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Mapping Aspergillus niger Metabolite Biomarkers for In Situ and Early Evaluation of Table Grapes Contamination

1
Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas and National Institute of Science and Technology in Bioanalysis (INCTBio), Campinas 13083-970, Brazil
2
Department of Chemistry & LAQV-REQUIMTE, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Federico Marini and Alessandra Biancolillo
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112870
Received: 21 October 2021 / Revised: 9 November 2021 / Accepted: 12 November 2021 / Published: 19 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
The Aspergillus niger exometabolome was recently investigated using advanced gas chromatography in tandem with multivariate analysis, which allowed a metabolite biomarker pattern to be proposed. Microbial metabolomics patterns have gained enormous relevance, mainly due to the amount of information made available, which may be useful in countless processes. One of the great challenges in microbial metabolomics is related to applications in more complex systems of metabolomics information obtained from studies carried out in culture media, as complications may occur due to the dynamic nature of biological systems. Thus, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the applicability of the A. niger metabololite biomarkers pattern for in situ and early evaluation of table grapes contamination, used as study model. A. niger is a ubiquitous fungus responsible for food contamination, being reported as one of the main agents of the black mold disease, a serious post-harvest pathology of table grapes. This work included analysis from 1 day of growth time of pure A. niger cultures, A. niger cultures obtained from previously contaminated grapes, and finally, an in situ solid-phase microextraction (SPME) approach directly on previously contaminated table grapes. Supervised multivariate analysis was performed which revealed that after 1 day of inoculation it was possible to detect A. niger biomarkers, which can be extremely useful in making this type of method possible for the rapid detection of food contamination. The results obtained confirm the potential applicability of the pattern of A. niger biomarkers for early detection of the fungi (after 1 day of contamination), and may be further explored for access food susceptibility to fungi contamination, based on direct analysis of the food item. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus niger; food contamination; GC×GC; metabolites; HS-SPME Aspergillus niger; food contamination; GC×GC; metabolites; HS-SPME
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MDPI and ACS Style

Belinato, J.R.; Costa, C.P.; Almeida, A.; Rocha, S.M.; Augusto, F. Mapping Aspergillus niger Metabolite Biomarkers for In Situ and Early Evaluation of Table Grapes Contamination. Foods 2021, 10, 2870. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112870

AMA Style

Belinato JR, Costa CP, Almeida A, Rocha SM, Augusto F. Mapping Aspergillus niger Metabolite Biomarkers for In Situ and Early Evaluation of Table Grapes Contamination. Foods. 2021; 10(11):2870. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112870

Chicago/Turabian Style

Belinato, Joao R., Carina P. Costa, Adelaide Almeida, Silvia M. Rocha, and Fabio Augusto. 2021. "Mapping Aspergillus niger Metabolite Biomarkers for In Situ and Early Evaluation of Table Grapes Contamination" Foods 10, no. 11: 2870. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112870

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