Oxidation Stability of PUFA-Rich Oils and Emulsion Products
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061385 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The nutritional characteristics of fatty acid (FA) containing foods are strongly dependent on the FA’s chemical/morphological arrangements. Paradoxically the nutritional, health enhancing FA polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly susceptible to oxidation into harmful toxic side products during food preparation and storage. Current [...] Read more.
The nutritional characteristics of fatty acid (FA) containing foods are strongly dependent on the FA’s chemical/morphological arrangements. Paradoxically the nutritional, health enhancing FA polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly susceptible to oxidation into harmful toxic side products during food preparation and storage. Current analytical technologies are not effective in the facile characterization of both the morphological and chemical structures of PUFA domains within materials for monitoring the parameters affecting their oxidation and antioxidant efficacy. The present paper is a review of our work on the development and application of a proton low field NMR relaxation sensor (1H LF NMR) and signal to time domain (TD) spectra reconstruction for chemical and morphological characterization of PUFA-rich oils and their oil in water emulsions, for assessing their degree and susceptibility to oxidation and the efficacy of antioxidants. The NMR signals are energy relaxation signals generated by spin–lattice interactions (T1) and spin–spin interactions (T2). These signals are reconstructed into 1D (T1 or T2) and 2D graphics (T1 vs. T2) by an optimal primal-dual interior method using a convex objectives (PDCO) solver. This is a direct measurement on non-modified samples where the individual graph peaks correlate to structural domains within the bulk oil or its emulsions. The emulsions of this review include relatively complex PUFA-rich oleosome-oil bodies based on the aqueous extraction from linseed seeds with and without encapsulation of externally added oils such as fish oil. Potential applications are shown in identifying optimal health enhancing PUFA-rich food formulations with maximal stability against oxidation and the potential for on-line quality control during preparation and storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Nondestructive Analysis of Internal Quality in Pears with a Self-Made Near-Infrared Spectrum Detector Combined with Multivariate Data Processing
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061315 - 07 Jun 2021
Abstract
The consumption of pears has increased, thanks not only to their delicious and juicy flavor, but also their rich nutritional value. Traditional methods of detecting internal qualities (e.g., soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and taste index (TI)) of pears are reliable, [...] Read more.
The consumption of pears has increased, thanks not only to their delicious and juicy flavor, but also their rich nutritional value. Traditional methods of detecting internal qualities (e.g., soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and taste index (TI)) of pears are reliable, but they are destructive, time-consuming, and polluting. It is necessary to detect internal qualities of pears rapidly and nondestructively by using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. In this study, we used a self-made NIR spectrum detector with an improved variable selection algorithm, named the variable stability and cluster analysis algorithm (VSCAA), to establish a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model to detect SSC content in snow pears. VSCAA is a variable selection method based on the combination of variable stability and cluster analysis to select the infrared spectrum variables. To reflect the advantages of VSCAA, we compared the classical variable selection methods (synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS), genetic algorithm (GA), successive projections algorithm (SPA), and bootstrapping soft shrinkage (BOSS)) to extract useful wavelengths. The PLSR model, based on the useful variables selected by SiPLS-VSCAA, was optimal for measuring SSC in pears, and the correlation coefficient of calibration (Rc), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), correlation coefficient of prediction (Rp), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), and residual predictive deviation (RPD) were 0.942, 0.198%, 0.936, 0.222%, and 2.857, respectively. Then, we applied these variable selection methods to select the characteristic wavelengths for measuring the TA content and TI value in snow pears. The prediction PLSR models, based on the variables selected by GA-BOSS to measure TA and that by GA-VSCAA to detect TI, were the best models, and the Rc, RMSECV, Rp and RPD were 0.931, 0.124%, 0.912, 0.151%, and 2.434 and 0.968, 0.080%, 0.968, 0.089%, and 3.775, respectively. The results showed that the self-made NIR-spectrum detector based on a portable NIR spectrometer with multivariate data processing was a good tool for rapid and nondestructive analysis of internal quality in pears. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Food Integrity Climate in Food Businesses: Conceptualization, Development, and Validation of a Self-Assessment Tool
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061302 - 06 Jun 2021
Abstract
Current scientific research and industry guidelines focus on food safety, aiming to reduce unintentional food contaminations through technological and managerial measures. Due to the deceptive nature of food fraud, the fight to prevent intentional food adulteration and counterfeiting threats requires an approach that [...] Read more.
Current scientific research and industry guidelines focus on food safety, aiming to reduce unintentional food contaminations through technological and managerial measures. Due to the deceptive nature of food fraud, the fight to prevent intentional food adulteration and counterfeiting threats requires an approach that goes beyond the common food safety-based strategies and falls into the sphere of food integrity. With food integrity being an emerging discipline, a definition was proposed and the concept of food integrity climate was introduced. A food integrity climate (FIC) self-assessment tool in the form of a questionnaire, with twenty indicators and a five-point Likert rating scale was developed, expert-validated, and tested in practice in a large-scale meat distribution company. The questionnaire was designed to measure the performance level of food integrity in food businesses along the supply chain through managers’ and operators’ perceptions. Minor but interesting differences were found in the food integrity climate perceived between managers and operators as well as among the company’s affiliates. The tool helps food businesses to get a deeper insight on the human dimension behind food integrity through the assessment of five climate components in relation to four food integrity elements, identifying strengths and weaknesses regarding a company’s food integrity climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Is Ultra-High Temperature Processed Milk Safe in Terms of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines?
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061247 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Herein, the presence of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in 24 different commercial ultra-high temperature processed (UHT) milk types was investigated. The dry matter and pH values of the samples were also determined. The milk types showed significant differences (p < 0.01) regarding [...] Read more.
Herein, the presence of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in 24 different commercial ultra-high temperature processed (UHT) milk types was investigated. The dry matter and pH values of the samples were also determined. The milk types showed significant differences (p < 0.01) regarding the dry matter, pH values, and individual HAAs and total HAAs. The milk sample dry matter and pH values were in the range of 8.56–13.92% and 6.66–6.91, respectively. The growing up milk samples had the highest dry matter and pH values. While no significant correlation between the total HAAs and dry matter was found, a negative correlation (p < 0.01) between the total HAAs and pH value was determined. Among the tested HAAs, five compounds, (IQx (up to 0.06 ng), IQ (up to 0.10 ng), MeIQx (up to 0.55 ng), MeIQ (up to 1.97 ng), and PhIP (up to 0.39 ng)) were quantified in the samples. The average total HAAs of the samples ranged from 0.13 to 0.67 ng; however, one milk sample (200 mL) contained between 10.10 and 53.35 ng total HAAs. Therefore, it was shown that protein fortification and lactose hydrolysis substantially increased the formation of HAAs in UHT milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
An Editing-Site-Specific PCR Method for Detection and Quantification of CAO1-Edited Rice
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061209 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Genome-edited plants created by genome editing technology have been approved for commercialization. Due to molecular characteristics that differ from classic genetically modified organisms (GMOs), establishing regulation-compliant analytical methods for identification and quantification of genome-edited plants has always been regarded as a challenging task. [...] Read more.
Genome-edited plants created by genome editing technology have been approved for commercialization. Due to molecular characteristics that differ from classic genetically modified organisms (GMOs), establishing regulation-compliant analytical methods for identification and quantification of genome-edited plants has always been regarded as a challenging task. An editing-site-specific PCR method was developed based on the unique edited sequence in CAO1-edited rice plants. Test results of seven primer/probe sets indicated that this method can identify specific CAO1-edited rice from other CAO1-edited rice and wild types of rice with high specificity and sensitivity. The use of LNA (locked nucleic acid) in a probe can efficiently increase the specificity of the editing-site-specific PCR method at increased annealing temperature which can eliminate non-specific amplification of the non-target. The genome-edited ingredient content in blinded samples at the level of 0.1% to 5.0% was accurately quantified by this method on the ddPCR platform with RSD of <15% and bias in the range of ±17%, meeting the performance requirements for GMO detection method. The developed editing-site-specific PCR method presents a promising detection and quantification technique for genome-edited plants with known edited sequence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
A Fluorescent Detection for Paraquat Based on β-CDs-Enhanced Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061178 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this report, a fluorescent sensing method for paraquat based on gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) is proposed. It was found that paraquat could quench both glutathione-capped AuNCs (GSH-AuNCs) and β-cyclodextrin-modified GSH-AuNCs (GSH/β-CDs-AuNCs). The modification of β-CDs on the surface of GSH-AuNCs obviously enhanced the [...] Read more.
In this report, a fluorescent sensing method for paraquat based on gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) is proposed. It was found that paraquat could quench both glutathione-capped AuNCs (GSH-AuNCs) and β-cyclodextrin-modified GSH-AuNCs (GSH/β-CDs-AuNCs). The modification of β-CDs on the surface of GSH-AuNCs obviously enhanced the fluorescence intensity of GSH-AuNCs and improved the sensitivity of paraquat sensing more than 4-fold. This sensibilization was ascribed to the obvious fluorescence intensity enhancement of GSH-AuNCs by β-CDs and the “host–guest” interaction between paraquat and β-CDs. The fluorescence quenching was mainly due to the photoinduced energy transfer (PET) between GSH/β-CDs-AuNCs and paraquat. With the optimized β-CDs modification of the GSH-AuNC surfaces and under buffer conditions, the fluorescent detection for paraquat demonstrated a linear response in the range of 5.0–350 ng/mL with a detection limit of 1.2 ng/mL. The fluorescent method also showed high selectivity toward common pesticides. The interference from metal ions could be easily masked by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). This method was applied to the measurement of paraquat-spiked water samples and good recoveries (93.6–103.8%) were obtained. The above results indicate that host molecule modification of fluorescent metal NC surfaces has high potential in the development of robust fluorescent sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Proton Dynamics of Water Diffusion in Shrimp Hydrolysates Flour and Effects of Moisture Absorption on Its Properties
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051137 - 20 May 2021
Abstract
Moisture absorbed into shrimp hydrolysates (SHs) flour profoundly affected its properties. The unstored hydrolysate flour was called SHs-0h and SHs stored for 30 h at 25 °C and 75% relative humidity was named SHs-30. During the process of storage, the moisture dynamics in [...] Read more.
Moisture absorbed into shrimp hydrolysates (SHs) flour profoundly affected its properties. The unstored hydrolysate flour was called SHs-0h and SHs stored for 30 h at 25 °C and 75% relative humidity was named SHs-30. During the process of storage, the moisture dynamics in SHs flour were investigated by dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). The effects of moisture absorption on the radicals scavenging rates of SHs flour were evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The effects of moisture absorption on secondary structure were studied by mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and infrared microimaging spectroscopy. The changes of volatile components were monitored by purge and trap coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-GC-MS). DVS results showed that the moisture absorption rate of SHs flour could reach a maximum of 88.93%. Meanwhile, the water was transformed into more stable water with shorter relaxation times. The porous structure of the SHs-30 h flour disappeared and became smoother compared to SH-0 h flour. DPPH (31.09 ± 0.54%) and OH (26.62 ± 1.14%) radicals scavenging rates of SHs-30 h significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared to that of SHs-0 h flour. The vibrations of the MIR absorbance peaks were changed. Finally, eight volatile components disappeared and six new volatile compounds were found. This study provided a theory basis for moisture dynamics in peptide flour during the storage process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Highland Barley and Its By-Products Enriched with Phenolic Compounds for Inhibition of Pyrraline Formation by Scavenging α-Dicarbonyl Compounds
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051109 - 17 May 2021
Abstract
Pyrraline, a typical kind of advanced glycation end product, has been found to contribute to the development of pathologies associated with ageing and diabetes mellitus. In the study, phenolic compounds extracted from highland barley whole grain (HBWG) and vinasse (HBVN) were used to [...] Read more.
Pyrraline, a typical kind of advanced glycation end product, has been found to contribute to the development of pathologies associated with ageing and diabetes mellitus. In the study, phenolic compounds extracted from highland barley whole grain (HBWG) and vinasse (HBVN) were used to inhibit pyrraline formation in a simulated food. The optimal extraction condition for HBWG and HBVN was using 8 mL of 50% acetone solution at 50 °C for 60 min. The extraction and identification of phenolic compounds from HBWG and HBVN were performed by UPLC–PAD–MS/MS. The inhibitory effects of pyrraline in the simulated food were 52.03% and 49.22% by HBVN and HBWG, respectively. The diphenyl picrylhydrazyl radical- and ferric-reducing ability of plasma assays was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The main inhibition pathways and molecular mechanism of phenolic compounds on pyrraline regulation were explored by scavenging α-dicarbonyl compounds. The study demonstrated that highland barley and its by-products can potentially be used as a functional food to regulate pyrraline formation during food processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Potential Risk of Consuming Vegetables Planted in Soil with Copper and Cadmium and the Influence on Vegetable Antioxidant Activity
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3761; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093761 - 22 Apr 2021
Abstract
Once in soil and water, metals can enter the food chain, and the consumption of contaminated crops can pose a serious risk to human health. This study used pot experiments to evaluate the accumulation of metal elements and their influence on levels of [...] Read more.
Once in soil and water, metals can enter the food chain, and the consumption of contaminated crops can pose a serious risk to human health. This study used pot experiments to evaluate the accumulation of metal elements and their influence on levels of antioxidants in vegetables. The current study clearly demonstrates that metals accumulated in the five vegetables that were planted in the contaminated soils, especially so for water spinach. Cd accumulation of all of the vegetables planted in the contaminated soils was greater Cu. The low accumulation rate that was seen in sweet potato leaf, potato, and tomato indicated their suitability for planting in suspected contaminated soil, such as at farms nearby metal industries, in replacement of high accumulators, such as leafy vegetables. The non-carcinogenic HI of Cd exposure from water spinach and sweet potato were >1, whereas those for Cu were <1. This study suggests that residents may experience health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children are vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop